Developmental psychology
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An introduction to Developmental Psychology

An introduction to Developmental Psychology

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Developmental psychology Presentation Transcript

  • 1. BA Learning Difficulties/disabilities
    Psychological and Social Development
    Introduction
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    1
  • 2. Psychological Theories
    Cognitive
    Behavioural
    Psychoanalytic
    Humanistic
    Biopsychology
    Social
    Cultural
    Political
    Social Constructionist
    Feminist
    Critical Psychology
    Critical Race
    Post Modernist
    Discursive
    Forensic
    Spiritual
    Developmental
    Narrative
    Community Psychology
    To name but a few...
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    2
    • Challenges the assumption that psychology is a progressive and enabling practice
    • 3. Participant action research
    • 4. Community activism – political engagement
    • 5. Personality as a socio – cultural formation
    • 6. Opened up concepts such as context dependent
    To free from bondage, oppression, or restraint; liberate
    Emancipatory Disability Studies
  • 7. Disability and Psychology
    Disability is not just the physical, sensory or intellectual impairments a person has, but the exclusion from society they face as a result. This book examines the discipline of psychology in this regard. It argues that psychology has tended to ignore the socio-cultural aspects of disability and treat disabled people as objects rather than arbiters of psychological intervention.
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    3
  • 8. Developmental Psychology
    Study of development from birth to old age
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    4
  • 9. Developmental Theories in Psychology
    Development is concerned with the general way that a person functions and the skills that they acquire over time. Changes that constitute development have three defining characteristics:
    Orderly
    Directional or cumulative
    Stable and enduring
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    5
  • 10. Developmental Theories in Psychology
    All human beings share, to a greater or lesser extent, a number of commonalities such as:
    A biological heritage composed of ’species specific behaviours’ such as language
    A common broad rate of development throughout our life cycle
    A common physical and social environment – i.e. family
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    6
  • 11. Normative Development
    Refers to development that is usual or to be expected for a particular age
    Referred to as ‘milestones’ – these indicate what most children can do at a particular age
    Psychologists are interested in individual differences and seek to explain how these come about
    Individual differences can come about due to either
    Genetic differences
    Social or Environmental determinants
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    7
  • 12. What is developmental Psychology?
    Study of development from birth to old age
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    8
    Children construct their own knowledge in
    response to their experiences
    all individual differences in behaviour are due to different experiences of learning
    the goal of all behaviour is the reduction of tension through the release of energy, which produces pleasure
    Approaches
    1
    I have called this principle... Natural Selection
    Watson
    3
    Darwin
    2
    4
    Piaget
    Freud
    Behaviourism
    Biopsychology
    Psychodynamic
    Cognitive
  • 13. Influences on development
    The Ecology of Development – ‘ecology’ meaning the environmental conditions which a person experiences or is affected by, directly or indirectly – see Bronfenbrenner’s work (1979)
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    9
  • 14. Social and Emotional Development
    Developmental psychologists who are interested in this aspect of development examine how individuals develop social and emotional competencies
    Friendships
    Understanding and dealing with emotions
    Development of identity
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    10
  • 15. Contributions to psychology
    Developmental Psychology have helped Psychologists to understand:
    How children learn.
    The development of abstract thought.
    The development and variety of attachments.
    The development of language
    The effects of maternal deprivation and privation.
    The effects of day care on children’s cognitive and social development.
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    11
  • 16. Early socialisation
    The significance
    of attachment –
    implications for
    later social and
    emotional
    development –
    Bowlby (1969)
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    12
  • 17. Approaches to social development
    The Psychodynamic approach – Freud – neo-Freudian Erikson
    The Learning theory approach – Watson, Pavlov, Thorndike, Skinner, Bandura – Social Learning Theory
    The Cognitive-developmental approach – social cognition – self-concept – gender role development – development of moral reasoning
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    13
  • 18. Social behaviour
    Moral development – psychodynamic, learning theory and cognitive-developmental approaches – effects of parenting style, peer groups and wider social influences
    Gender role development
    Understanding of the ‘self’ and that of the minds of other people (Theory of Mind)
    The development of self-esteem
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    14
  • 19. Cognitive Development
    Piaget’s (1936/1952) theory of cognitive development
    Vygotsky
    Brunner
    The measurement of intelligence
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    15
  • 20. Adolescence and Adulthood
    Physical and psychological changes during adolescence
    Factors that influence personality and social development during adolescence
    Theories of development and change during early, middle and later adulthood
    Impact of particular life events during adulthood – marriage, parenting, divorce, unemployment, retirement, bereavement and death
    15/08/2011
    Sue Chowdhry
    16