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Design Of Fibrication And Pipe Inspection Robot

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  • 1. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 ABSTRACT A pipe inspection robot is device that is inserted into pipes to check for obstruction or damage. These robots are traditionally manufactured offshore, are extremely expensive, and are often not adequately supported in the event or malfunction. This had resulted in associated environmental services limited. A Newzealand utilize of this equipment, facing significant periods of down time as they wait for their robots to be the repaired. Recently, they were informing that several robots were no longer supported. This project was conceived to redesign the electronics control systems one of these PIR, utilizing the existing mechanical platform. Requirements for the robot were that it must operate reliably in confined, dark and wet environments and provides a human wears with a digital video feed of the internal status of the pipes. There robot should as much as possible incorporate off the shaft components, cheap, and potentially onsite repair. This project details the redesign and constructions of such robots. It employees there electronic boards integrated with mechanical components and provides video feedback via custom graphical interface although at the prototypes state the electronics has been successful with cost of less than a length of the original robot purchase prize. Keywords: Robot,Pipes defects,Electronics control systems, Digital video. . Page 1
  • 2. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION Pipeline systems deteriorate progressively over time. Corrosion accelerates progressively and long term deterioration increases the probability of failure (fatigue cracking). Limiting regular inspecting activities to the "scrap" part of the pipelines only, results ultimately into a pipeline system with questionable integrity. The confidence level in integrity will drop below acceptance levels. Inspection of presently uninspected sections of the pipeline system becomes a must. This project provides information on the "robotic inspection technology". Pipelines are proven to be the safest way to transport and distribute Gases and Liquids. Regular inspection is required to maintain that reputation. The larger part of the pipelines system is accessible by In-Line Inspection Tools but this access is limited to the section in between the launching and receiving traps only. Unfortunately, corrosion does not have this limitation. The industry looks for means of inspecting these in-accessible pressure holding piping systems, preferably, without interrupting the operations. It is a fact that sufficiently reliable and accurate inspection results can only be obtained by direct pipe wall contact/access. If that is not feasible from the outside, we have to go inside. Since modifying pipeline systems for In-Line Inspection is mainly not practical, PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT pursues development of ROBOTIC inspection services for presently in-accessible pipeline systems. Robotics is one of the fastest growing engineering fields of today. Robots are designed to remove the human factor from labor intensive or dangerous work and also to act in inaccessible environment. The use of robots is more common today than ever before and it is no longer exclusively used by the heavy production industries. The inspection of pipes may be relevant for improving security and efficiency in industrial plants. These specific operations as inspection, maintenance, cleaning etc. are expensive, thus the application of the robots appears to be one of the most attractive solutions. Pipelines which are tools for transporting oils, gases and other fluids such as chemicals, have been employed as major utilities in a number of countries for long time. Recently, many troubles occur in pipelines, and most of them are caused by aging, corrosion, cracks, and mechanical damages from the third . Page 2
  • 3. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 parties. So, continuous activities for inspection, maintenance and repair are strongly demanded. The robots with a flexible (adaptable) structure may boast adaptability to the environment, especially to the pipe diameter, with enhanced dexterity, maneuverability, capability to operate under hostile conditions. The wheeled robots are the simplest, most energy efficient, and have the best potential for long range. Loading the wheels with springs, robots also offer some advantages in maneuverability with the ability to adapt to in-pipe unevenness, move vertically in pipes, and stay stable without slipping in pipes. These types of robots also have the advantage of easier miniaturization. The key problem in their design and implementation consists in combining the capacity of self-moving with that of selfsustaining and the property of low weight and dimension. A very important design objective is represented by the adaptability of the in-pipe robots to the inner diameters of the pipes. Currently, the applications of robots for the maintenance of the pipeline utilities are considered as one of the most attractive solutions available Pipe Inspection Robot is shown in Figure 1.1. Fig1.1:- Pipe inspection robot . Page 3
