Cervical Cancer Presentation from Research india...


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Cervical Cancer Presentation from Research india...

  2. 2. About This Presentation  In this presentation, you will learn about old and new methods of cervical cancer screening .  We hope that this presentation will help women to take an active part in their health.  It does not replace a doctor’s diagnosis or treatment.
  3. 3. GETTING STARTED WITH 3rd MOST COMMON CANCER AMONG WOMAN  Cervical cancer is a terrible disease that kills 280,000 women's year worldwide, mostly in less developed countries in Africa Asia & Latin America.  Which van lead of cervical cancer over time. The HVP vaccine is based on virus-like particles (VLPs). VLPs, like real human papillomaviruses,have the same outer protein coat .unlike real human papillomaviruses VLPs Carry no genetic material inside . The VLP based vaccine prevents.HPV infection from triggering cervical cancer by inducing a strong protective immune response.  Human papilloma virus (HPV) is the most common Sexually Transmitted virus in the united states .At least 70% of sexually active persons will be infected with genital HPV at some time in their lives .HPV infects both men & women.
  4. 4. INFECTION IS SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED  Any who has ever had genital contact with another person infected with HPV can get the infection & can pass in to another person. Since the virus can be silent for many years, a person can have genital HPV even if years have passed since he or she had sex.  High-risk HPV on the other hand may trigger an infection that leads to cervical cancer. The majority of infections with high-risk .HPVs clear up on their own .same infections persist without causing any additional abnormal cell changes.however,a few infections causes by high-risk HPV end up triggering cervical cancer over many years.
  5. 5. The Cervix  The cervix is part of a woman’s reproductive system. It’s in the pelvis. The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb).  The cervix is a passageway:  The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina. During a menstrual period, blood flows from the uterus through the cervix into the vagina. The vagina leads to the outside of the body.  The cervix makes mucus. During sex, mucus helps sperm move from the vagina through the cervix into the uterus.  During pregnancy, the cervix is tightly closed to help keep the baby inside the uterus. During childbirth, the cervix opens to allow the baby to pass through the vagina.
  6. 6. Cancer Cells  Cancer begins in cells, the building blocks that make up tissues. Tissues make up the cervix and other organs of the body. New cells form when the body does not need them, and old or damaged cells do not die as they should. The buildup of extra cells often forms a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.  Growths on the cervix can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer):  Benign growths (polyps, cysts, or genital warts): are not harmful don’t invade the tissues around them  Malignant growths (cervical cancer): may sometimes be a threat to life can invade nearby tissues and organs can spread to other parts of the body.
  7. 7.  Cervical cancer begins in cells on the surface of the cervix. Over time, the cervical cancer can invade more deeply into the cervix and nearby tissues.  Cervical cancer cells can spread by breaking away from the cervical tumor. They can travel through lymph vessels to nearby lymph nodes. Also, cancer cells can spread through the blood vessels to the lungs, liver, or bones.
  8. 8. VIRUS PENETRATES CERVIX  Both harmless & cancer linked human papillomaviruses pass by skin-to-skin contact. The high-risk type of HPV need to penetrate deeply in to the lining of the cervix to establish a chronic infection. A vaginal sore or sex. Which can abrade the lining , may provide a point of entry for the pepillomaviruses.  Once inside the cervical lining, the virus attaches to epithelial cells. As these cells take in nutrients and other molecules that are normally present in their environment , they also take in the virus. Over 99 percent of cervical cancer cases are linked to long- term infections with high-risk human papillomaviruses.
  9. 9. VIRUS UNCOATS  The HPV sits inside the epithelial cells housed in a protective shell made of a viral protein called L1. After the virus enter the cell the virus coat is degraded, leading to the released of the virus genetic material in to the cell & its nucleus. From the nucleus, the genes of the virus are expressed, including two genes called E6 and E7, which instruct the cell to build viral proteins called E6 and E7.
  10. 10. VIRUS DISABLES SUPPRESSORS  Viral proteins E6 and E7. then disable the normal activities of the women's own suppressor proteins that do “Damage surveillance” in normal cells. These proteins usually stop cell growth when a serious level of unrepaired genetic damage exits. Even after suppressors are disabled in women's cervical cancer cells, it usually take more then 10 year before the affected tissue becomes cancerous
  11. 11. VIRUS-LIKE PARTICALS (VLPs)  The VLPs in the HPVs vaccine, like the real human papillomaviruses have the same outer L1 protein coat, but they have no genetic material inside. This structure enables the vaccine to induce a strong protective immune response.  L1 proteins shell & hence after creating in action for release of genetic material in ending E6 and E7.
  12. 12. Risk Factors  A risk factor is something that may increase the chance of developing a disease.  Studies have found that infection with the virus called HPV is the cause of almost all cervical cancers. Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time in their lives, but most infections clear up on their own. An HPV infection that doesn’t go away can cause cervical cancer in some women.
