Direct instruction (list of words) 62 percentile – not as effective of direct instruction of words related to contentGraphic that shows the importance of direct vocabulary instruction – paints a vivid picture for visual learners
Should include critical features – typical setting, specific physical features, how it is developed or built, its typical useFor example: The setting of a port city is usually near an ocean with easy access to open watersPhysical characteristics – large docks and equipment for unloading ships, and it is close to railroads so that cargo can be transported inlandUsually develop because early settlers coming from the ocean…Typical use – center for trade, commerce and the mixing of many cultures
Like talking to a friend.
Remember the goal of storing in long term memory.Combining this step with the use of an academic notebook creates a vehicle for the multiple exposures and the gradual shaping of understanding of terms so vital to vocabulary developmentSection in academic notebookThree columnsMy description, representation, new insight
Research indicatesStudents must process word multiple times (minimum of 12 times)Learning is greatly enhanced when students interact with words in a variety of ways.
Six Step Vocabulary
Instruction - Marzano
Betancourt, Hollis & Rainwaters
November 3, 2009
Timed Pair Share
The teacher announces a topic,
states how long each student
will share and provides think
In pairs, Partner A shares;
partner B listens.
Partner B responds with a
Partners switch roles
◦ “Thanks for sharing!”
◦ “You are interesting to listen to! “
Complete the sentence gambits
◦ “One thing I learned listening to you
◦ “I enjoyed listening to you
◦ “Your most interesting idea was…”
One must be drenched in words,
literally soaked in them, to have the
right ones form themselves into the
proper pattern at the right moment.
How do I effectively teach
How do I choose
vocabulary to teach?
Survival of the Fittest
Semantic Feature Analysis
Research conducted in the
past ten years indicates that
vocabulary knowledge is the
single most important factor
Wide reading will suffice as
the primary vehicle for
Explicit teaching of vocabulary is
Vocabulary demands balloons to
85,000 words at the secondary
Conversational speech consists of
only 5,000 – 7,000 words
Six Steps to Vocabulary Instruction
restate in own
4. Students engage in activities
5. Students discuss terms
6. Students are involved in games
Step 1 Explicit Instruction
A dwarf planet is a celestial body
(a) is in orbit around the Sun,
(b) has sufficient mass for its self-
gravity to overcome rigid body forces
so that it assumes a hydrostatic
equilibrium (nearly round) shape,
(c) has not cleared the
neighborhood around its orbit, and
(d) is not a satellite.
Word Definition Description
Covert Kept from
is done in a
Illusion Appearance or
it is not real
looks like one
thing but is really
something else or
is not there at all
Academic Notebook (SSR)
My Description Representation New Insight
Step 3 DRAWING
Draw the actual term, that is diameter,
triangle, circle, etc.
Draw the familiar symbol for the term, that
is DNA, Justice, etc.
Draw an actual illustration of the action the
term depicts such as food chain.
Draw graphics for terms easily
represented that way, that is,
centralization, decentralization, etc.
Dramatize the term using cartoon bubbles
that represent the meaning.
◦ Call out a term (the target word)
◦ Ask students to respond with any word
they believe is related to the target word.
(Small or whole group
◦ Ask the last student who offers a word to
explain how the word is related to the
Building Background Knowledge for Academic
Achievement by Robert Marzano