Chapter 10 Section 4

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Chapter 10 Section 4

  1. 1. The Earth Takes Shape Section 4
  2. 2. <ul><li>The Earth is the third planet from the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>It s made from mostly rock </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 of Earth’s surface is covered with water. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Formation of the Solid Earth <ul><li>Planetismals from our solar system combined to form the Earth </li></ul><ul><li>As gravity crushed the rock at Earth’s center, the Earth became round. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>After the Earth reached a certain size, the temperature rose faster than the interior could cool. The rocky material inside began to melt. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>As the Earth’s rocks melted, denser materials sank to the Earth’s center to form the core . This is made up of nickel and iron. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Less dense materials floated to the Earth’s surface to form the crust. This is made up of low density materials like oxygen, silicon, and aluminum. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The layer just beneath the crust is called the mantle . This is made up of materials like magnesium and iron. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Earth’s Atmosphere <ul><li>Scientists believe that the Earth’s early atmosphere was a mix of carbon dioxide and water vapor. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, most of the Earth’s atmosphere is made up of nitrogen and oxygen. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>As the Earth’s atmosphere changed, it probably formed volcanic gases. </li></ul><ul><li>As Earth’s atmosphere changed, part of it may have come from icy comets. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Oceans? <ul><li>Water vapor from volcanic gases may have condensed to form the first oceans. The ice from comets may have also brought some of the water in the oceans. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Today, we are protected from the sun’s UV rays by a layer of the Earth’s atmosphere called the ozone layer. The early atmosphere probably did not have ozone, so … </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Many molecules in the air and at the Earth’s surface were broken apart. </li></ul><ul><li>The first life forms did not need oxygen and were protected by the Earth’s waters. </li></ul>

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