  13. 13. Symptoms  Early cervical cancers usually don’t cause symptoms. When the cancer grows larger, women may notice abnormal vaginal bleeding:  Bleeding that occurs between regular menstrual periods  Bleeding after sexual intercourse, douching, or a pelvic exam  Menstrual periods that last longer and are heavier than before  Bleeding after going through menopause  Women may also notice…  Increased vaginal discharge  Pelvic pain  Pain during sex…. Cervical cancer, infections, or other health problems may cause these symptoms. A woman with any of these symptoms should tell her doctor so that problems can be diagnosed and treated as early as possible.
  14. 14. TYPES: ORIGIN OF CANCER  Cervical cancer types  Squamous  Cancer of flat epithelial cell -80 % to 90 %  Adenocarcinomas  Cancer arising from glandular epithelium -10% to 20%  Mixed  Futures both types.
  15. 15. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS TREATMENT  There are over 100 types of human papilloma virus (HPVs) that infect humans of these ,more then 40 types infect the genitals and the anus( anogenitaltract ) between men and women and cause genital warts known as condylomata acuminate or genital warts. A subset of HPV that infect the anogenital tract may lead to changes in the precancerous cervical and uterine cancer, cervical cancer.  As of June 8TH 2006 a vaccine for the human papilloma virus has been developed. It can protect a person form the initial infection of the HPV type 16 to 18. The vaccine also give immunity for 90% of genital warts. These vaccine however have no effect what so ever to patients who are already infected with the human papilloma virus.
  16. 16. HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS PREVENTION.  Other preventive measure in acquiring HPV is through the practice of safe sex specifically with the use of condom. For women it is best to avoid cigarette or tobacco are carcinogens on the risk of a women to develop cervical cancer especially when the human papilloma virus is present.  The human papilloma virus vaccine prevents infection with certain species of human papilloma virus associated with the development of cervical cancer, genital warts and some less common cancer.
  17. 17. THE VACCINATION:  The vaccination protects a person from future infection by the HPV high-risk types that can lead to cancer. It is not a vaccine against cancer it self but it stops. A person receives a series of three shots over a 6- month period , second shot within one month duration from receiving first dose of HPVs.  Health professionals inject these virus –like particles in to muscle tissue. Once inside, these particles trigger a strong immune response so the vaccinated persons body make and stockpiles antibodies that can recognize and attack the L1 protein on the surface of HPV viruses.
  18. 18. DIAGNOSIS :  The diagnosis of cervical cancer is not easy before it reaches an advanced stage as there are no definite signs of the condition. Also, signs such as vaginal bleeding, unexplained change in menstrual cycle, abnormal vaginal discharge and discomfort during intercourse are often confused with other conditions. It has been found that half cases of cervical cancer are diagnosed when the cancer is confined to the cervix, and about 35 percent are diagnosed after the cancer has spread to the adjacent areas or the lymph nodes. Then about 10 percent of the cases are diagnosed when this cancer has spread to distant regions.
  19. 19. THE PAP TEST :  Papanicolaou (Pap) Smear is a test used to detect cancerous cells in the cervix early. It also helps detect pre-cancerous conditions. The test is usually conducted during a pelvic exam. During a Pap smear, a cell sample from the cervix is taken with a small wooden spatula or brush and examined under the microscope. If the results are normal, no further evaluation is recommended  Papanicolaou smear or Pap smear is a screening test for cervical cancer. It is used to detect cancerous cells in the cervix early, as well as to detect abnormal cells in the cervix before they become cancerous. The cervix is the lower part of the womb, situated above the vagina. It is a painless test for most women done in a doctor’s clinic during a pelvic exam.
  20. 20.  Lab Tests: The doctor or nurse scrapes a sample of cells from the cervix. For a Pap test, the lab checks the sample for cervical cancer cells or abnormal cells that could become cancer later if not treated. For an HPV test, the same sample is tested for HPV infection. HPV can cause cell changes and cervical cancer.  Cervical Exam: The doctor uses a colposcope to look at the cervix. The colposcope combines a bright light with a magnifying lens to make tissue easier to see. This exam is usually done in the doctor’s office or clinic.  Tissue Sample: The removal of tissue to look for cancer cells is a biopsy. Most women have cervical tissue removed in the doctor’s office, and usually only local anesthesia is needed.
  21. 21. NUTRITION : Cancer treatments may make you tired or uninterested in food. But it's important to take in enough calories to maintain a healthy weight. Check with a dietitian for tips on eating well during cancer treatment. Staying active is also important. Gentle exercise can increase your energy while reducing nausea and stress. Check with your doctor to find out which activities are appropriate for you. Vitamin A is Associated with lower risk as is Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin E and Beta- Caroten.
  23. 23. THANK YOU ALL!