England 1558 16672

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England 1558 16672

  1. 1. Elizabeth I to Charles II The story
  2. 2. Elizabeth I 1558-1603 <ul><li>Father Henry VIII established Protestant Church </li></ul><ul><li>Sister Mary I moved England back to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Eliz succeeds Mary 1558 </li></ul><ul><li>Elizabeth Religious settlement took the National Church back to Protestantism </li></ul><ul><li>Act of Supremacy and Uniformity </li></ul><ul><li>Major powers France and Spain were Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>Supported Mary Queen of Scots case as Queen of England </li></ul><ul><li>She fled Scotland 1568 and was imprisoned by Elizabeth </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout her reign Eliz suppressed plots against her </li></ul><ul><li>Executed Mary Queen of Scots in 1587 </li></ul><ul><li>Famous attempted invasion by the Spanish in 1588 </li></ul>
  3. 3. James I (VI) 1603-1625 <ul><li>Well-educated and experienced </li></ul><ul><li>King of Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Son of Mary Queen of Scots </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounded himself with favourites </li></ul><ul><li>Big spender </li></ul><ul><li>Kept peace in foreign affairs – Religious Wars in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Protestant – but attempted to be moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Gunpowder Plot 1605 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Charles I 1625-1649 <ul><li>Unpopular with parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Religious issues – supported Arminianism </li></ul><ul><li>1629 Charles decided to rule without parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Rule lasted until 1640 </li></ul><ul><li>Unpopular methods to gain finance </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion broke out in Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>Needed money so reluctantly called parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Mistrust between crown and parliament led to Civil War in 1642 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Civil War 1642-49 <ul><li>Royalists vs Parliamentarians </li></ul><ul><li>Royalists initially held upper hand </li></ul><ul><li>Missed opportunities lengthened war </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament had superior resources and organisation and won in the end </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament hoped to reach an agreement with Charles and restore monarchy </li></ul><ul><li>Many army leaders convinced he couldn’t be trusted </li></ul><ul><li>Executed </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Interregnum 1649-1660 <ul><li>Problems of executive power </li></ul><ul><li>Early experiments failed </li></ul><ul><li>Lord Protector – Oliver Cromwell </li></ul><ul><li>Army a key force </li></ul><ul><li>Never gained popular support </li></ul><ul><li>When Cromwell died in 1558 it quickly collapsed </li></ul>
  7. 7. Restoration 1660-1667 <ul><li>Charles II restored to throne </li></ul><ul><li>Did not have same powers of previous monarchs </li></ul><ul><li>Anglican Church restored </li></ul><ul><li>Restoration a time when literature, art and science flourished </li></ul><ul><li>1665-66 plague and Great Fire of London </li></ul>

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