SCIENTIFIC SKILLS SCIENCE PROCESS MANIPULATIVE SKILLS SKILLS •Observing Using and handling science •Classifying apparatus •Measuring and using numbers Maintaining science •Making inferences apparatus correctly and safely •Predicting Cleaning science apparatus correctly •Communicating Handling specimen correctlyUsing time and space relationship,Interpreting data, Define and carefullyoperationally, Controlling variables, Sketch specimen and scienceMaking hypothesis, Experimenting apparatus
WHAT ARE SCIENCE PROCESSSKILLS? How a scientist works, thinks and studies problems. (Friedl, 1995)
WHAT ARE SCIENCE PROCESSSKILLS? A way of investigation that involves specific skills which require the following steps: Planning course of actions Carrying out activities Collecting data Organising and interpreting data Reaching a conclusion
BASIC SCIENCE PROCESSSKILLS OBSERVING CLASSIFYING MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS MAKING INFERENCES PREDICTING COMMUNICATING
You are observing whenyou are …
What is meant by observing ? Observing involves collecting information about objects or phenomenon by using the five senses : Sight Hearing Touch Taste Smell
Why do we need to observe? To compile / gather as much information as possible about objects or phenomena.
How do we observe?1. Focus on the objects or phenomena to be studied.2. Identify the characteristics.3. Compare the objects or phenomena.4. Identify changes and sequence of events.5. Use appropriate apparatus for more detailed observations.
You are classifyingwhen you are….
What is meant by classifying? Classifying is a process of grouping objects according to certain characteristics for a purpose.
When do we need to classify? When there are : • Many items or information. • Items or information are not organised.
How do we classify? 1. Identify the general characteristics of the items. 2. Sort out items of the same characteristic into their respective groups. 3. Identify other characteristics. 4. Repeat steps 1-3 until there is only one item in each group.
MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS
You are measuring andusing numberswhen you are….
What is meant by measuring andusing numbers? Measuring and using numbers is a process of observing quantitatively using numbers and standard or standardised measuring tools as the reference unit.
Why do we need to measure and usenumbers?To obtain more accurate observations.
How do we measure and use numbers?1. Identify the measurement required.2. Specify the instrument to be used.3. Compare the measurement with the specific instrument.4. Add up the total measurement.
You are making inferenceswhen you are ….
Why do we need to infer?1. To plan actions or to make a choice.2. To analyse the cause and effect of decisions
How do we infer?• Observe the situations or circumstances.• State the reason why the situation or circumstances happens .• Give reasons to your statement(s).• Check if the reasons given are based on opinions or observations from the situations. If based on opinions, state why.
What is meant by makinginferences? Making inferences is a process of making early conclusions by relating previous experiences with immediate observations.
You are predicting whenyou are….1. Using previous or present evidence to state incoming events.2. Able to differentiate between prediction and guessing.3. Able to determine the outcomes from an action.4. Using pattern of data explicitly to make projections.
You are predicting when you are….5. Confident with the accuracy of the prediction.6. Able to verify a statement of related to future events based on evidence or past experiences.
You are predicting whenyou are…. 7. Being cautious in making assumption about a certain pattern of data beyond the evidence at hand. 8. Extrapolating and inserting data as a tool to predict.
Why do we need to predict?When accuracy is not essential in:ii. Reducing the number of choice.iii. Planningiv. Considering choices
How do we predict?i. Observe to gather data.ii. Identify the pattern of the data.iii. Based on the pattern or past experiences, make suitable predictions.
What is meant by predicting? Predicting is a process of forecasting events based on observations and previous experiences or certain pattern of reliable data.
You are communicatingwhen you are….1. Speaking, listening or writing to express ideas or meanings.2. Recording information from investigations.3. Drawing and making notes.4. Using and explaining the meaning of symbols.
You are communicatingwhen you are….5. Using charts, graphs and tables to present information.6. Posting questions clearly.7. Using references.8. Writing experiment report to enable others to repeat the experiment.
Why do we need tocommunicate?To spread ideas or information.To share ideas or information.
How do we communicate ?2. Record information obtained from various resources.3. Translate the information into other forms such as charts, graphs and tables.4. Spread the information through various means and ways.
What is meant by communicating? Communicating is a process of receiving, spreading and sharing of information and ideas.
Making statements to explain the meaning of thevarious data collected. Quantity of Time taken to salt dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
Able to identify pattern from the informationgathered. Quantity of Time taken to salt dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
Defining terms using personal experiences. Green Mango to yellow Ripe No smell Jackfruit to sweet smell
Making statements to describe what isdone and observed. A complete Acid circuit
Control variables Volume of waterSize of salt Rate of stir Temperature of water
Identify variables in an investigation (manipulated and responding variables) Volume of waterSize of salt Rate of stir Temperature of water
Identify fixed variables Volume of waterSize of salt Rate of stir Temperature of water
Suggest suitable explanations in line with theevidence at hand Quantity of Time taken to sugar dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
Suggest suitable explanations in line with theprinciples and concepts of science. Quantity of Time taken to sugar dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
Using previous knowledge to make explanations Quantity of Time taken to sugar dissolve 5 spoons 10 min 3 spoons 5 min 1 spoon 2 min
Aware that there are more than oneexplanation for events.Aware that the explanation is just a suggestion.
1. Determine the variables that should bemanipulated and fixed.2. Carry out activities by changing variables3. Using appropriate apparatus.4. Making conclusion from collected data
ExampleL.A. 1. microorganismL.O. 1.1 Understanding that microorganism is a living thingL.Out 1. Pupils should be able to state types of microorganism.SLA 1)Pupils view video showing various types of microorganism.(SPS-Observing) 2)Pupils discuss that yeast is an example of microorganism.(SPS-Communicating) 60
TaskGroup 1 – LA 1.Microorganism LO 1.1Group 2 – LA 1.Microorganism LO 1.2Group 3 – LA 2.Survival of The Species LO 2.1Group 4 – LA 2. Survival of The Species LO 2.2 & 2.3Group 5 – LA 3. Food Chain & Food Web LO 3.1Group 6 - LA 3 Food Chain & Food Web LO 3.2Group 7 – LA 1 Energy LO 1.1Group 8 – LA 1 Energy LO 1.2Group 9 – LA 1 Energy LO 1.3Group 10 – LA Electricitry LO 2.1 & 2.2Group 11- LA Electricity LO 2.3Group 12 – LA 3 Light LO 3.1 61