  • 4. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 2: PROBLEM STATEMENT As we are observed that in industry , home , power plant etc. there are several problems occurs inside the pipe like Corrosion , Cracking , Dent Mark , Metal Losses etc. so , we are inspecting the pipe with the help of ―PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT‖. Fig 2.1: Flow chart showing scope of pipe inspection . Page 4
  • 5. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 2.1 Geometrical defects Buckle: regular buckle and sharp buckle Ovality Wrinkle Knob Rolling imperfection or angularity Tube expansion Joint imperfection: edge displacement & angle error 2.1.1Ovality Definition: nearly symmetric deviation of the pipe cross-section from the circular shape resulting in ellipse cross-section without sharp breakpoints. Measures: –minimum outside diameter, dk min [mm]; –maximum outside diameter, dk max [mm]. Possible cause of origin: –pipe manufacturing; –external mechanical impact. ١٠ 2.1.2Knob Definition: residual deformation of the pipe wall outside the pipe without sharp edge extending over an area. Measures: maximum height, d [mm]; overall dimensions (axial length ×circumferential length), l ×k [mm ×mm]. Possible cause of origin: change in internal pressure interacting with another defect. Remark: the knob can be interpreted as the opposite of the regular buckle. 2.1.3 Ruck Definition: the pipe wall is rippled along its circumference partly or entirely and the centre line of the pipe remains straight Measures: – maximum depth of the ripple, db [mm]; –maximum height of the ripple, dk [mm]; angle subtended by the ruck along the circumference of the pipe, j [°]. . Page 5
  • 6. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Possible cause of origin: – pipe manufacturing; –soil movement. 2.1.4 Rolling imperfection or angularity Definition:during the pipe manufacturing in the vicinity of the plate edge to be joined by welding (seam) the shape of the pipe deviates from cylindrical forming a sharp edge. Measures: – height of the bevel edge, Y [mm]; –chord of the bevel edge, 2A [mm]. Possible cause of origin: pipe manufacturing. 2.1.5 Tube expansion Definition: elimination of diameter difference between the two pipe ends to be joined with welding (girth weld). Measures: – outside diameter of the pipe to be expanded, D1 [mm]; –wall thickness of the pipe to be expanded, t1 [mm]; – expansion length, L [mm]. Possible cause of origin: – pipe installation (laying); –repair. 2.1.6 Edge displacement Definition: radial displacement of parallel centre lines of pipe sections joined with welding (girth weld). Measures: eccentricity, e [mm]. Possible cause of origin:–pipe installation (laying); – repair; –pipe manufacturing. 2.1.7 Angle error Definition: deviation of centre lines of pipe sections joined with welding (girth weld). Measures: angle between the centre action systems . Page 6
  • 7. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot (a) Cup dent (c) Welding defects 2013 (b) Saucer dent (d) Material loss Fig 2.2:-Picture showing some defects in pipe . Page 7
  • 8. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 3: FIELD OF APPLICATIONS OF PIPE INSPECTION 3.1 Nuclear power plants:Nuclear power plants must place safety concerns on the highest level of priority before other interests such as their business interests. Regular inspections of pipe systems need to be carried out and robots from INSPECTOR SYSTEMS are widely used. 3.2 Conventional power plants:By taking advantage of the NDT inspection methods that our robots offer, defects and faults can be avoided increasing the 'up and running' operational time of all kinds of pipe systems. Worldwide, many power plants already use our robots to do just this. 3.3 Refineries:The mineral oil industry can benefit from improved supply, transportation, processing and distribution of mineral oil as well as improved environmental protection. Our robots are helping to do just this. 3.4 Chemical and petrochemical plant:It is of course vital to continually reduce the risks brought about by the manufacture, transport and storage of chemicals. This means that the possible dangers need to be examined and the necessary testing and inspections carried out in order to avoid or at least lessen and contain them. The use of our robots has become obligatory in many well known companies. 3.5 Offshore:The technical demands of offshore rigs as well as safety and environmental requirements are very high and strongly controlled. This means that there is an enormous amount of required Non Destructive Testing inspections. Our robots are used worldwide in offshore applications. . Page 8
