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    La1 powerpoint-1 La1 powerpoint-1 Presentation Transcript

    • Topic 1.1 - Introduction to Information and Communication Technology
      • 1.1.1.1 Define ICT
      • Ict is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use electronics computers, communication devices and application software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.
      • Ict adalah tknologi berkaitan pemprosesan maklumat , dalam kata lainnya adalah berkenaan penggunaan komputer, peranti komunikasi dan aplikasi perisian untuk menukar , mengawasi, memperoses, menghubung dan menghasilkan maklumat bila-bila dan di mana sahaja
      • 1.1.1.2 Describe the brief evolution of
      • computers
      • FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS(1940-1956)
      • Vacuum tubes was introduces, is an electronic tube made of glass used as computer components to store and process data.
      • Eniac is first generation computer that contains weights of 30 tons, 18000 vacuum tubes, 30-50 foot space and 16000 watts of power.
      • GENERASI PERTAMA (940-1956)
      • Tiub vakum diprkenalkan. Merupakan alat elektronik diperbuat daripada kaca dan digunakan sebagai komponen komputer untuk menyimpan memposes data
      • Generasi komputer pertama ( eniac ) mempunyai berat 30 tan, 18000 tiub vakum, luas 30 ke 50 kaki dan menggunakan kuasa 16000 watts.
      • SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS(1956-1963)
      • Transistors replace vacuum tubes in this generation. Transistors are small devices that transfer electronic signal across resistor.
      • Transistor do not produced lots of heats and use less power also faster, cheaper and smaller than vacuum tubes.
      • GENERASI KEDUA KOMPUTER (1956-1963)
        • Transistor menggantikan tiub vakum dimana ia peranti lebih kecil yang menukar signal elektronik merentasi perintang
        • Transistor tidak menghasilkan haba yang banyak(tidak panas) dan kurang menggunakan kuasa, murah dan kecil berbanding tiub vakum .
      • THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS(1964-1971 )
      • Integrated circuits (iu) replaced transistor.
      • An iu is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip made of silicone.
      • Iu was reliable, compact and cheaper than transistors
      • GENERASI KETIGA KOMPUTER(1964-1971)
        • Sirkit integrasi menggantikan transistor
        • Ia merupakan sirkit elektronik yang lengkap diatas cip yang kecil diperbuat daripad silikon
        • Ia sangat sesuai, kecil dan murah berbanding transistor
      • FOURTH GENERATION COMPUTERS(1971-PRESENT )
      • Microprocessor was introduced, from thousand of integrated circuits change onto single silicone chip.
      • The intel 4004 chip developed in 1971, located all the components of the computer from the central processing units and memory to input/output controls on a single chip.
      • Computer is 100 times smaller than eniac computer in first generation.
      • GENERASI KEEMPAT KOMPUTER (1971-AKAN DATANG )
        • Menggunakan mikropemprosesan, daripada beribu sirkit integrasi bertukar kepada cip silikon yang tunggal
        • Cip intel 4004 dibangunkan pada 1971, dimana terletaknya semua komponen komputer daripada unit pemeprosesan pust dan memori untuk pengawalan input output diata cip tunggal.
      • FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER(PRESENT –BEYOND)
      • Fifth generation computing devices based on artificial intelligence are still in development though there are some applications such as voice recognition that are being used today.
      • GENERASI KELIMA KOMPUTER (AKAN DATANG –
      • MASA DEPAN)
        • Berdasarkan kepda kepintaran buatan dimana telah dibina dan dipertingkatkan pembangunannya seperti face verification (pengenalan melalui wajah) yang mana telah mula digunakan kini.
      • 1.1.2.1 LIST THE USAGE OF ICT IN EVERYDAY LIFE.
      • Education (pelajaran)
      • Banking (perbankan)
      • Industry (industri)
      • E-commerce (e-perdagangan)
      • 1.1.2.2 State the differences between computerized and non-computerized systems.
      • COMPUTERIZED
      • All banking activities are done by using computer system
      • Transaction can be done anywhere and anytime
      • It takes shorten time for any banking process
      • More productive.
