No-one has the right to tell a teacher how to teach
Sometimes I wish they did, it might have helped me
But what makes for good teaching?
An understanding of pedagogic principle?
A range of teaching activities and practical ideas to draw from?
The determination to learn from experience and listen openly to what learners and education researchers are telling us?
Conole et al (2004) pedagogy as learning theory INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL NON-REFLECTION REFLECTION EXPERIENCE INFORMATION
If pedagogy is about enhancing learning, then this model from Conole et al helps us look at the differing dimensions of learning theories
They all fit into this 3 dimensional grid, being more or less to do with individual action or social action, more or less learning from information or from experience and more or less involving personal reflective thinking
Online learning has been described as offering a more active role for the individual learner (than sitting in class), more opportunity for conscious reflection, more “constructivist” in nature ie involving the learner in constructing their understanding of meaning.
Poor online environments provide only information on screen to look at – no activities, interaction with the learner, formative feedback or connection with other learners – this might be called a pure “distance” model of teaching – here’s the stuff, learn it and do an exam”
Chickering and Gamson came up with 7 principles for good practice in undergraduate education (1987)
Maximising contact between student and faculty
Emphasizing time on task, good time management
Reciprocity and co-operation among students
Active learning – relate to past experiences and apply to daily lives
High expectations from teacher
Respect for diverse talents and ways of learning
Mehanna (2004) wrote in the context of e-learning about “achievement-enhancing behaviours” Respect for diverse talents and ways of learning High expectations from teacher Active learning – relate to past experiences and apply to daily lives Generating and testing hypotheses Prompt feedback Setting goals and providing feedback Reciprocity and co-operation among students Co-operative learning Non-linguistic presentation Emphasizing time on task, good time management Homework and practice Maximising contact between student and faculty Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Summarizing and note-taking Chickering and Gamson’s 7 principles for good practice in undergraduate education Mehanna’s achievement enhancing behaviours
So together they give us some well-researched and practical tips for online teaching
Encourage learners to summarise and take notes, not just play the video or click through screens
Maximise contact (teacher-student and student-student) especially to provide constructive recognition of their efforts
Clarify what private study they need to do and the time it will take, encourage them to plan time
Use visual graphics (charts, icons, pictures, slides, video) and audio to support plain text whenever possible
Stimulate co-operative learning both with the teacher and among student group (reading and responding to others’ online posts, working together where possible)
Set goals and provide prompt and constructive feedback (largely teacher generated)
Make opportunities for learners to apply ideas to their own reality, test hypotheses, find and share relevant examples
Expect high standards, while scaffolding ways to achieve them
Anticipate and respect diverse ways of learning and learning needs
Salmon has written some seminal books about working with online learners
She believes online teachers need to engage with people not machines
She supports the idea that lecturers have to relax a little of their traditional control to make this work
She stresses the need for inspiring online teachers with the following abilities and skills:
to learn online communication and e-moderating skills,
to promote appropriate use of own and participants’ time online,
to provide support and counselling online
to design and adapt conferencing for differing purposes, participants needs and conference dynamics,
to conference cross culturally and value diversity,
to demonstrate flexibility in online assessment and evaluation,
to appreciate benefits of online working and act as resource guide and monitor,
Overall need a personal meta-cognitive and adaptable approach to learning, ability to reflect and input into how the online course can support learning
Salmon model of teaching and learning online through CMC (2000) Amount of interactivity LEARNING E-Moderating Technical support Setting up system and accessing Welcoming and encouraging 1 Access and motivation Sending and receiving messages Familiarising and providing bridges between cultural, social and learning environments 2 Online socialization Searching, personalizing software Facilitating tasks and supporting use of learning materials 3 Information exchange Conferencing Facilitating process 4 Knowledge construction Providing links outside closed conferences Supporting, responding 5 Development
TIP 1. What does running an online module require of an academic?
Academic staff should:
Have a clear idea of what they are using the module area for and what they require students to achieve online
Devote some CPD time to online tools to explore their uses & potential
Find people with expertise or experience to help them
Decide which, if any, online activities will help to achieve the aim
Schedule some extra time at the outset to set up the “site” and encourage take-up
Plan online activities to support and stimulate learning
Commit to being there regularly, when students expect them
Be aware of diversity and difference in learning need (especially screen-reading)
TIP 2. What do you need to think about when designing an online module environment?
