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EdD Block Study                             Day session                           27th March 2007                         ...
The Practitioner’s TaleThe Student’s TaleThe Juggler’s TaleThe Researcher’s Tale
The Practitioner’s Tale• 2000-2001 –      · “What blend of CMC and face to face  first experiment    contact will achieve ...
The Practitioner’s Tale“In universities, (ICT) will further unleash  changes in the practice and conception of  education....
The Practitioner’s Tale        The Practitioner’s Tale• Immediate outcomes        BeL’s mission was two-fold:  from EdD – ...
The Practitioner’s Tale        The Practitioner’s Tale• Transfer from EdD  research has been  ongoing• Bit of a reputation...
Why eLearning through studentcentral? Coomey & Stephenson (2001) say it’s all about dialogue, involvement,         • Devel...
CIPD Case study               on Rolls RoyceRolls Royce  website
Students                     post                   critical                  responses                  to articles      ...
iC       cl     tk    eh nlki
Short Quiz 3 weblinksto resourcesArticle summaryReach through     Emerald
Staff support area, Documents, Tips online
The Student’s Tale• “How will someone         Confidence, giving way to                              fear  with such a pra...
The Student’s TaleAssignment one – all the       A1: Learning and  old fears from MA             teaching in a virtual  da...
The Student’s Tale“..I have never seen anybody     A2: Variations in    improve in the art and    technique of inquiry by ...
The Student’s TaleUsing number in            A3:Using the Self-  research                  Directed Learning              ...
The Student’s Tale• The final stage –          A4: Higher Education  should I feel different?    Teachers’ perspectives• D...
The Student’s Tale• Not quite a coda:           A4: Higher Education• Where am I now?              Teachers’ perspectives•...
The Juggler’s Tale• “How is your …er…        The chocolate box  research going, dear?”                            syndrome...
Newdimension of  learning        All references by motivation descriptor motivation     Group commitment              Intr...
The Researcher’s Tale• EdD as a brilliant way   Phenomenography  to experiment with                           SPSS – facto...
PhenomenographyFerence Marton (1981)  How individuals                              Brew (2001)  conceptualise their       ...
Mixed methodology A3    1.    Develop research design and       •   8.    Upload Excel data sets to SPSS    gain consent f...
Grounded analysis• Difference from phenomenography• Constant comparative method• Justifying small number of interviews – n...
The Researcher’s Tale• EdD as a way of        E-learning?  exploring and          Do we look at business, HE,             ...
The Researcher’s Tale• EdD           Literature review circulated to staff                Practical learning started off s...
Conceptions of blended learning relate to  stages of learning within the course Blend barriers, confidence, tutor role and...
New dimension oflearning motivation                             All references by motivation descriptor    Group commitmen...
Self-directed learning force field      PERSONAL LEARNER FACTORS                         PERSONAL LEARNER FACTORS         ...
Self-directed learning force field      PERSONAL LEARNER FACTORS                                   PERSONAL LEARNER FACTOR...
Specific research questions for A41. How do university teachers perceive the variation of   students’ approaches to online...
The Researcher’s Tale
Key findings A4• Readiness is not a useful concept to teachers• The nature of the evolving teacher role in relation  to an...
Epilogue: a researcher always has        more questions The Practitioner’s Tale: real time, not academic time – how to mak...
2007 Doing an EdD: tales of a journey
2007 Doing an EdD: tales of a journey
2007 Doing an EdD: tales of a journey
2007 Doing an EdD: tales of a journey
2007 Doing an EdD: tales of a journey
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2007 Doing an EdD: tales of a journey

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Delivered to a workshop group of EdD students in 2007 UoB - apologies to Chaucer

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  • Conceptions of learning: Saljo 1979 5 conceptions 1.Learning as quantitative increase in knowledge 2. Learning as memorising 3. Learning as acquiring facts, skills and methods 4. Lerarning as making sense or abstracting meaning 5. Learning as interpreting and understanding reality in a different way, comprehending the world by re-interpreting knowledge.
  • The Practitioner’s Tale: where I started and how I continue as an HE teacher The Student’s Tale : what EdD felt like and how it feels now The Juggler’ Tale : my personal journey – how to keep a life The Researcher’s Tale : the point of all this – where did it lead – writing, ideas, conferences.
