The line follower is a self operating robot that detects and follows a
line that is drawn on the floor. The path consists of a black line on a
white surface .
It continuously corrects itself to stay on the track.
It is an automated robot which doesn't require any human help to
The IR sensor detects the light emitted by the transmitter, if
the receiver receives light, the wheel of that side will keep
on moving, as soon as the receiver stops receiving the light
(black colour absorbs the light and thus no light is reflected
so receiver cannot receive any light) the wheel of that side
For turning ,the robot stops 1 motor and runs the second to
make the turn possible.
If the robot has to turn right then the motor on right side
will stop and left motor will keep on running and thus
allowing the robot to turn.
Industrial automated equipment carriers.
Tour guides in museums and other similar applications.
Deliver the mail within the office building
Deliver medications in a hospital.
Robot movement is automatic.
Used for long distance applications.
It is capable of taking various degrees of turns.
The color of the line must not be a factor as long as it is darker than
LFR can move on a fixed track or path only.
It requires power supply.
Lack of speed control makes the robot unstable at times.
Choice of line is made in the hardware abstraction and cannot be
changed by software.
7. BLOCK DIAGRAM
8. Line Following Algorithm
Robot direction is determined by what the robot “sees”
If line is centered in front of robot, go forward
If line is left of center, turn left
If line is right of center, turn right
If no line is detected, circle until line is found
9. Line Following Algorithm
10. FUTURE SCOPE
Software control of the line type (dark or light) to make automatic
“Obstacle detecting sensors” to avoid physical obstacles and
continue on the line.
Distance sensing and position logging & transmission.