  • 9. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 3.6 Long distance city heating pipelines:Leakages in long distance heat conduits, caused through external corrosion, cause energy and water losses resulting in damage to, among others, subterranean constructions. Minimizing energy loss during the transport of heat from source to end user is one of the most important requirements in order to exclude danger to people and the environment. Our robots help in this important duty. 3.7 Food and drinks industries:The hygiene standard in the food and drinks industries is very high. The condition of the individual pipe networks is therefore decidedly important. Inspection robots from INSPECTOR SYSTEMS help to maintain and ensure this high level of hygiene. 3.8 Communal waste water pipe systems:Subterranean sewer systems have been responsible for the collection and transport of waste water since planning and construction began in 1842. With the Republic of Germany most of these sewage systems are owned by the cities and community districts. Regular inspection of the roughly 445 km of public sewage systems is therefore a complex and cost intensive process. 3.9 Gas pipelines:Within Germany the total length of the natural gas pipeline network is something like 335 km. At the moment it is run by 18 national companies and around 730 local ones. Robots from INSPECTOR SYSTEMS are deployed for inspection and maintenance these flexible robots are well suited for carrying out inspections on pipe systems, especially those that have a lot of bends, vertical sections and pipe branches.These robots are mainly used in the nuclear power industry, refineries, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, the offshore industry, gas pipelines, the beverage industry and all types of pipe lines up to 500m long. Three drive elements provide a speed of up to 200 m/h in both horizontal and vertical directions and allow for effortless bend taking. . Page 9
  • 10. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 4: INSPECTION METHODS 4.1 Video Inspection: Robots deployed for the video inspection of pipe systems possess a maneuverable head that can be turned 360° and tilted 90°. This means that even video pictures can be shot right below the pipe wall. Separate video recording of on-line video data at the control point allows the operator to monitor, achieve and add comments to the footage. The camera has been specially designed for use within pipe systems and has not only great resolution but also a 10x optical zoom function as well as automatic and manual focusing and adjustable lighting. Using highly specialized, closed-circuit cameras, we can perform visual inspection of all pipe systems, from as small as 6 millimeters - or 1/4 inch - in diameter up to any size. Our closed-circuit cameras are the most reliable and effective way to detect leaks and inspect welds in pipeline systems. And we are experts at overcoming difficult challenges - if it can be done, Afonso Group can deliver. We have performed video inspections in sewer lines, household and commercial sewer cleanouts, hydro facilities, refineries and offshore installations. 4.2 Visual Inspection: Due to the cost of advanced inspection techniques, less expensive forms of Nondestructive evaluation is often desired. Visual inspection is currently one of the most commonly used nondestructive evaluation techniques because it is relatively inexpensive as it requires minimal, if any, use of instruments or equipment, and it can be accomplished without data processing (FHWA, 2001). As mentioned previously, visual inspection can only detect surface defects. However, a large number of structural deficiencies have surface indicators (e.g. corrosion, concrete deterioration). Aside from a limited range of detection, visual inspection does have further drawbacks. It is extremely subjective as it depends on the inspector’s training, visual acuity, and state-of-mind. Also external factors such as light intensity, structure complexity, and structure accessibility play a role in determining the effectiveness of visual inspection. Recently, the Federal Highway Administration’s Nondestructive Evaluation Validation Center (NDEVC) conducted a study to investigate the reliability of visual inspection as it relates to highway bridge inspection (FHWA, . Page 10
  • 11. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 2001). Because visual inspection is so widely practiced, assessing its validity as an effective means of assessing structural integrity provides insight into the effectiveness of bridge inspections in general. The study required bridge inspectors from various state transportation departments to complete both routine and in-depth inspections of several decommissioned test bridges. The inspectors were asked to rate the condition of several different structural elements according to the standards used in actual bridge inspections. Participants were also subject to observation during the inspection as well as interviews regarding their personal methods and procedures. Results from the study indicated that visual inspections are completed with large variability (FHWA, 2001). Condition ratings for each element varied significantly more than those predicted by statistical models. Factors affecting variability included a reported fear of traffic, near visual acuity, color vision, light intensity, structure accessibility level, and inspector rushed level. Furthermore, in-depth inspections were highly ineffective for detecting defects that were expected to be identified by such inspections. In fact, in-depth inspections rarely revealed deficiencies beyond those founding routine inspections. Again factors affecting the reliability of in-depth inspections included structure complexity and accessibility, as well as inspector comfort with access equipment and heights. These results call into question the reliability of bridge inspection procedures. While the condition rating system is an attempt to quantify observations, visual inspection remains highly subjective and dependent upon external factors. 