  • New first year on PMPPD in BBS: 80% access at work and 93% at home JISC study of learning technologies in HE: Briefing paper 6 Learning Technology: Key Implications for Academic Staff   from Report of a career development study of learning technology staff in UK higher education (HE) The learning technology career development scoping study was undertaken by a team from the Institute for Learning and Research Technology, University of Bristol, University of Plymouth and University of Glamorgan, funded by the JISC CALT. The study investigated the roles, skills and activities of learning technology staff in the UK and the impact of learning technologies are having on institutions. The study used an institutional audit methodology to gather the data and allow people across an institution to work together to examine their progress and development of learning technology and the people involved in this. The original study was funded by the JISC between 2000 and 2001. Follow up funding has been provided until 31 March 2003. The follow up funding was provided to write a series of briefing papers targeted at different HE audiences, for example, academic staff, librarians, managers of learning technology staff.   We found that about 10% (8,000 UK-wide) of all academic staff in departments could be classed as innovators, and this percentage was remarkably consistent across institutions . ·         Academic staff need to acquire technical and pedagogical skills in an integrated way if they are to make effective use of learning technology in their professional work Pollard et al in the Institute for Employment Studies report Exploring E-Learning (2001) as: just in time, just enough and just for you, cost effective, up-to-date, quick, retainable, risk-free, consistent, interactive and collaborative - and therefore more fun, easy to track, empowering
  • Ref to O Jegede in Chapter 4 The wedlock between technology and open and distance education in Changing university teaching: reflections on creating educational technologies ed Evans, T and Nation, D Kogan Page. JISC study of learning technologies in HE: Briefing paper 6 Learning Technology: Key Implications for Academic Staff   from Report of a career development study of learning technology staff in UK higher education (HE) The learning technology career development scoping study was undertaken by a team from the Institute for Learning and Research Technology, University of Bristol, University of Plymouth and University of Glamorgan, funded by the JISC CALT. The study investigated the roles, skills and activities of learning technology staff in the UK and the impact of learning technologies are having on institutions. The study used an institutional audit methodology to gather the data and allow people across an institution to work together to examine their progress and development of learning technology and the people involved in this. The original study was funded by the JISC between 2000 and 2001. Follow up funding has been provided until 31 March 2003. The follow up funding was provided to write a series of briefing papers targeted at different HE audiences, for example, academic staff, librarians, managers of learning technology staff.   We found that about 10% (8,000 UK-wide) of all academic staff in departments could be classed as innovators, and this percentage was remarkably consistent across institutions . ·         Academic staff need to acquire technical and pedagogical skills in an integrated way if they are to make effective use of learning technology in their professional work Pollard et al in the Institute for Employment Studies report Exploring E-Learning (2001) as: just in time, just enough and just for you, cost effective, up-to-date, quick, retainable, risk-free, consistent, interactive and collaborative - and therefore more fun, easy to track, empowering
  • BeL won project funding from AimHigher for a small project on new students in uni without family experience of HE – info needs, how they used studentcentral and hopes and fears. Then both members remaining (one moved to Sussex) got too entrenched in own study like EdD to do more bids for time being. But we continued with the second part of the mission and have been running 2 or 3 research seminars in BBS per year with invited speakers, or simply reporting our own research (next one 18 th April 07 = jon dron in CMIS on new book around adaptive software and online environments), also pioneering a number of pedagogical developments with studentcentral in professional programmes and implementing through BBS, as well as offering seminars and one to one help to teachers and maintaining a watching brief on developments.
  • Britain, S. and Liber, O. (2004). A Framework for the Pedagogical Evaluation of eLearning Environments. http://www.cetis.ac.uk/members/pedagogy/files/4thMeet_framework/VLEfullReport They speak of types of delivery which get squeezed out by HE resource constraints such as collaborative, discussion-led, student-centred and resource-based learning and propose a role for VLEs in re-balancing delivery to cater for an increasingly diverse range of students and student needs Liber and Britain see VLEs at best as capable of allowing students to shape their own learning based on their own needs – which requires the VLE to allow students to identify and share their own resources and connect with other students to form groups. Tutors, the article says, should then focus more on monitoring and guiding discussions and conversations amongst students towards learning outcomes. Studentcentral can do this by making discussion spaces for students around different themes (eg course, module, assessment, concepts), by enabling email, group discussion and file exchange, links to student homepages and encouraging student-student interaction. Much of this can be done outside the classroom, but there is still a need to reinforce the functionality of studentcentral with students, especially first year students unfamiliar with VLEs, by use in the classroom
  • Coomey M & stephenson J 2001 “It’s all about Dialogue,Involvement, Support and Control” in Teaching and Learning Online, Stephenson J, Kogan Page, London. Dialogue: :( through e-mail, bulletin boards, “real-time” chat, asynchronous chat, group discussions and debate with interactive opportunities structured into the course by the tutor), I nvolvement : (responses in structured tasks, active engagement with material, collaboration and small group activities), Support: ( periodic face-to-face contact, online tutorial supervision, peer support, expert contributions, feedback on performance, support services and software tools) and Learner control : (that is the extent to which learners are encouraged to exercise control of key learning activities, their learning pace and timing, choice of content, navigation through course content, overall direction and assessment of performance) Constructivist ethos : built on constructivist foundations, where students do not simply take in and store information, but go on to make tentative interpretations of experience, and test out those interpretations (Perkins 1992, Kolb 1984, Race 1993). IN universities, “progress is slow and not radical” “Rich pedagogical use of this infrastructure is in many cases still in development” Collis and Van der Wende 2002
  • From initial session mbc sem 2
  • M Bus Context example of ppt – though would often copy from sc to desktop to use full screen.
