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  • 1. Elizabeth I to Charles II The story
  • 2. Elizabeth I 1558-1603
    • Father Henry VIII established Protestant Church
    • Sister Mary I moved England back to Catholicism
    • Eliz succeeds Mary 1558
    • Elizabeth Religious settlement took the National Church back to Protestantism
    • Act of Supremacy and Uniformity
    • Major powers France and Spain were Catholic
    • Supported Mary Queen of Scots case as Queen of England
    • She fled Scotland 1568 and was imprisoned by Elizabeth
    • Throughout her reign Eliz suppressed plots against her
    • Executed Mary Queen of Scots in 1587
    • Famous attempted invasion by the Spanish in 1588
  • 3. James I (VI) 1603-1625
    • Well-educated and experienced
    • King of Scotland
    • Son of Mary Queen of Scots
    • Surrounded himself with favourites
    • Big spender
    • Kept peace in foreign affairs – Religious Wars in Europe
    • Protestant – but attempted to be moderate
    • Gunpowder Plot 1605
  • 4. Charles I 1625-1649
    • Unpopular with parliament
    • Religious issues – supported Arminianism
    • 1629 Charles decided to rule without parliament
    • Personal Rule lasted until 1640
    • Unpopular methods to gain finance
    • Rebellion broke out in Scotland
    • Needed money so reluctantly called parliament
    • Mistrust between crown and parliament led to Civil War in 1642
  • 5. Civil War 1642-49
    • Royalists vs Parliamentarians
    • Royalists initially held upper hand
    • Missed opportunities lengthened war
    • Parliament had superior resources and organisation and won in the end
    • Parliament hoped to reach an agreement with Charles and restore monarchy
    • Many army leaders convinced he couldn’t be trusted
    • Executed
  • 6. The Interregnum 1649-1660
    • Problems of executive power
    • Early experiments failed
    • Lord Protector – Oliver Cromwell
    • Army a key force
    • Never gained popular support
    • When Cromwell died in 1558 it quickly collapsed
  • 7. Restoration 1660-1667
    • Charles II restored to throne
    • Did not have same powers of previous monarchs
    • Anglican Church restored
    • Restoration a time when literature, art and science flourished
    • 1665-66 plague and Great Fire of London