4.3 Ultrasonic inspection Common non-destructive in-line inspection technologies such as magnetic flux leakage (MFL), ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current systems cannot detect stress corrosion cracking (SCC), especially in gas pipelines. Based on an electro-magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT), a new type of ultrasonic sensor uses physical effects such as the Lorentz force and magnetostriction. It therefore works independently of a coupling medium between the sensors and the pipeline to be inspected, thus providing the ideal crack inspection solution for both liquid and gas pipelines. First field tests with the 16-in tool have now confirmed the detection capabilities of this technology under operational conditions. Numerous Rosen EMAT modules were arranged on an in-line inspection tool to ensure high resolution. The basic arrangement of the EMAT modules used to inspect a distinct area (pixel) of the . Page 11
  • 12. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 pipeline. The ultrasonic waves only travel a short distance between the EMAT sender and the receiver. As a result, data evaluation is relatively simple and false alarms can be avoided. Fig.3 also illustrates that the sensor arrangement required to inspect one pixel of the pipeline consists of one EMAT sender and two EMAT receivers. The EMAT sender generates a tailored shear horizontal wave characterized by distinct frequencies which make it especially sensitive to near-surface defects. Provided that no cracks are present, the generated wave propagates in one direction from the EMAT sender to the EMAT receiver which records it as a transmission signal. If, however, there is a crack-like defect between the EMAT sender and the EMAT receiver, one part of the signal is reflected back to the EMAT sender where it is recorded as an echo signal by the second EMAT receiver. This means that two acoustic data channels exist for each pixel, i.e. one echo and one transmission channel.Compared with an MFL measurement, the new EMAT module provides much more information, since not only one value (magnetization level) is recorded at one particular pipeline position but several vectors (e.g. signal frequencies and amplitude, travelling time of the acoustic wave etc). Additional data (e.g. lift-off between the EMAT modules and the pipeline) is stored in separate data channels. This independent storage ensures that echo and transmission data can be evaluated unambiguously in relation to the physical measurement. The overall amplitude of the wave that directly propagates from the EMAT sender to the transmission receiver depends on the amount of lift-off, the presence of a defect, and the existence (and type) of external coating. Coating generally damps the acoustic wave. Therefore, a reduction in the bonding quality of the coating leads to a significant increase in the signal amplitude. Distinct examples for several cases are shown below shows that an echo signal is only recorded if a significant amount of energy is reflected into the EMAT echo receiver. Since this receiver is active for a short time interval, only signals reflected from specific positions, but not irrelevant signals emitted from adjacent EMAT senders or late reflections from other positions, are detected. Owing to the arrangement of the EMAT modules, the system is especially suitable for the detection of axial features. A detailed analysis of significant echo signals, eg signal amplitude, arrival time and frequency content, provides valuable information on the type of defect identified. . Page 12