  • M b c – we often use bbc business pages to build greater awareness of the impact of current affairs on business context – hence the link in this module area. This can lead to topical reinforcement of key learning.
  • This example is from the Learning and Development module – it is a site which offers exciting software for children’s language learning – it is in Norwegian because one of our students (from Norway) was using it actively with her 8 year old daughter who was invited into the session to demonstrate her own learning.
  • If studentcentral goes down or they need help, show this entry screen they should find, then next slide shows section for workshop.
  • Screen shot in case studentcentral link goes down Professional article: e-commerce article in Principia Journal article: Elizabeth Daniel; Hugh Wilson, 2002, Adoption intentions and benefits realised: a study of e-commerce in UK SMEs. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development 9, 4 pp331 – 348 – accessible through Emerald Emerald article: Title: Adoption intentions and benefits realised: a study of e-commerce in UK SMEs Author(s): Elizabeth Daniel; Hugh Wilson Journal: Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development Year: 2002 Volume: 9 Number: 4 Page: 331 -- 348 DOI: 10.1108/14626000210450522 Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing Limited DTI information on planning for e-commerce and Broadband statistics 2004
  • Split personality here – I felt more capable than some academics through my extensive experience of training, a real L plate person with others, especially when they started to behave in a more academic way – using references with an ease which I had to work hard at. My training focus had indeed led to a short term let ’ s fix it attitude – I was intensively practical and great a fast searching, fast learning and fast learning design. But had I got the depth? EXTRACT from reflection A4: “ At my initial interview for EdD, one interviewer questioned my ability to undertake research enquiry over a sustained period, in view of my professional life which is full of daily variation in time, place, people and content and a resulting pragmatism. He was very perceptive and that, in a sense, has acted as a strong driver, not only to stay the course, but to prove to myself that sustained enquiry was desirable and achievable. So much so, that I put much hope and belief in the possibility of a continuing research career in my remaining 10-15 professional years. ”   The interview question became a thorn in the side which challenged me throughout. After the initial protestations, I realised gradually the appropriateness of the question. In a sense, it forced me to prove I could do it. Such is the perversity of human nature.
  • The great comfort at this first stage was my ALS. We went from six to four in the first few weeks, and that group of four bonded well and really helped each other. This has remained my strong belief, that a well-organised ALS can be a thing of beauty and a joy for study. Having hit on a research field in which there were several thousand articles when I started and they continued to pile up at an exponential rate throughout the world, I had to fight to structure them and keep reading under control. I chose four dimensions or frames for reviewing the literature: e-learning research, educational research, psychological research and sociological research – all of these have continued to help me understand and reconceptualise the research field. I also encountered my first major problem: word length – producing 18000 words on first draft for A1 … And my first joy of EdD, apart from ALS, - writing the reflective section of A1. – extract from first reflection A1. Hence the squirrel dilemma. I came across the actual squirrel within a few days of starting the EdD and it has come to represent for me both the panic and the joy of undertaking research at this point in my career and life. The squirrel was in a frenzy of picking and tasting and burying nuts, in different spots possibly never to be found again. The plethora of reading, contacts, seminars and meetings, which has proved to be the fabric of the course to date, felt like the precious nuts, a source of sustenance for a potential four year winter. The joy and the passion of the squirrel was never in doubt, it scrambled forty times up the tree within my small period of observation in its haste to discover the best or perhaps nearest treat, it held off a crowd of competing magpies (my mind springs to time management issues here) and tasted each new nut before burying or archiving the material. The analogy is obvious with my exploration of new texts, articles, websites, seminars, contacts etc. The dilemma the squirrel posed was first how to retrieve the objects of my passion and second how to retain the sense of enthusiasm, which I clearly believed would wane once the first assignment forced itself to be written. I am pleased to report that the dilemma is on hold, since there is no current likelihood of the enthusiasm waning. I invested a good deal of time at the start in designing systems to counter my natural untidiness (files and a relational database) and I used the new experience of the course to develop a more systematic practice of filing and noting related material “