      • MENGGUNAKAN KOMPUTER
      • Semua aktivit perbankan menggunakan sistem komputer
      • Transaksi boleh dilakukan bila-bila dan di mana sahaja
      • Mengambil masa yang sedikit melakukan proses perbankan
      • Lebih produktif/cekap
      • NON-COMPUTERIZED
      • All banking activities were done manually
      • Transaction can only be made during working hours.
      • It takes long time for any banking process
      • Less productive
      • TIDAK MENGGUNAKAN KOMPUTER
      • Semua aktiviti bank dijalankan secara manual
      • Transaksi dijalankan dalam waktu kerja sahaja
      • Mengambil proses lama menjalankan kerja
      • Kurang produktif/kurang cekap
      • 1.1.2..1 State the impact of ICT on society.
      • POSITIVE IMPACTS
      • Faster communication speed
      • Lower communication cost
      • Can share opinions and information
      • Paperless environment
      • Information and communication borderless through internet.
      • KESAN POSITIF
      • Komunikasi cepat
      • Kos komunikasi rendah
      • Perkongsian maklumat
      • Persekitaran tiada kertas
      • Dunia tanpa sempadan (internet)
      • NEGATIVE IMPACTS
      • Can be negative because it courage people to access pornography and violence web sites.
      • Can harm uses for long hours used
      • KESAN NEGATIF
      • PENYALAHGUNAAN KOMPUTER (PORNOGRAFI DAN KEGANASAN)
      • KESAN BURUK JIKA DIGUINAKAN TERLALU LAMA
      • Topic 1.2 -
      • Computer Ethics and Legal Issues
      • 1.2.1.1 define computer ethics, code of ethics, intellectual property, privacy, computer crime and cyber law.
      • 1. Computer ethics is a system of moral standards or values used as a guideline for computer users ethical.
      • Etika komputer adalah sistem berkaitan standard moral atau nilai yang digunakan ebagai panduan bagi pengguna komputer
      • 2. Code of ethics is guidelines in ict that help determine whether a specific computer action is ethical or unethical.
      • Kod etika adalah panduan bagi memastikan samada perlakuan menggunakan komputer itu beretika atau tidak
      • 3. Intellectual property refers to works created by inventors, authors and artists.
      • Hak milik inteletual merujuk kepada kerja yang dibuat oleh pencipta seperti artis , pembuat program dan sebagainya.
      • 4. Privacy refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict and collection and used of information about them.
      • Privasi mrujuk kepada hak milik induk atau syarikat
      • 5. Computer crime is any illegal acts involving computers.
      • Jenayah kompurer perlakuan tidak baik membabitkan komputer
      • 6. Cyber law refers to any laws relating to protecting the internet and other online communication technologies
      • Undang-undang siber merujuk kepada undang-undang bagi melindungi kepentingan bderkaitan internet dan teknologi komunikasi
      • 1.2.1.2 Differentiate between ethics and law .
      Law Ethics As a rule to control computer users. Peraturan mengawal pengguna pc As a guideline to computer users panduan untuk pen ggna komputer To prevent misuse of computers mengelakkan penyalahgunaan pc Ethical behavior is judged by moral standards. Kelakuan dihakimi oleh standard moral Computer users must follow the regulations and law. Pengguna pc mesti mematuhinya Computer users are free to follow or ignore the code of ethics. Bebas untuk mengikut etika atau tidak Punishments ada hukuman No punishment for anyone who Violates ethics. Tiada hukuman untuk mereka yang melanggarnya Depend on country and state where the crime is committed bergantung kepada negara yang terbabit Universal, can be applied anywhere, All over the world semua tempat di dunia Not obeying laws are called crime tidak mematuhi akan digelar penjenayah Not following ethics are called immoral tidak mematuhinya digelar tidak bermoral
      • 1.2.1.3 State the need for intellectual property laws
      • AS BUSINESSES CONTINUE TO EXPAND GLOBALLY, BUSINESS OWNERS MUST REALIZE THE IMPORTANCE OF GETTING PROFESSIONAL ADVICE ON HOW TO ESTABLISH AND SAFEGUARD THEIR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS. THESE INCLUDE :
      • TRADEMARKS FOR BRAND IDENTITY
      • COPYRIGHTS FOR MATERIALS
      • PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS
      • DESIGN FOR PRODUCT APPEARANCE
      • PERNIAGAAN BERKEMBANG SECARA GLOBAL DIMANA PEMILIK MESTI SEDAR KEPENTINGAN MENDAPATKAN KHIDMAT NASIHAT BAGAIMANA MENJAGA HAK MILIK MEREKA. INI MERANGKUMI
        • IDENTITI PRODUK
        • HAKCIPTA
        • PATEN
        • REKABENTUK
      • 1.2.2.1 List ways to protect privacy.