Clarity of purpose: what is the role of the environment in relation to your module? Is it a learning tool or a support site? I.e. is the site simply for materials as a back-up storage device, or is it designed to develop and add value to the learning opportunities of the students?
Visit frequency: how often would you like students to visit the site?
Dynamics: how will you keep the area fresh and worth visiting again?
Student familiarity with online environment: if new, how will you prepare them for the skills and habits needed? Will this module differ from others in their experience?
Ground rules: basics of behaviour online? How will you get these agreed?
Content: what types of materials or information will suit your purpose online (e.g. how much administrative information, tutorial notes, additional reading material, quizzes, relevant website links, assessment details and so on)?
“ The agenda for using learning technology or e-Learning in HE is no longer a simple matter of disseminating new tools to teachers. Learning technology is set to change both the prevailing teaching paradigm and the academic role as well as helping to address other national drivers such as widening participation, increased student numbers and accessibility” JISC study in UK 2001-02
My recent research, supported in the literature, is showing a changing sense of status and role for online teachers in relation to learners.
We are there to design, support, scaffold and legitimate learning, not own it or define it – the community of learners will do that
Consider Macdonald’s “qualities of intervention” in online discussion forums (2006)
Affective – remember emotional support & confidence building
Dialogic – responding to student needs
Focusing – bringing study to the fore
Reflective and flexible – allowing time for developing understanding
Timely and relevant
Reversionable between individual and group
Accessible – when we say we are
Planning and doing effective online teaching: summary so far
Clear aim for the online resources in your module teaching
Plan dynamic module areas
Share your plans and enthusiasm with students
Check readability guidelines
Keep it simple and signpost what to do when
Develop good learner support – review good teaching principles
Schedule and keep to your regular visits to the Discussion Forum – use the moderation model & best practice
Use the experts (technologists, researchers, experienced teachers) – they are there to help problem solve
Evaluate your use of the online site after the semester to make improvements
Greener, S. L. (2003) 55 practical tips for studentcentral instructors. Brighton: University of Brighton
Greener, S. L. (2006) 'Self aware and self directed: student conceptions of blended learning ', 4th International Conference on Education and Information Systems, Technologies and Applications (EISTA 2006). Orlando, Florida, USA, 20-23 July 2006 . International Institute of Informatics and Systemics (IIIS)
Greener, S. L. (2007) 'Blending Pedagogies: evaluative case study of a learning package for Learning and Development ', Universities Forum on HRD (UFHRD) 2007. Oxford, UK, June 2007 .
Greener, S. L. (2007) Higher Education Teachers' Perspectives of Student Readiness for Online Learning. EdD thesis in preparation. University of Brighton, School of Education
JISC. (2004) Effective Practice with e-Learning. Bristol: HEFCE
JISC Infonet. (2005) Effective use of VLEs . Available at: http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/InfoKits/effective-use-of-VLEs/intro-to-VLEs (Accessed: 13/05/05).
Macdonald, J. (2006) Blended learning and online tutoring. Gower: Hampshire, UK.
Mayes, T. and de Freitas, S. (2004) JISC e-Learning Models Desk Study: Stage 2: Review of e-learning theories, frameworks and models . Available at: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/uploaded_documents/ (Accessed: 11th November 2005).
Mayes, T. (2004) JISC e-Learning Models Desk Study: Stage 2: Learner-centred pedagogy: Individual differences between learners . Available at: www/jisc.co.uk/uploaded_documents/learner-differences.doc (Accessed: 11th November 2005).
Mehanna, W. N. (2004) 'e-Pedagogy: the pedagogies of e-learning', ALT-J, Research in Learning Technology, 12, (3), pp. 279-293 available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0968776042000259582
Palloff, R. M. and Pratt, K. (2003) The Virtual Student: a profile and guide to working with online learners. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco .
Salmon, D. G. (1999) Reclaiming the Territory for the Natives . Available at: http://www.emoderators.com/moderators/gilly/london99.html (Accessed: 1/6/07).
Salmon, G. (2000) E-moderating: The Key to Teaching and Learning Online. Kogan Page: London.