  • an investigation into student conceptions of “blended learning” in the light of their experience of an HE masters level module at a British university. The small scale study used a phenomenographic method to discover in the students’ words a range of conceptions relating to this learning experience. The students’ conceptions were related to the stage of study and an analysis of motivations for learning in this context. The study identified a new dimension of learning motivation with practical implications for attempting to blend traditional face-to-face teaching methods with online support and study options What did I learn from A2 as a student? Different voices and how to write in them. The introduction to the assignment in student voice, the central research study in academic voice (the one I find most difficult and must continue to practice) and this final section in a seriously authentic voice. Also slightly better time management Also how to challenge the desire to cheat: EXTRACT FROM REFLECTION: The perfection I sought in the Assignment’s construction led me to great efforts to accommodate my potential interviewees, ensuring that their interview location and timing accorded them the status of VIPs. I was indeed immensely grateful for their enthusiastic co-operation, and pursued them doggedly in a deferent way until the appointments were made. Even when broken, they too were repaired and the relationships smoothed to produce the raw material of Assignment 2. Thinking back to that early stage of this small research study, an immensity of time, detail and effort seems to separate those summer seaside trips to students’ homes and the university on non-teaching days, when I felt I was making real progress in the assignment every time I came home clutching a recorded tape.   There was, of course, the occasional broken bubble, such as the point at which I tried to play the first tape and it had not recorded properly, resulting in an unintelligible noise. I have never felt such devilish temptation to cheat in my entire previous life. However within the hour, my temptation was overcome and I sat down on that sunny Saturday to commit to the computer as immediate and full a picture of the interview as my many scribbled notes (fortunate safety net) and short term memory would allow. In the event, the experience not only taught me the everlastingly obvious lesson that I should test the recording at the beginning of each interview, but also gave me the chance to pilot the process. After discussion with my supervisor, I decided I could allow myself to use the interview notes for analysis, provided I analysed the other six full transcripts first and used the initial interview summary to check rather than necessarily found new categories there.    »
  • Extract from reflection A3 “ This is the way scuba divers must feel as they penetrate greater and greater depths of a watery world, discovering an increasing intensity of vision and experience with each fathom, only to find the dwindled air supply forcing a controlled but brisk return to the surface. Diving into the depths of blended and self-directed learning has been like this for me. My air supply has been very limited and against my will I have been repeatedly required to surface into everyday life, just as my explorations were showing promise. This part of the Ed D journey, Assignment 3, has been particularly appropriate for a diving analogy, the rocks of real practice have generally been overgrown with published literature, difficult to penetrate. ”   “ I have discovered how onerous I find the trawling and noting of ideas and references, even though I take delight in using my mobile to email notes on reading back to myself for later transfer into Endnote. This is particularly difficult at the beginning, when I am unsure which sources will deliver most value, and am concerned that I may not have uncovered the key literature in the field. Once I begin to find the same concepts in several authors, I become happier at my coverage of the literature, but on self-directed learning, an apparently straightforward literature review took on gargantuan proportions. I loved engaging in the early work, such as Knowles, 1975 and Field ’ s critical study of SDLRS in 1989. It was easy, however, to become drawn into their perspective, harder to critically review their contributions. I also encountered many other literature reviews in the field, in each of which the writers had endeavoured to put their own stamp on the literature, which conflicted according to the writer ’ s interest. My own attempt to condense and simplify the literature was painful and difficult, especially in a confined word count, but I found using a systems model helpful – I hope this is so for the reader too. This was a good learning exercise and I found it helpful constantly to remind myself of the research question in deciding what to leave out of the final review. ”
  • A4 ABSTRACT This research set out to discover why some HE students adapted very quickly to online environments and showed excellent learning behaviours and outcomes, while others found many barriers to the same activity. Given the rapid spread of virtual learning environments (VLEs) in HEIs, HE teachers need clear ideas about how to prepare and support learners in these environments. If individual differences among students could be identified, which affected “ readiness ” for learning online, then this information could be used to develop appropriate support and prevent such differences working to disadvantage groups of students. The aim was to explore the perspectives of a group of HE teachers who could speak from experience as “ early adopters ” of VLEs for pedagogic purposes, in order to discuss the “ readiness ” of students for learning in an online context. Research questions focussed on how teachers could manage transition and integration of online technologies within HE, and how they could identify variations in student approaches to the technologies and mediate the less successful ones. EXTRACT from reflection A4 – systematic “ Jacobs ’ final underpinning layer is antecedents – reflecting about these requires deeper self-knowledge and deliberation. Many of the practice episode dilemmas described above can be understood by awareness of personal learning approaches, which have always been conscientious and perfectionist, structure-seeking and balanced. The need to try different avenues of enquiry, to practice varied research methods, to undertake vast swathes of reading, and the difficulty experienced in focusing, particularly on one research project at a time, can be understood as the result of an insecure need for structure, coupled with strong natural curiosity in how things work and why.
