Biogas can be generated from biomass, manure, sewage, municipal waste, green waste and energy crops.
An ideal waste management program should cover all the aspects of waste management as shown above right from prevention of waste to disposal. Our project takes care of at least the following five: minimisation, reuse, recycling, energy recovery and disposal. This leads to following value propositions: improved sanitation, availability of energy at cheaper cost, reduction of green house effect, production of manure as a by product.
The project would be implemented in following four stages: Start as a pilot project in colleges at individual level. The feed used would only be human excreta at this stage. Expand reach to various residential societies. Feed stll human excreta only. Improve the technology and expand the feed base to include various other waste as well like municipal waste, green waste etc. Keep expanding in various areas to become the number one waste management project in the country or probably the world.
Problems<br />Problem 1<br />Significant increase in the MSW (Municipal solid waste) generation in India due to rapid population growth and economic development in the country.<br />MSW generation expected to go up exponentially in the future. Some estimates say that the total waste quantity generated in 2047 would be approximately above 260 million tonnes —more than five times the present level.<br />Un-collected garbage poses serious health hazards apart from being eyesores. <br />Municipalities face resource constraints and general in-efficiencies in coping with this problem.<br />Problem 2<br />Energy situation in the country: shortfall as demand rises and supply can’t match up.<br />This situation is leading to rising prices. (More than 230% price hike in last decade itself.)<br />With the current rate of consumption we may soon run out of fossil fuels.<br />
One solution for both problems<br />Plan to start installation of biogas units in all residential colleges, large societies and other places like prisons and hospitals where considerable amount of human excreta and other waste like sewage, municipal waste, green waste etc is available on a consistent basis.<br />Generated gas (eg. Approx 1000 people excreta = 30 m3) can be then used for the cooking, lighting purposes in the same institution/society.<br />
Value proposition<br />Improved sanitation<br />Availability of energy at a cheaper cost<br />Reduction of green house effect<br />Production of manure as a by product<br />
Financial Projections<br />Looking into the financial aspects: (Case Study: ABC College, Students Mess) and considering only human excreta as the used feed for the moment.<br />With excreta of around 1000 people, 30 m3 of biogas can be produced. <br />The current usage of LPG cylinder in mess is 8 per day which is 0.102 m3 of liquid gas that converts to 47 m3 of butane (1 kg LPG = 406 litres butane gas).<br />In terms of calorific value, 1 m3 of biogas is equivalent to 1.5 m3 of LPG so we need 47/1.5 m3 i.e. 31.3 m3 of biogas. Hence 30 m3 of bio gas production would be enough for the cooking purposes.<br />Cost of the Sulabh effluent system (developed by Sulabh International comes to around 10 lakhs for a 30 m3 facility) and the civil work somewhere around 20 lakhs. (Assuming that the old waste disposal system has to be completely modified). <br />Break Even: 5.47 years for the institute, and the profit that our organization can generate from one such project is INR 10 lakhs (minimum).<br />
Market Potential<br />Current target groups as can be identified are:<br />Colleges with hostel facility: 1000+ nos. in India <br />Major Hospitals: 100 nos. in India<br />Major Residential Societies: 1000+ nos. In India (minimum)<br />Prisons (already implemented in Rwanda): Approx. 20 <br />Considering above profitability, market potential (in profits): 2120*10,00,000= Rs 212,00,00,000 <br />The various advantages that can be seen are <br />One time capital investment with profitability in 6 years and only profits with minimal cost incurring thereafter <br />Insulation from inflation and rising LPG costs <br />The most environmentally green technology and less stress on non- renewable source like LPG.<br />
Novelty of Idea <br />Generating biogas from waste is an old concept now, but it has not been implemented on a large scale in cities, due to easy availability of LPG. <br />With depleting reserves, the idea of biogas should be extended beyond rural areas. <br />Since the educational institutions, hospitals etc. provide easy availability of the feed the idea can easily be implemented here to start with. Not been done in any of the educational institutions so far. <br />Plan is replicable, but market potential is huge so the opportunities are immense. <br />Impact on Society:<br />This solution of biogas is a radical change that ensures greener society with reduced costs over the longer period of time. <br />If we aggregate the waste collection by government provided sanitation initiative we achieve a twofold objective of improved sanitation and energy production thus resulting in an improved standard of living and prosperous future.<br />