  • 13. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 One of the findings of the first inspections conducted with the ECD 16in tool in both a gas and an oil pipeline was that girth welds can be detected quite easily. The reason is that they cause typical signal characteristics in different data channels (transmission channel, echo channel, lift-off channel). Similarly, long seams can be observed in echo channels (increase) and transmission channels (decrease).As illustrated in significant signal increases can be observed, since echo signals clearly stand out from the background noise (eg girth welds). It shows that time domain signal analysis allows collection of information about the orientation of the defect in relation to the pipe axis. This means that the echo channels are sensitive to defects in both the axial and the circumferential direction. It follows that a C-scan view of a specific gas pipeline section, and the explanations in the caption that the transmission channels are not only sensitive to larger reflectors (signal decrease) but also to different coating qualities (signal increase if coating is weaker).Rosen has developed an intelligent inspection tool based on innovative high-resolution EMAT technology. The new technology has been successfully tested in both an oil and a gas pipeline. The multi-dimensional data sets provided by the tool allow continuous improvement. The promising results of the first inspection survey will be further validated by an extensive validation program which is currently underway. 4.4 Infrared method The photo depicts the schematics for an infrared sensor which allows you to detect an object's distance from the robot. The big picture problem is attach this infrared sensor on both wings of the aerial robot. Attaching these sensors on the wing tips will help the robot navigate through the halls of any building.. This tutorial shows you how to construct and test one infrared sensor and takes approximately 3 hours to complete. 4.4.1 Construction This section gives step-by-step instructions along with photos to the construction of IR Proximity Switch. Because this is a very simple circuit, only a schematic for the sensor is shown here: . Page 13
  • 14. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Fig 4.1:-basic design of the infrared proximity sensor An infraredsensor is an electronic device that emits and/or detects infrared radiation in order to sense some aspect of its surroundings. Infrared sensors can measure the heat of an object, as well as detect motion. Many of these types of sensors only measure infrared radiation, rather than emitting it, and thus are known as passive infrared (PIR) sensors. All objects emit some form of thermal radiation, usually in the infrared spectrum. This radiation is invisible to our eyes, but can be detected by an infrared sensor that accepts and interprets it. Thesepiezoelectric materials are integrated into a small circuit board. They are wired in such a way so that when the sensor detects an increase in the heat of a small part of its field of view, it will trigger the motion detector's alarm. It is very common for an infrared sensor to be integrated into motion detectors like those used as part of a residential or commercial security system. An infrared sensor can be thought of as a camera that briefly remembers how an area's infrared radiation appears. A sudden change in one area of the field of view, especially one that moves, will change the way electricity goes from the pyroelectric materials through the rest of the circuit. This will trigger the motion detector to activate an alarm. If the whole field of view changes temperature, this will not trigger the device. This makes it so that sudden flashes of light and natural changes in temperature do not activate the sensor and cause false alarms. . Page 14
  • 15. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 4.4.2 WHATE IS IR? Fig 4.2:- IR sensor Infrared radiation is the portion of electromagnetic spectrum having wavelengths longer than visible light wavelengths, but smaller than microwaves, i.e., the region roughly from 0.75µm to 1000 µm is the infrared region. Infrared waves are invisible to human eyes. The wavelength region of 0.75µm to 3 µm is called near infrared, the region from 3 µm to 6 µm is called mid infrared and the region higher than 6 µm is called far infrared. (The demarcations are not rigid; regions are defined differently by many). Fig 4.3:- spectrum of light There are different types of IR sensors working in various regions of the IR spectrum but the physics behind "IR sensors" is governed by three laws: Planck’s radiation law: Every object at a temperature T not equal to 0 K emits radiation. Infrared radiant energy is determined by the temperature and surface condition of an . Page 15
  • 16. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 object. Human eyes cannot detect differences in infrared energy because they are primarily sensitive to visible light energy from 400 to 700 nm. Our eyes are not sensitive to the infrared energy. Stephan Boltzmann Law The total energy emitted at all wavelengths by a black body is related to the absolute temperature as Wien’s Displacement Law Wien’s Law tells that objects of different temperature emit spectra that peak at different wavelengths. It provides the wavelength for maximum spectral radiant emittance for a given temperature. The relationship between the true temperature of the black body and its peak spectral existence or dominant wavelength is described by this law: The world is not full of black bodies; rather it comprises of selectively radiating bodies like rocks, water, etc. and the relationship between the two is given by emissivity (E). Emissivity depends on object color, surface roughness, moisture content, degree of compaction, field of view, viewing angle & wavelength 4.4.3 ELEMENTS OF INFRARED DETECTION SYSTEM Fig 4.4:- Block diagram showing typical system for detecting infrared radiation . Page 16