      • PRIVACY CAN BE PROTECTED BY:
      • (A) PRIVACY LAW
      • The privacy laws in malaysia emphasises on the following:
      • - Security services to review the security policy
      • - Security management to protect the resources
      • - Security mechanism to implement the required security
      • services
      • - Security objects, the important entities within the
      • System environment
      • (A) UNDANG-UNDANG PRIVASI
      • Undang-undang privasi di malaysia berkaitan dengan
      • - Servis keselamatan untuk memaparkan polisi keselamatan
      • - Pengurusan keselamatan untuk mengawal sumber
      • - Mekanisma keselamatan bagi mengimplementsi keperluan
      • Perkhidmatan keselamatan
      • - Objek keselamatan, entiti penting berkaitan persekitaran
      • Keselamatan
      • 1.2.2.1 List ways to protect privacy.
      • PRIVACY CAN BE PROTECTED BY:
      • (B) UTILITIES SOFTWARE
      • - Install anti-spam program, firewall, anti-spyware and
      • Antivirus
      • - Purchase goods with cash rather than credit card
      • - Clear your history file when you are finished browsing
      • - Fill in only necessary information on warranty and
      • registration form.
      • (B) PERISIAN UTILITI
      • - Menginstall program anti spam, dinding api, anti perisik dan
      • Antivirus
      • - Membeli barangan secara tunai
      • - Menghilangkan sejarah carian internet apabila selesai
      • Melayari internet
      • - Hanya mengisi perkara yang perlu dalam borang internet
      • 1.2.2.2 State authentication and verification methods/ technologies.
      • AUTHENTICATION IS A PROCESS WHERE USERS VERIFY THEIR IDENTITY. AUTHENTICATION DEALS WITH THE PROBLEM OF DETERMINING WHETHER A USER SHOULD BE ALLOWED ACCESS TO A PARTICULAR SYSTEM.
      • PEMBUKTIAN MERUPAKAN PROSES DI MANA PENGGUNA MENGESAHKAN BUKTI IDENTITI SAMADA PENGGUNA ITU DIBENARKAN ATAU TIDAK MENGAKSES SESUATU SISTEM
      • METHODS OF AUTHENTICATION
      • THERE ARE TWO COMMONLY USED AUTHENTICATION METHODS, WHICH ARE BIOMETRIC DEVICE AND CALLBACK SYSTEM.
      • LANGKAH DALAM PEMBUKTIAN
      • ADA 2 CARA YANG BIASA IAITU PERANTI BIOMETRIK DAN SISTEM PANGGIL SEMULA
      • A. BIOMETRIC DEVICE/ PERANTI BIOMETRIK IS A DEVICE THAT TRANSLATES PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS INTO A DIGITAL CODE THAT IS COMPARED WITH A DIGITAL CODE STORED IN THE DATABASE.
      • ADALAH PERANTI YANG MENUKAR KARAKTOR PERIBADI KEPADA KOD DIGITAL YANG BOLEH MEMBANDINGKAN DENGAN KOD DIGITAL YANG DISIMPAN DALAM PANGKALAN DATA
      • B. CALLBACK SYSTEM/ SISTEM PANGGIL SEMULA REFERS TO THE CHECKING SYSTEM THAT AUTHENTICATES THE USER
      • MERUJUK KEPADA SISTEM YANG MENYEMAK PEMBKTIAN OLEH PENGGUNA
      • 1.2.2.2 State authentication and verification methods/ technologies.
      • METHODS OF VERIFICATION
      • THERE ARE TWO METHODS COMMONLY USED IN VERIFICATION, WHICH ARE USER IDENTIFICATION AND PROCESSED OBJECT.
