Pollution Control

20,206 views
19,633 views

Published on

Pollution control

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
2 Comments
13 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
20,206
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
6
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
697
Comments
2
Likes
13
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Pollution Control

  1. 1. Important reminders: Presentation on Honors course 3 & 4 October @ 13:15 in Science Centre, Westville Campus !!!!!!! Hons. Applications close 31 October for admission in 2008!!!!!
  2. 2. Download Biol347 PowerPoint presentations: http://marinesci.ukzn.ac.za/documents/ and choose the BIOL347 folder REMEMBER: Each week’s presentations will only be available after the Tuesday lecture. Presentation only provide the framework, please do some extra reading on each subject – you are expected to do 68 hours of self-study during the course of the semester, i.e. about 5 hours per week
  3. 3. The Environment and People Overview of Environmental science Human Population growth The Environment Live on Earth The Biosphere: Populations, Communities, Ecosystems and Biogeochemical cycles The distribution of Live on Earth The dynamic earth and Natural Hazards Resource use and management People and natural resources Fundamentals of energy, fossil fuels, nuclear energy Renewable and alternative energy sources Water resources Conserving Biological Resources Land Resources and management Food and Soil Resources Dealing with Environmental Degradation Principles of Pollution control, Toxicology and Risk Water Pollution Air Pollution: Local and Regional Air Pollution: Destruction of the Ozone layer and global climate change Municipal Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Social Solutions to Environmental Concerns Environmental Economics Historical and Cultural Aspects of Environmental Concerns
  4. 4. Principles of Pollution Control Pollution and waste are symptoms, not causes, of the environmental crisis. Paul Hawken Pictures © 2006 Jones and Bartlett Publishers
  5. 5. Chapter objectives <ul><li>What is meant by “pollution” </li></ul><ul><li>How pollution is produced </li></ul><ul><li>How pollution is controlled </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is pollution? Pollution = society’s excess output into the environment Something produced in amounts high enough to be harmful to us, other life, or valuable objects
  7. 7. Pollution has many faces Pollution as matter cycling and energy flow The environment ultimately consists of matter cycles and energy flows. Pollution represents local concentrations in the matter cycle or energy flows e.g. Heat pollution is a form of air and water pollution
  8. 8. Pollution has many faces Pollution as an accelerated natural process <ul><li>Not only man-made, e.g. Volcanoes release gasses that is harmful to life, affect global climate and cause acid rain. </li></ul><ul><li>People cause pollution at a greater rate than nature, because: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High quantities of waste produced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of waste accelerates pollution because of lots of new substances e.g. dye </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Pollution has many faces Pollution as a stepwise process High volumes of waste produced as by products for other products/ processes “ Everything must go somewhere” as either energy flowing or matter cycling As a result, waste often end up in water, air or land. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) / Cradle to grave analysis can pinpoint steps in processes that can either be eliminated or made more efficient Therefore: “Cradle to grave” pollution = the many ways a product can pollute in its lifetime Pictures © 2006 Jones and Bartlett Publishers
  10. 10. Pollution has many faces Pollution as a stepwise process Pictures © 2006 Jones and Bartlett Publishers
  11. 11. Pollution has many faces Pollution = population x consumption <ul><li>The amount of pollution depends on: </li></ul><ul><li>The number of people </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of waste produced per person (determined by consumption) </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore: </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution = population x consumption </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution = population x consumption </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution = population x consumption </li></ul>
  12. 12. History of pollution <ul><li>Pollution exists from the beginning of time!!! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ancient volcanoes helped form the atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later on gasses from erupting volcanoes caused mass extinctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals pollute rivers with urine and feces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bird droppings can contaminate areas surrounding nests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Early civilizations discarded their waste (evidence in caves) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egyptians and Greeks had polluted drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Today, the scale of pollution is much greater due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large human population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fossil fuel-driven technologies </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Controlling pollution <ul><li>No water is pure in nature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before people existed, water contained gasses and other substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly polluted water only contain 1 % toxins and other pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw sewage entering treatment facilities contained at least 99.9 % water. The problem: sewage and toxicant molecules are much larger than water molecules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zero pollution is an unrealistic goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern society cannot exist without producing pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total purity is economically impossible – the cost of removing all pollutants increases exponentially after a given point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total purity is unnecessary – the benefits of pollutant removal decrease exponentially after a given point </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not even nature is totally pure </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Controlling pollution How much to control? Pictures © 2006 Jones and Bartlett Publishers
  15. 15. Controlling pollution What to control? Pictures © 2006 Jones and Bartlett Publishers Low cost High cost
  16. 16. Controlling pollution Pollution control vs. remediation vs. restoration Remediation counteracts some of the effects of pollution after it has been released into the environment, e.g. treat lakes contaminated with acid rain with lime. Very expensive Restoration seeks to reinstate the environment to its former condition. Extremely expensive Pollution control aims to remove the pollutant and dispose of it in a landfill or incinerator, e.g. cleaning up toxic fly ash from electricity generating plants. Very expensive.
  17. 17. Controlling pollution Implementing pollution control There are three basic ways prevent people from polluting: Persuasion: Ask people to change polluting behavior. Should be accompanied by education. Very cheap, but not too effective. Regulation: Pass laws requiring less pollution. Most useful when polluters are few in numbers and pollution can be easily monitored, e.g. hazardous waste of large factories. Incentives: Reward behavior that reduces pollution, e.g. tax incentives and subsidies for renewable energy use. Much lower cost than regulation. Examples: (1) deposits paid when potential waste is purchased and (2) pay as you throw schemes, where the polluter has to pay for discarding waste
  18. 18. Controlling pollution Implementing pollution control There are three basic ways prevent people from polluting: Persuasion: Ask people to change polluting behavior. Should be accompanied by education. Very cheap, but not too effective. Regulation: Pass laws requiring less pollution. Most useful when polluters are few in numbers and pollution can be easily monitored, e.g. hazardous waste of large factories. Incentives: Reward behavior that reduces pollution, e.g. tax incentives and subsidies for renewable energy use. Much lower cost than regulation. Examples: (1) deposits paid when potential waste is purchased and (2) pay as you throw schemes, where the polluter has to pay for discarding waste

×