  • 17. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Infrared Source All objects above 0 K radiate infrared energy and hence are infrared sources. Infrared sources also include blackbody radiators, tungsten lamps, silicon carbide, and various others. For active IR sensors, infrared Lasers and LEDs of specific IR wavelengths are used as IR sources. Transmission Medium: Three main types of transmission medium used for Infrared transmission are vacuum, the atmosphere, and optical fibers.The transmission of IR – radiation is affected by presence of CO2, water vapour and other elements in the atmosphere. Due to absorption by molecules of water carbon dioxide, ozone, etc. the atmosphere highly attenuates most IR wavelengths leaving some important IR windows in the electromagnetic spectrum; these are primarily utilized by thermal imaging/ remote sensing applications. Medium wave IR (MWIR:3-5 µm) Long wave IR (LWIR:8-14 µm) Choice of IR band or a specific wavelength is dictated by the technical requirements of a specific application. Optical Components: Often optical components are required to converge or focus infrared radiations, to limit spectral response, etc. To converge/focus radiations, optical lenses made of quartz, CaF2, Ge and Si, polyethylene Fresnel lenses, and mirrors made of Al, Au or a similar material are used. For limiting spectral responses, band pass filters are used. Choppers are used to pass/ interrupt the IR beams. Infrared detectors: Various types of detectors are used in IR sensors. Important specifications of detectors are Photosensitivity or Responsivity is the Output Voltage/Current per watt of incident energy. Higher the better. Noise Equivalent Power (NEP) . Page 17
  • 18. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 NEP represents detection ability of a detector and is the amount of incident light equal to intrinsic noise level of a detector. Detectivity(D*: D-star) D* is the photosensitivity per unit area of a detector. It is a measure of S/N ratio of a detector. D* is inversely proportional to NEP. Larger D* indicates better sensing element. In addition, wavelength region or temperature to be measured, response time, cooling mechanism, active area, no of elements, package, linearity, stability, temperature characteristics, etc. are important parameters which need attention while selecting IR detectors. Signal Processing: Since detector outputs are typically very small, preamplifiers with associated circuitry are used Reflectance Sensors: This type of sensors house both an IR source and an IR detector in a single housing in such a way that light from emitter LED bounces off an external object and is reflected into a detector. Amount of light reflected into the detector depends upon the reflectivity of the surface. This principle is used in intrusion detection, object detection (measure the presence of an object in the sensor’s FOV), barcode decoding, and surface feature detection (detecting features painted, taped, or otherwise marked onto the floor), wall tracking (detecting distance from the wall), etc. It can also be used to scan a defined area; the transmitter emits a beam of light into the scan zone, the reflected light is used to detect a change in the reflected light thereby scanning the desired zone. . Page 18
  • 19. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 4.4.4 Cathode-Ray Oscilloscope: Fig 4.5:- Picture showing the cathode-ray oscilloscope The cathode-ray oscilloscope (CRO) is a common laboratory instrument that provides accurate time and aplitude measurements of voltage signals over a wide range of frequencies. Its reliability, stability, and ease of operation make it suitable as a general purpose laboratory instrument. The heart of the CRO is a cathode-ray tube shown schematically in Fig. 4.6 Fig 4.6:- Cathode ray tube (a) schematic, (b) detail of the deflection plates. The cathode ray is a beam of electrons which are emitted by the heated cathode (negative electrode) and accelerated toward the fluorescent screen. The assembly of the cathode, intensity grid, focus grid, and accelerating anode (positive electrode) is called an electron gun. Its purpose is to generate the electron beam and control its intensity and focus. Between the electron gun and the fluorescent screen is two pair of metal plates - one oriented to provide horizontal deflection of the beam and one pair oriented to give vertical deflection to the beam. These plates are . Page 19