      • LANGKAH DALAM PENGESAHAN
      • 2 KAEDAH BIASA DALAM PENGESAHAN ADALAH MENGENALPASTI IDENTITI DAN OBJEK PEMPROSESAN
      • A. USER IDENTIFICATION/PENGENALPASTI IDENTITI REFERS TO THE PROCESS OF VALIDATING THE USER.
      • MERUJUK KEPADA PROSES YANG DIJALANKAN PRNGGUNA BAGI PENGESAHAN
      • B. PROCESSED OBJECT/ OBJEK PEMPROSESAN REFERS TO SOMETHING THE USER HAS SUCH AS IDENTIFICATION CARD, SECURITY TOKEN AND CELL PHONE.
      • MERUJUK KEPADA PENGGUNA YANG MEMPUNYAI OBJEK SEPERTI KAD PENGENALAN, TOKEN KESELAMATAN DAN TELEFON.
      • 1.2.3.1 a)List effects of controversial contents of pornography on society
      • PORNOGRAPHY
      • Can lead to criminal acts such as exploitation of women and children
      • Can lead to sexual addiction or perversion
      • Can develop low moral value towards other men, women or children
      • Can erode good religious, cultural and social beliefs and behavior
      • PORNOGRAFI
        • Boleh menggalakkan perlakuan jenayah seperti eksploitasi wanita dan kanak-kanak
        • Boleh menjurus kepada perlakuan seks
        • Boleh membangunakan nilai moral yang rendah terhadap lelaki dan wanita nahupun kanak-kanak
      • SLANDER
      • Can develop into a society that disregards honesty and truth
      • Can develop bad habit of spreading untruths and rumors
      • Can lead to unnecessary argument
      • Can cause people to have negative attitudes towards another person
      • FITNAH
      • Boleh membangunkan masyarakat yang tidak jujur
      • Boleh membangunkan tabiat buruk seprti menyebarkan khabar angin
      • Membawa kepada pertelingkahan yang tidak perlu
      • Boleh menyebabkan perlakuan negatif antara sau sama lain atau masyarakat keseluruhannya
      • 1.2.3.2 Describe the process of filtering to control access to controversial contents
      • THE METHOD OF CHOICE TO LIMIT ACCESS ON THE INTERNET IS TO FILTER EITHER BY
      • A. Keyword blocking. The method uses a list of banned word or objects terms such as xxx, sex, and nude. As the page is downloading, the filter searches for any of these words. If found, it will blocked the page completely. Stop downloading the page, block the banned words and even shut down the browser.
      • B. Site blocking. The method use software to list the websites that will be blocked by using software. The software prevents users from being access the web sites on list.
      • C. Web rating system. Web sites are rating in terms of nudity, sex, violence and language. The web sites rate can be done by setting the browser to only accept page with certain level of ratings.
      • LANGKAH PENAPISAN DALAM MELAYARI INTERNET ADALAH
      • A. Penghalang katakunci
      • Katakunci yang berkaitan dengan perkara-perkara buruk disimpan dalam pangkalan data.Pengguna yang menaip atau menekan perkataan tersebut akan dihalang dari mengakses laman berkaitan perkara tersebut
      • B. Penghalang tapak
      • Satu perisian berfungsi untuk mengenalpasti laman-laman yang tidak patut atau boleh dilayari.
      • C. Sistem rating web
      • Merupakan sistem yang mengenalpasti laman-laman yang tidak baik yang selau dilayari. Sistem akan menghalang pengguna daripada melayari laman-laman web tersebut.
      • 1.2.4.1 Explain the need for cyber law
      • THE NEED FOR CYBER LAW IS TO PROTECT THE INTERNET AND OTHER ONLINE
      • COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGIES.THE NEEDS OF CYBER LAW ARE
      • INTEGRITY AND SECURITY INFORMATION
      • LEGAL STATUS OF ONLINE TRANSACTIONS
      • PRIVACY AND CONFIDENTIALLY OF INFORMATION
      • INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS
      • SECURITY OF GOVERNMENT DATA
      • KEPERLUAN UNDANG-UNDANG SIBER ADALAH UNTUK MENGAWAL INTERNET
      • DAN LAIN-LAIN TEKNOLOGI ATAS TALIAN. IA BERKAITAN
      • MAKLUMAT KESELAMATAN DAN INTEGRITI
      • TRANSAKSI ATAS TALIAN YANG SAH
      • MAKLUMAT PRIVASI DAN SULIT
      • HAK CIPTA TERPELIHARA
      • KESELAMATAN DATA KERAJAAN
      • 1.2.4.2 Explain briefly the computer crimes below:
      • COMPUTER FRAUD IS DEFINED AS HAVING AN INTENTION TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OVER OR CAUSING LOSS TO OTHER PEOPLE, MAINLY ON MONETARY BASIS THROUGH THE USE OF COMPUTERS.