  • A4 ABSTRACT This research set out to discover why some HE students adapted very quickly to online environments and showed excellent learning behaviours and outcomes, while others found many barriers to the same activity. Given the rapid spread of virtual learning environments (VLEs) in HEIs, HE teachers need clear ideas about how to prepare and support learners in these environments. If individual differences among students could be identified, which affected “ readiness ” for learning online, then this information could be used to develop appropriate support and prevent such differences working to disadvantage groups of students. The aim was to explore the perspectives of a group of HE teachers who could speak from experience as “ early adopters ” of VLEs for pedagogic purposes, in order to discuss the “ readiness ” of students for learning in an online context. Research questions focussed on how teachers could manage transition and integration of online technologies within HE, and how they could identify variations in student approaches to the technologies and mediate the less successful ones. EXTRACT from reflection A4 – systematic “ Jacobs ’ final underpinning layer is antecedents – reflecting about these requires deeper self-knowledge and deliberation. Many of the practice episode dilemmas described above can be understood by awareness of personal learning approaches, which have always been conscientious and perfectionist, structure-seeking and balanced. The need to try different avenues of enquiry, to practice varied research methods, to undertake vast swathes of reading, and the difficulty experienced in focusing, particularly on one research project at a time, can be understood as the result of an insecure need for structure, coupled with strong natural curiosity in how things work and why.
  • In other words managing time effectively and not feeling guilty about spending time on me – developing and indulging my learning, just thinking and reading for me, not for a client or for students. Partly solved
  • Marton, F (1981) Phenomenography – Describing conceptions of the world around us. Instructional Science 10 (1981) 177-200 Phenomenography, as defined by Marton (1994) and used regularly in recent decades to study learners, looks at how individuals conceptualise their experience of phenomena. It is based on how they describe that experience, using their language to identify their perspective, and then to compare in an iterative and rigorous (i.e. trackable) way to search for what may be common among the individuals’ experiences of the phenomena and what may be apparently distinct. This should produce a range of experiences bounded by the individuals studied. More than that, phenomenographic research (Brew 2001) seems to establish that there may be limited ways in which any given phenomenon is experienced. So a phenomenographic study could seek to identify such a range of experiences and perspectives and propose relationships within the range. Phenomenography offered an approach which aimed at “description, analysis and understanding of experiences” from a second order perspective, ie an understanding of blended learning through the eyes of the student. The research study did not attempt to fix ideas about blended learning itself, but to identify possible student conceptions of the pedagogic tools key arguments for the phenomenographic perspective (Marton 1981 ) can be summarised as: 1.      finding out how people think about aspects of reality – such as learning – is interesting in itself 2.      descriptions of people’s conceptions of reality cannot be discovered by researching the reality, only by researching their conceptions 3.      there is not necessarily one reality, so people’s conceptions may be of different realities, reducing the value of “reality” as a benchmark for the researcher. 4.      conceptions of experienced phenomena tend to be relatively limited in range and therefore describable. I define conception as a mental construct formed by combining all relating experiences, impressions and notions . By interviewing students after their examinations were completed, I hoped to find stable conceptions, which, additionally, were unlikely to be affected in their expression by any tutor assessment power, all students having already passed the module. This approach also puts the study into a constructivist view of learning (Perkins 1992), where the student facing blended learning and teaching in the delivery mode described will be actively engaged in trying to make sense of the method as well as the content. 7 students (cohorts 1 and 2). Interviews in own home or at uni.
  • The 58 items of the SDLRS were subjected to PCA using SPSS. Prior to performing PCA, the suitability of the data for factor analysis was assessed. The correlation matrix revealed a number of coefficients of 0.3 and above, however, the Kaiser-Meyer-Oklin (KMO) value was too low at 0.270 (<0.6 the recommended value) to proceed with this sample (65). However, the Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity value was statistically significant (p=0.000), suggesting that factor analysis could be used. Given the KMO value, any data arising from this part of the analysis should be treated with great caution; ideally a larger sample should be used (Guglielmino’s sample was 307, Field’s sample was 244).   Proceeding then with caution, and using Kaiser’s criterion, just 18 of the items had an eigenvalue of >1 for this data set. These 18 items together explained 77.432% of the variance. A scree plot shows a major break at 5, then 20 and 22, therefore the first 22 items or components may be helpful in the factor analysis. The component matrix shows loadings of each of the items on the first 18 components with eigenvalue >1. Most items load quite strongly (above 0.4) on the first four of these components. This suggests that only 4 factors should be retained for further consideration.   Factor rotation (Varimax ie orthogonal rotation) was then used through SPSS to help with interpretation. From the Rotated Component Matrix (Appendix 1), an analysis of the items loading on each factor suggests the following factor themes: Factor 1: Love of learning Factor 2: Preference for independence in learning / study skills Factor 3: Proactivity and forward thinking / planning Factor 4: Personal responsibility and commitment to learning    
  • Glaser vs Strauss. A grounded analysis method was applied to transcripts of interviews with HE teachers with experience and enthusiasm for integrating online environments with face-to-face teaching and learning. The “ constant comparative ” method was used to fragment the data and search for categories of ideas within the data in relation to the research questions. The resulting findings confirmed a number of differences between traditional and online teaching and learning, which could affect the approach of both teacher and student, but gave no support to the concept of “ readiness ” . Conclusions focussed on the process of preparing students for learning with online technologies. Key outcomes related to the changing teacher role and the impact of teacher beliefs on the design and integration of online technologies. Detailed suggestions were produced for appropriate learner induction to enable a more positive and proactive engagement with online technologies. The plasticity of the online learning space is shown to offer opportunities for supporting diverse learning approaches, in particular to occupy and personalise the online space to build a familiar and comfortable learning environment.
