INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Frequently misunderstood, and too often overlooked and misdiagnosed, thyroid disease affects almost every aspect of health, so understanding more about the thyroid, and the symptoms that occur when something goes wrong with this small gland, can help you protect or regain good health. </li></ul><ul><li>Women are at the greatest risk, developing thyroid problems seven times more often than men, a risk that increases with age and for those with a family history of thyroid problems. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
THYROID’S LOCATION AND ITS ROLE…. <ul><li>Thyroid is a small bowtie or butterfly-shaped gland, located in your neck, wrapped around the windpipe, behind and below the Adam's Apple area. </li></ul><ul><li>The thyroid produces several hormones, of which two are main: triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4). These hormones help oxygen get into cells, and make your thyroid the master gland of metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>The thyroid is the only cells in the body capable of absorbing iodine. The thyroid takes in iodine, obtained through food, iodized salt, or supplements, and combines it with the amino acid tyrosine. </li></ul><ul><li>The thyroid then converts the iodine & tyrosine into the hormones T3 and T4. The "3" and the "4" refer to the number of iodine molecules in each thyroid hormone molecule. </li></ul><ul><li>When it's in good condition, of all the hormone produced by your thyroid, 80% will be T4 and 20% T3. T3 is considered the biologically more active hormone -- the one that actually functions at the cellular level and is also considered several times stronger than T4. </li></ul><ul><li>Once released by the thyroid, the T3 and T4 travel through the bloodstream. The purpose is to help cells convert oxygen and calories into energy . </li></ul>
<ul><li>As mentioned, the thyroid produces some T3. But the rest of the T3 needed by the body is actually formed from the mostly inactive T4 by a process sometimes referred to as "T4 to T3 conversion ." </li></ul><ul><li>This conversion of T4 to T3 can take place in some organs other than the thyroid, including the hypothalamus, a part of your brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The thyroid is part of a huge feedback process. The hypothalamus in the brain releases Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone (TRH). </li></ul><ul><li>The release of TRH tells the pituitary gland to release Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH). This TSH, circulating in your bloodstream, is what tells the thyroid to make thyroid hormones and release them into your bloodstream. </li></ul>
CAUSES OF THYROID DISEASE <ul><li>Exposure to radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Over consumption of isoflavone-intensive soy products , such as soy protein, capsules, and powders </li></ul><ul><li>Some drugs, such as lithium and the heart drug cordarone , can cause hypothyroidism. </li></ul><ul><li>An overconsumption or shortage of iodine in the diet can also trigger some thyroid problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation treatment to head, neck, chest, tonsils, adenoids, lymph nodes, thymus gland problems, or acne. </li></ul><ul><li>Overconsumption of uncooked foods , such as brussels sprouts, broccoli, turnips, radishes, cauliflower, cabbage and kale </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical treatments for thyroid cancer, goiter, or nodules , in which all or part of the thyroid is removed, leave you hypothyroid </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactive iodine treatment (RAI) for Graves' disease and hyperthyroidism typically leave patients hypothyroid </li></ul>
RISK FACTORS <ul><li>… You have a family member with a thyroid problem …You have another pituitary or endocrine disease …You or a family member have another autoimmune disease …You've been diagnosed with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome …You've been diagnosed with Fibromyalgia …You're female …You're over 60 …You've just had a baby …You're near menopause or menopausal …You're a smoker …You've been exposed to radiation …You've been treated with lithium …You've been exposed to certain chemicals (i.e., perchlorate, fluoride) </li></ul>
HYPERTHYRODISM <ul><li>When the thyroid gland becomes overactive and produces too </li></ul><ul><li>much thyroid hormone, a person is said to be hyperthyroid. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is the autoimmune condition known as Graves' disease , where antibodies target thegland and cause it to speed up hormone production. </li></ul>
DIAGNOSIS LOW LOW HIGH NORMAL T4 LOW HIGH LOW NORMAL TSH
<ul><li>Autoimmune Thyroid Disease </li></ul><ul><li>Most thyroid dysfunction such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism is due to autoimmune thyroid disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Autoimmune disease refers to a condition where the body's natural ability to differentiate between its tissues, organs and glands, vs. outside bacteria, viruses or pathogens, becomes disrupted. </li></ul><ul><li>This causes the immune system to wrongly mount an attack on the affected area, by producing antibodies. </li></ul><ul><li>In the case of autoimmune thyroid disease, antibodies either gradually destroy the thyroid, or make it overactive. </li></ul>
Goiter/Thyroid Nodules <ul><li>Sometimes the thyroid becomes enlarged due to Hashimoto's disease, Graves' disease, nutritional deficiencies, or other thyroid imbalances. When the thyroid become enlarged, this is known as a goiter. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people develop solid or liquid filled cysts, lumps, bumps and tumors, both benign and cancerous in the thyroid gland. These are known as thyroid nodules. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Thyroid Cancer </li></ul><ul><li>A small percentage of thyroid nodules are cancerous. Even thyroid cancer is a rare cancer, but it's on the rise now. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroiditis </li></ul><ul><li>When the thyroid becomes inflamed, due to bacterial or viral illness, this is known as thyroiditis. </li></ul>
TREATMENT <ul><li>Surgery is usually performed for thyroid cancer, for some cases of goiter or nodule, and less commonly, as a hyperthyroidism treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid drugs are an important part of treatment for many patients. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment of Graves’ disease and hyperthyrodism considers anti thyroid drug treatment, radioactive iodine ablation, and surgery for an overactive thyroid </li></ul>
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