      • THERE ARE MANY FORMS OF COMPUTER FRAUD WHICH INCLUDE E-MAIL HOAXES, PROGRAM FRAUD, INVESTMENT SCHEMES, SALES PROMOTIONS AND CLAIMS OF EXPERTISE ON CERTAIN FIELDS.
      • PENIPUAN KOMPUTER MERUJUK KEPADA MENGAMBIL PERHATIAN ATAU KESEMPATAN YANG BOLEH MENGAKIBATKAN KERUGIAN KEPADA ORANG LAIN MENERUSI PENGGUNAAN KOMPUTER. CONTOHNYA PENIPUAN EMAIL, SKIM PELABURAN, PROMOSI JUALAN DSBNYA.
      • COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT IS DEFINED AS A VIOLATION OF THE RIGHTS SECURED BY A COPYRIGHT. COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT INVOLVES ILLEGAL COPY OR REPRODUCTION OF COPYRIGHTS MATERIAL BY THE BLACK MARKET GROUP. THE OPEN COMMERCIAL SALE OF PIRATED ITEM IS ALSO ILLEGAL.
      • PELANGGARAN HAKCIPTA MERUJUK KEPADA PELANGGARAN KEPADA HAKCIPTA, MENYALIN SEMULA TANPA KEBENARAN DAN SEBAGAINYA .
      • 1.2.4.2 Explain briefly the computer crimes below:
      • COMPUTER THEFT IS DEFINED AS THE UNAUTHORIZED USE OF ANOTHER PERSON’S PROPERTY WITH THE INTENTION TO DENY THE OWNER THE RIGHTFUL POSSESSION OF THAT PROPERTY OR ITS USE.EXAMPLES OF COMPUTER THEFT INCLUDE:
      • TRANSFER OF PAYMENTS TO THE WRONG ACCOUNTS
      • GET ONLINE MATERIALS WITH NO COST
      • TAP INTO DATA TRANSMISSION LINES ON DATABASE AT NO COST
      • DIVERT GOODS TO THE WRONG DESTINATION
      • PENCURIAN KOMPUTER BERMAKSUD PENGGUNAAN TANPA KEBENARAN KEATAS HAK MILIK ORANG LAIN DENGAN NILAI MEROSAK, MENGUBAH, MENUKAR DAN SEBAGAINYA
        • PENGALIHAN WANG DARI AKAUN ORANG LAIN
        • MENDAPAT BARANAN ATAS TALIAN TANPA BAYAR
        • MENDAPAT MAKLUMAT TAMNPA BAYARAN
        • MENGALIHKAN PENGHANTARAN BARANGAN KE TEMPAT LAIN
      • 1.2.4.2 Explain briefly the computer crimes below:
      • COMPUTER ATTACK MAY BE DEFINED AS ANY ACTIVITIES TAKEN TO DISRUPT THE EQUIPMENT OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS, CHANGE PROCESSING CONTROL OR CORRUPT STORED DATA.
      • COMPUTER ATTACK CAN BE IN THE FORMS OF:
      • PHYSICAL ATTACK THAT DISRUPT THE COMPUTER FACILITY OR ITS TRANSMISSION LINES.
      • AN ELECTRONIC ATTACK THAT USES THE POWER OF ELECTROMAGNETIC ENERGY TO OVERLOAD COMPUTER CIRCUITRY.
