The origins of the trojan war


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The origins of the trojan war

  1. 1. The Origins of the Trojan War Greek Mythology
  2. 2. Foundations <ul><li>Several mythic founders </li></ul><ul><li>Ilus most accepted story – Ilium </li></ul><ul><li>Ilus given cow and told found city where it lay </li></ul><ul><li>Additional sign – legless wooden statue called Palladium </li></ul><ul><li>Should be carefully guarded – brought empire </li></ul><ul><li>Statue of Athene? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Mythical reasons for Trojan War <ul><li>Zeus wanted to thin out human race </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus wanted to make whole world aware of daughter Helen </li></ul><ul><li>OR give her immortal fame as cause of war </li></ul><ul><li>OR give second generation of heroes chance to achieve fame – no monsters </li></ul><ul><li>Fate decided survivors of Troy should found Rome </li></ul>
  4. 4. King Priam and his children <ul><li>King Priam and his wife Hecabe </li></ul><ul><li>Hector – the greatest warrior of Troy – slain by Achilles – married to Andromache </li></ul><ul><li>Deiphobus and Helenus. Deiphobus awarded Helen as wife after Paris dies </li></ul><ul><li>Troilus and Polyxena young and beautiful – killed by Achilles </li></ul><ul><li>Cassandra given the gift of prophecy by Apollo </li></ul><ul><li>Creusa married Aeneas </li></ul>
  5. 5. Paris <ul><li>Son of Priam and Hecabe </li></ul><ul><li>Hecabe dreamed she gave birth to a branch alive with fiery snakes which set Troy ablaze </li></ul><ul><li>Aesacus the prophet interpreted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priam should destroy Hecabe’s child or lead to Troy’s destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cilla’s baby killed – Priam did not think it necessary to kill Hecabe’s as well </li></ul><ul><li>Baby abandoned at Mt Ida. </li></ul><ul><li>Herdsmen returned and found child alive (suckled by She-Bear) </li></ul><ul><li>Took baby and bought him up as his own </li></ul><ul><li>Paris grew up as a cowherd </li></ul><ul><li>Handsome, intelligent, atheletic, charming, but not courageous </li></ul><ul><li>Adept with bow and arrow </li></ul><ul><li>Became lover of nymph Oenone </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Judgement of Paris <ul><li>Zeus to marry Thetis </li></ul><ul><li>Changed mind when heard that she was destined to bear a son greater than the father </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus married her to a mortal – Peleus </li></ul><ul><li>Wedding of Thetis and Peleus attended by most immortals </li></ul><ul><li>Eris, goddess of Discord threw golden apple inscribed ‘for the fairest’ </li></ul><ul><li>Zeus selected Paris to be judge of beauty contest </li></ul><ul><li>Hera, Athene, Aphrodite </li></ul><ul><li>Hera promised great and wealthy king </li></ul><ul><li>Athene offered wisdom and military glory </li></ul><ul><li>Aphrodite offered Aphrodite’s half sister – Helen </li></ul><ul><li>Aphrodite won </li></ul><ul><li>Angered Hera and Athene </li></ul>
  7. 7. Return and Abduction <ul><li>Return </li></ul><ul><li>Paris competed in games at Troy </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted attention </li></ul><ul><li>Priam’s sons attack out of jealousy </li></ul><ul><li>Herdsman told Priam that he was the son believed dead </li></ul><ul><li>Priam warned but still welcomed him back </li></ul><ul><li>Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Paris embarked on voyage to Greece </li></ul><ul><li>Reached Sparta and welcomed by Menelaus </li></ul><ul><li>Menelaus sailed to Crete </li></ul><ul><li>Paris and Helen took off </li></ul><ul><li>Trojans would not give her back </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Greeks Sail to Troy <ul><li>King Menelaus of Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>Brother – Agamemnon, King of Mycenae Commander in Chief </li></ul><ul><li>Great force of heroes and followers gathered </li></ul><ul><li>Sacrifice of Agamenon’s daughter Iphigenia secured required west wind </li></ul>
  9. 9. Greek Heroes - Achilles <ul><li>Son of Peleus and Thetis </li></ul><ul><li>Strongest, most ruthless and most successful </li></ul><ul><li>Dysfunctional family </li></ul><ul><li>Thetis made him invulnerable by dipping him in the river Styx (underworld) </li></ul><ul><li>Fingers prevented her water from reaching two tiny places on ankle (Achilles heel) </li></ul><ul><li>Educated by Chiron (centaur) </li></ul><ul><li>Had been one of Helen’s suitors </li></ul><ul><li>Two versions of reasons for involvement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thetis knew he would die at Troy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disguised him as a women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discovered by Odysseues who blew horn and Achilles took up arms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Now obliged to go </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other version says prophet told Achilles that he might have a short and glorious life or a long life in total obscurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chose the latter </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Greek Heroes - Ajax <ul><li>Second most powerful warrior </li></ul><ul><li>Cousin of Achilles </li></ul><ul><li>Enormous man with great strength, courage and fighting skill </li></ul><ul><li>Not bright </li></ul><ul><li>Lacked guile and persuasive tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Put him at a disadvantage when dealing with chief rival - Odysseus </li></ul>
  11. 11. Odysseus <ul><li>Best known for his cunning </li></ul><ul><li>King of Ithaca </li></ul><ul><li>Not happy about Troy summons </li></ul><ul><li>Had heard a prophecy that if he went he would not return for twenty years, alone and destitute beggar </li></ul><ul><li>Pretended to be insane – ploughed seashore </li></ul><ul><li>Palamedes put down Telemachus in front of plow </li></ul><ul><li>Odysseus stopped – proved he wasn’t insane </li></ul><ul><li>Meant he had to go </li></ul>