  • Blend barriers , confidence , tutor role and structure were all conceptions students associated with the beginning of the course: SO fits with CARL ROGERS (1969) and SALMON’S EMPHASIS ON SETTING GROUND RULES, DEVELOPING STUDENTS’ CONFIDENCE AND HELPING THEM TO OVERCOME INITIAL BARRIERS SEEM TO FIT WELL WITH THESE STUDENTS CONCEPTIONS (G Salmon E-moderating 2000 Kogan Page Ltd ppp27-37) initial step is access and motivation, then online socialisation, info exchange, knowledge construction, development). Competence ideas were important up to the mid stage of the course: FEAR OF BEING UNABLE TO DEAL WITH BLENDED LEARNING WAS AN IDEA NOT MENTIONED ONCE STUDENTS WERE COMFORTABLE AND PRACTISED AT POSTING ONLINE Learning community ideas arose later in the course, peaking at the end: STUDENTS’ AWARENESS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF GROUP COLLABORATION AND ITS POTENTIAL BENEFITS TO ALL INCREASED MARKEDLY LATER IN THE COURSE – AND WAS OFTEN MENTIONED AS REGRET THEY HADNT DONE ENOUGH OF IT EARLIER ON. Blend positives , subject context and self-directed learning were consistently mentioned from start to end of the course: Personal approach to learning was associated with all stages of the course but received more mentions towards the end.IT WAS EVIDENT THAT STUDENTS WERE DEVELOPING THEIR IDEAS ABOUT HOW TO LEARN THROUGH THEIR ENCOUNTER WITH BLENDED LEARNING, HAVING TO ADJUST AND QUESTION THEIR STYLE AND FINDING NEW WAYS TO WORK INDIVIDUALLY AND TOGETHER. Perry (1970) In the World of the Learner, a chapter in Marton, Hounsell and Entwhistle’s The Experience of Learning (1997), where Beaty and Morgan also set out stages of learner development (p134). Fresher, Novice and Intermediate stages all see the system and the institution in control of learning, while the Expert stage sets up control by self within a course and the Graduate sets up control by self both in content and method of learning. These ideas relate to those suggested by this research study as all describe a process of moving towards self-direction and personal responsibility for learning with early stages which require considerable support and offer opportunities to take it easy or drop out.
  • Group commitment motivation could be understood here to mean seeking to avoid the worry of letting others down, pulling one’s weight in the team, wishing to help others to learn for mutual benefit, feeling one has to put in effort for the team’s sake or that of other specific members of the team (Note that some references related to more than one motivation descriptor, each reference can therefore count more than once in the data below; T=966) The relatively small number of references to intrinsic motivation can probably be explained by the focus on the process of blended learning rather than the module content in this study. The proposition of an additional motivator, that of group commitment, where learning is organised to develop a community approach, may be helpful in understanding the students’ conceptions of what makes them put in some effort. Learning motivation is clearly a highly variable and perhaps elusive factor which will always be mediated by the student’s past learning experiences and their current personal and, for working students, their current work contexts.
  • The Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale created by Guglielmino in 1977 is evaluated in relation to its usefulness in assessing a propensity for self-directed learning among part-time HE students on a vocational programme in the UK. The design, statistical validity and underlying concepts are explored along with other variables, which may affect the students’ self-directedness. The instrument is found to have some items, which, due to the questionnaire design, are not correlated significantly with self-directed learning readiness and a number of small modifications are proposed. More importantly, the instrument is found to address only one component within the self-directed learning dimension and a model is proposed to clarify understanding which identifies personal learner, acquired learner, learning situation and teaching factors which must be addressed when assessing readiness for self-directed learning
  • Depending on time and how much interaction so far, consider small group discussion about each tale, or general questions.
  • ICT Openness to learning? Commitment to learning? Group commitment? MOtivaTION TO LEARN? DEEP AND STRATEGIC?