      • A COMPUTER NETWORK ATTACK THAT USES A MALICIOUS CODE TO EXPLOIT A WEAKNESS IN SOFTWARE, OR IN THE COMPUTER SECURITY PRACTICES OF A COMPUTER USER
      • SERANGAN KOMPUTER DIDEFINISIKAN SEBAGAI AKTIVITI MENGGANGU PERALATAN KOMPUTER , MENGUBAH KAWALAN DAN MEROSAKKAN DATA YANG DISIMPAN. SERANGAN KOMPUTER BOLEH DALAM BENTUK
        • SRANGAN FIZIKAL YANG MEROSAKKAN PERALATAN DAN TALIAN PENGHANTARAN
        • SERANGAN ELEKTRONOK DI MANA BOLEH MENYEBABKAN KEROSAKAN ATAS PERALATAN AKIBAT LEBIHAN KUASA.
      • SERANGAN RANGKAIAN KOMPUTER DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KOD SERANGAN BAGI MENGEKSPLOIT KELEMAHAN PERISIAN DSBNYA
      • 1.3.1 Definition
      • 1.3.1.1 Define Computer security.
      • COMPUTERS SECURITY MEANS PROTECTING OUR COMPUTER SYSTEMS AND THE INFORMATION THEY CONTAINS AGAINST UNWANTED ACCESS, DAMAGE, DESTRUCTION OR MODIFICATION.
      • KESELAMATAN KOMPUTER BERMAKSUD MELINDUNGI SISTEM KOMPUTER DAN MAKLUMAT DI DALAMNYA DARIPADA AKSES YANG TIDAK DIBENARKAN, KEROSAKAN DAN PENGUBAHAN
      • 1.3.2.1 Explain briefly the different threats to computer security:
      • MALICIOUS CODE IS ALSO KNOWN AS A ROUGE PROGRAM. IT IS A TREAT TO COMPUTING ASSETS BY CAUSING UNDESIRED EFFECTS IN THE PROGRAMMER’S PART. THE EFFECT CAUSE BY AGENT, WITH THE INTENTION TO CAUSE DAMAGE. THE AGENT FOR MALICIOUS CODE IS THE WRITER OF THE CODE, OR ANY PERSON WHO CAUSES ITS DISTRIBUTION. THERE ARE VARIOUS KINDS OF MALICIOUS CODE. THEY INCLUDE VIRUS, TROJAN HORSE, LOGIC DOOR, TRAPDOOR AND BACKDOOR, WORM AND MANY OTHERS.
      • KOD MALICIOUS JUGA DIKENALI SEBAGAI PROGRAM PEMECAH. IA MENGGANGU ASET KOMPUTER DENGAN MENYEBABKAN KEROSAKAN. AGEN KOD INI AKAN MENGUBAH KOD YANG TERDAPAT DALAM PROGRAM DAN MEROSAKKAN KOMPUTER DENGAN KESANNYA SEPERTI GANGGUAN KEPADA PERJALANAN PROGRAM. CONTOHNYA TROJAN HORSE, LOGIC DOOR, TRAPDOOR DAN BACKDOOR, WORM(CECACING) DAN BANYAK LAGI
      • 1.3.2.1 Explain briefly the different threats to computer security:
      • HACKING IS A SOURCE OF THREAT TO SECURITY IN COMPUTER. IT IS DEFINED AS UNAUTHORIZED ACCESS TO THE COMPUTER SYSTEM BY A HACKER.
      • HACKERS ARE PERSONS WHO LEARN ABOUT THE COMPUTER SYSTEM IN DETAIL. THEY WRITE PROGRAM REFERRED TO AS HACKS. HACKERS MAY USE A MODEM OR CABLE TO HACK THE TARGETED COMPUTERS.
      • HACKING ADALAH SUMBER GANGGUAN KEPADA KESELAMATAN DALAM KOMPUTER. IA BOLEH DIISTILAHKAN SEBAGAI AKSES TANPA KEBENARAN KEPADA SISTEM KOMPUTER OLEH ORANG YANG DIKENALI SEBAGAI HACKER. HACKER ADALAH ORANG YANG ADA KEPANDAIAN TENTANG SISTEM KOMPUTER. MEREKA MENULIS PROGRAM KOMPUTER BERDASARKAN PENGGUNAAN MODEM DAN KABEL UNTUK MEROSAKKAN KOMPUTER.
      • ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTER . BE IT AT HOME, STORES, OFFICES AND ALSO AUTOMOBILES. EXAMPLES OF NATURAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL DISASTERS:
      • FLOOD
      • FIRE
      • EARTHQUAKES, STORMS AND TORNADOS
      • EXCESSIVE HEAT
      • INADEQUATE POWER SUPPLY
      • BENCANA ALAM ADALAH JUGA SATU CARA YANG MEROSAKKAN KOMPUTER. CONTOHNYA BANJIR, TANAH RUNTUH, GEMPA BUMI DAN SEBAGAINYA.
      • 1.3.3.1 Select the appropriate security measures to overcome the identified computer threats.
      • Data Backup :
      • Cryptography
      • Anti virus
      • Anti spyware
      • Firewall
      • Human Aspects
      • 1.3.3.2 Apply the correct security procedures.
      • DATA BACKUP :
      • Salinan fail atau program dalam bentuk cd atau dvd, disket atau cakera keras
      • CRYPTOGRAPHY
      • Proses menyembunyikan maklumat dengan mengubah maklumat dalam bentuk yang lain tetapi difahami oleh empunyanya .
      • ANTI VIRUS
      • Menggunakan perisian anti virus. Contoh kaspersky, avd, panda dan sebagainya
      • ANTI SPYWARE
      • Perisian yang melindungi komputer daripada perisikan luar melaui atas talian dimana spyware akan mencuri maklumat penting pengguna seperti no pin bank dan sebagainya.
      • FIREWALL
      • Melindungi komputer berdasarkan polisi keselamatan. Boleh berbentuk perkakasan atau perisian. 3 jenisiaitu
      • Screening routers- ringkas, hanya melihat alamat dan jenis protocol.
      • Proxy gateway- rumit, mlihat keseluruhan teks
      • Guard-lebih rumit, juga melihat keseluruhan teks
      • HUMAN ASPECTS
      • Merujuk kepada pengguna dan juga penggangu dalam sistem komputer.
    •  
      • 1.4.1 Impact of ICT on Society
      • 1.4..1.1 Impact of ICT on Society
      • POSITIVE IMPACT
      • Faster communication speed . With the internet, news or message are send via e-mail to anyone efficiently. With the capability of broadband and speed of connection on the internet, any information can be travel faster.
      • Lower communication cost . With the internet, we do not have to pay any basic services provided by in the internet. Furthermore, the cost of the connection to the internet is relatively cheap.
      • I people can share opinion from information through discussion group and forums through internet.
      • I nformation can be stored and retrieved through the digital medium instead of paper. (Paperless environment)
      • Information and communication can be borderless through internet .
      • By using internet, people all around the world can be connected through each other.
      • IMPAK POSITIF
      • Kelajuan komunikasi yang cepat – melalui inernet, berita atau mesej menerusi email akan lebih cepat dan pantas.
      • Kos komuniksi yang rendah – dengan internet, kita tidak perlu membuat pembayaran asas perkhidmatan.
      • Manusia boleh berkongsi maklumat – melalui forum internet
      • Penyimpan maklumat boleh dibuat dan tanpa kertas
      • Dunia tanpa sempadan – dengan internet , manusia boleh berhubung dengan semua orang di dunia dengan mudah
      • NEGATIVE IMPACT
      • Borderless information at time can be negative because it courage people to access pornography and violence website. It can cause low moral values. It also can created problems such as gambling, information theft and fraud.
      • Computers can harms users if they use for long hours frequently
      • KESAN NEGATIF
      • Maklumat tanpa sempadan kadangkala adalah negatif – contohnya menggalakkan pornografi dan keganasan
      • Komputer mengganggu kesihatan jika digunakan terlalu lama.
      • Choose ONE of the following topics:
      • Copyright and Piracy from Moral and Legal Standpoints.
      • Lack of Security and its Effects on Industry/Economy/ Government.
      • Malaysian Cyber Law, Electronic Government Law.
      • Phishing
      • Virus (Trojan Horse, Salami Attack)
      • Hacking
      • Security Measures (Biometrics, Authentication
      • Digital signature act 1997
      • Telemedicine act 1997
      • Computer crime act 1997
      • Communication and multimedia act 19989