  • Transcript of "2007 Doing an EdD: tales of a journey"

    1. 1. EdD Block Study Day session 27th March 2007 Sue GreenerDoing an EdD: Tales of a journey
    2. 2. The Practitioner’s TaleThe Student’s TaleThe Juggler’s TaleThe Researcher’s Tale
    3. 3. The Practitioner’s Tale• 2000-2001 – · “What blend of CMC and face to face first experiment contact will achieve the module learning outcomes?” with blended · “Does group size – or any other delivery potentially controllable variable -• Practical affect the validity of CMC as an aid to learning?” questions – few · “If this particular combination of answers CMC and face to face learning happened to work, would other combinations work better?” · and most importantly “How do I go about answering these questions?”.
    4. 4. The Practitioner’s Tale“In universities, (ICT) will further unleash changes in the practice and conception of education. .. Teaching may become more collaborative and technologically facilitated, and more responsive to the needs of an emerging population requiring flexible, interactive and lifelong learning.” Olegbemiro Jegede (2000)
    5. 5. The Practitioner’s Tale The Practitioner’s Tale• Immediate outcomes BeL’s mission was two-fold: from EdD – started a • Provide a space in which to small research group encourage sharing of e- learning projects, research, in BBS ideas and pedagogy in a• BeL, or baby BeL, business context survives and spells out • Support BBS staff as they my future experimented with and developed the use of studentcentral in their teaching
    6. 6. The Practitioner’s Tale The Practitioner’s Tale• Transfer from EdD research has been ongoing• Bit of a reputation in BBS and on my main teaching programme for running proactive studentcentral areas
    7. 7. Why eLearning through studentcentral? Coomey & Stephenson (2001) say it’s all about dialogue, involvement, • Development of independent support and control learning behaviour • Constructivist ethosstudentcentral offers:• Additional channels of • Improved critical use of web communication: student- resources tutor, student-student and • Stimulus to more offline work student-administrator and more reflective work• Direct links to resources • A way to enable group work• Development of ICT skills outside class for the workplace • The development of a wider• Convenient access to network beyond the classroom learning materials
    8. 8. CIPD Case study on Rolls RoyceRolls Royce website
    9. 9. Students post critical responses to articles for all to share Access toonline library and Emerald
    10. 10. iC cl tk eh nlki
    11. 11. Short Quiz 3 weblinksto resourcesArticle summaryReach through Emerald
    12. 12. Staff support area, Documents, Tips online
    13. 13. The Student’s Tale• “How will someone Confidence, giving way to fear with such a pragmatic, How could I suggest I knew short-term focus in her enough about teaching to career, be able to produce original research sustain doctoral contribution? academic study?” Nothing but support from BBSThe interview Put on a brave face and hope you can look up the big words later
    14. 14. The Student’s TaleAssignment one – all the A1: Learning and old fears from MA teaching in a virtual days environment: an What level? initial investigation How much time? focussing on the HE Should I write context differently? Would I fail at the first hurdle?
    15. 15. The Student’s Tale“..I have never seen anybody A2: Variations in improve in the art and technique of inquiry by student conceptions any means other than of blending Face-to- engaging in inquiry.” face and Online (Bruner,1961). teaching andHere goes – the first research study learning methods697 references, 69 discrete categories, 9 conceptual themesHow do I fit this into the word count?
    16. 16. The Student’s TaleUsing number in A3:Using the Self- research Directed Learning Readiness Scale withDeciding the topic which part-time could lead me towards professional final thesis programme studentsForce-feeding literature in the UK: an review evaluation of usefulness in this context
    17. 17. The Student’s Tale• The final stage – A4: Higher Education should I feel different? Teachers’ perspectives• Did I understand the of student readiness big words any better? for online learning• Had I found any answers to my practical questions?• Could I stick it out to the end?
    18. 18. The Student’s Tale• Not quite a coda: A4: Higher Education• Where am I now? Teachers’ perspectives• Trying to understand the of student readiness regulations on submission for online learning• Embroiled in revisions• Mix of bravado and fear again about viva• How to convince two professors in my field I know something useful about this?
    19. 19. The Juggler’s Tale• “How is your …er… The chocolate box research going, dear?” syndrome• Where does EdD figure in the priority list of family, home, The squirrel work, more work, earning, (leisure), dilemma relationships, voluntary work, cooking, cleaning, The deep sea diver sheep….
    20. 20. Newdimension of learning All references by motivation descriptor motivation Group commitment Intrinsic Fear of failure Extrinsic Competence Achievement 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 No. of references
    21. 21. The Researcher’s Tale• EdD as a brilliant way Phenomenography to experiment with SPSS – factor research method analysis, etc etc Grounded analysis
    22. 22. PhenomenographyFerence Marton (1981) How individuals Brew (2001) conceptualise their Limited ways in which any experience of phenomena given phenomenon is experienced Detailed and iterative analysis of how they Phenomenographic studies describe their experience seek to identify such a range Aimed to understand blended learning through the eyes of the student
    23. 23. Mixed methodology A3 1. Develop research design and • 8. Upload Excel data sets to SPSS gain consent from students and package, coding nominal data and relevant authorities ordinal data to produce numerical data• 2. Acquire and administer SDLRS sets instrument to students on the • 9. Analyse SDLRS question programme response data set to compare statistical• 3. Transfer responses to score results with Guglielmino and Field sheets and send to US for scoring and results analysis • 10. Analyse variable data set to look• 4. Conduct personal tutor for correlations interviews • 11. Review SDLRS questionnaire• 5. Collect data from application against principles of good forms and examination results questionnaire design• 6. Enter variables data to Excel • 12. Present results and findings spreadsheet • 13. Develop ideas and conclusions• 7. Enter all question responses on SDLRS to Excel spreadsheet
    24. 24. Grounded analysis• Difference from phenomenography• Constant comparative method• Justifying small number of interviews – not just time management• Theory generation – so case studies rather than sought proof
    25. 25. The Researcher’s Tale• EdD as a way of E-learning? exploring and Do we look at business, HE, psychological, expanding or educational, sociological contracting research approaches? focus SDLRS? Just one part of self-directed learning Online readiness instrument? How do we define readiness, online learning?
    26. 26. The Researcher’s Tale• EdD Literature review circulated to staff Practical learning started off studentcentral tips, findings seminars and BeL and outputs A2 – conference paper at EISTA06, submitted to Journal A3 – article format for future submission A4 – reflective format now ICEL07 conference paper and basis for more (EISTA07 and ICICTE07) A4 – staff research seminar BBS, doctoral workshop at summer conference UFHRD, future journal submissions Next step, back to BeL and attracting researchers
    27. 27. Conceptions of blended learning relate to stages of learning within the course Blend barriers, confidence, tutor role and structure were all conceptions students associated with the beginning of the course Competence ideas were important up to the mid stage of the course Learning community ideas arose later in the course, peaking at the end Blend positives, subject context and self-directed learning were consistently mentioned from start to end of the course Personal approach to learning was associated with all stages of the course but received more mentions towards the end.
    28. 28. New dimension oflearning motivation All references by motivation descriptor Group commitment Intrinsic Fear of failure Extrinsic Competence Achievement 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 No. of references
    29. 29. Self-directed learning force field PERSONAL LEARNER FACTORS PERSONAL LEARNER FACTORS . ACQUIRED LEARNER FACTORS ACQUIRED LEARNER FACTORSTowards Towardsself- dependentdirected learninglearning LEARNING SITUATION FACTORS LEARNING SITUATION FACTORS behaviourbehaviour TEACHING FACTORS TEACHING FACTORS
    30. 30. Self-directed learning force field PERSONAL LEARNER FACTORS PERSONAL LEARNER FACTORS Determination, independence, Laziness, avoidance of risk, deep learning, high self-confidence, external locus of control, fear of achievement motivation, internal failure, surface learning, reactive, ...locus of control low self-confidence . ACQUIRED LEARNER FACTORS ACQUIRED LEARNER FACTORSTowards Study skills, competence Lack of study skills, motivation, intrinsic motivation, indifference to learning, used Towardsself- prior self-directed study, planning to teacher direction, no self- dependentdirected .skills directed study experience learninglearning LEARNING SITUATION FACTORS LEARNING SITUATION FACTORS behaviourbehaviour Subject grasp, access to Extrinsic motivation, low learning resources, study time, subject grasp, limited access to peer pressure, group resources, dependent peers, commitment low group commitment TEACHING FACTORS TEACHING FACTORS Expectations, activities and Didactic expectations and assessment encourage self- teaching strategy, assessment direction geared to knowledge content
    31. 31. Specific research questions for A41. How do university teachers perceive the variation of students’ approaches to online learning?2. Why are some university teachers particularly enthusiastic about the opportunities offered by integrated learning environments?3. What pedagogical beliefs underpin these teachers’ practice?4. To what extent do users of learning management systems identify and exploit properties or affordances of online environments?5. How useful or valid is the concept of student “readiness” for online learning? Can it provide a basis for discussion about supporting students’ approaches to online learning?
    32. 32. The Researcher’s Tale
    33. 33. Key findings A4• Readiness is not a useful concept to teachers• The nature of the evolving teacher role in relation to an online challenge – status, identity, control, pedagogy• The expectations teachers, experienced in online teaching and learning, have of students• The potential plasticity of the online learning environment in accommodating varied learning styles and strategies and personalising learning spaces• Ways in which students can prepare for online learning
    34. 34. Epilogue: a researcher always has more questions The Practitioner’s Tale: real time, not academic time – how to make EdD count in practice? The Student’s Tale: the learning journey, how to face the pain of doctoral level uncertainty and fear? The Juggler’s Tale: keeping a life, making decisions about time, how to stay sane and related? The Researcher’s Tale: the heady stuff, making it count by publishing, how to persevere with seminars, conferences and journals
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