  • 20. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 thus referred to as the horizontal and vertical deflection plates. The combination of these two deflections allows the beam to reach any portion of the fluorescent screen. Wherever the electron beam hits the screen, the phosphor is excited and light is emitted from that point. This conversion of electron energy into light allows us to write with points or lines of light on an otherwise darkened screen. In the most common use of the oscilloscope the signal to be studied is first amplified and then applied to the vertical (deflection) plates to deflect the beam vertically and at the same time a voltage that increases linearly with time is applied to the horizontal (deflection) plates thus causing the beam to be deflected horizontally at a uniform (constant> rate. The signal applied to the verical plates is thus displayed on the screen as a function of time. The horizontal axis serves as a uniform time scale. The linear deflection or sweep of the beam horizontally is accomplished by use of a sweep generator that is incorporated in the oscilloscope circuitry. The voltage output of such a generator is that of a sawtooth wave as shown in Fig. 2. Application of one cycle of this voltage difference, which increases linearly with time, to the horizontal plates causes the beam to be deflected linearly with time across the tube face. When the voltage suddenly falls to zero, as at points (a) (b) (c), etc...., the end of each sweep - the beam flies back to its initial position. The horizontal deflection of the beam is repeated periodically, the frequency of this periodicity is adjustable by external controls. To obtain steady traces on the tube face, an internal number of cycles of the unknown signal that is applied to the vertical plates must be associated with each cycle of the sweep generator. Thus, with such a matching of synchronization of the two deflections, the pattern on the tube face repeats itself and hence appears to remain stationary. The persistence of vision in the human eye and of the glow of the fluorescent screen aids in producing a stationary pattern. In addition, the electron beam is cut off (blanked) during fly back so that the retrace sweep is not observed. CRO Operation: A simplified block diagram of a typical oscilloscope is shown in Fig. 3. In general, the instrument is operated in the following manner. The signal to be . Page 20
  • 21. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 displayed is amplified by the vertical amplifier and applied to the verical deflection plates of the CRT. A portion of the signal in the vertical amplifier is applied to the sweep trigger as a triggering signal. The sweep trigger then generates a pulse coincident with a selected point in the cycle of the triggering signal. This pulse turns on the sweep generator, initiating the sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave is amplified by the horizontal amplifier and applied to the horizontal deflection plates. Usually, additional provisions signal are made for appliying an external triggering signal or utilizing the 60 Hz line for triggering. Also the sweep generator may be bypassed and an external signal applied directly to the horizontal amplifier. . Page 21
  • 22. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 5: Design of Pipe Inspection Robot 5.1 Selection of materials: The materials used for this machine are light and rigid. Different materials can be used for different parts of the robot. For optimum use of power the materials used should be light and strong. Wood is light but it is subjected to wear if used for this machine. Metals are the ideal materials for the robot as most if the plastics cannot be as strong as metals. Material should be ductile, less brittleness, malleable, and high magnetic susceptibility. Among the metals, aluminum is the material chosen for the linkages and the common rod, which is made as hollow for reduction in weight. However, other materials are chosen for the motor. The materials chosen for the motor should have high magnetic susceptibility and should be good conductor of electricity. The materials are copper and so on. But aluminum is chosen as the materials for the linkages and central body because of its much-desired Properties. Aluminum has lightweight and strength; it can be used in a variety of applications. Aluminum alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures .The strength and durability of aluminum alloys vary widely, not only because of the Components of the specific alloy, but also because of heat treatments and manufacturing Processes. Another important property of aluminum alloys is their sensitivity to heat. Work shop procedures involving heating are complicated by the fact that aluminum, unlike steel, will melt without first glowing red. Aluminum alloys, like all structural alloys, are also subject to internal stresses following heating operations such as welding and casting. The problem with aluminum alloys in this regard is their low melting point, which make them more susceptible to distortions from thermally induced stress relief. The toughness, as measured by crack propagation energy, decreases as yield stress increases. At the same yield stress, the under aged structure has greater toughness than the over aged structure. . Page 22
  • 23. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 5.2 Effect of Temperature: Another important property of aluminum alloys is their sensitivity to heat. Work shop procedures involving heating are complicated by the fact that aluminum, unlike steel, will melt without first glowing red. Aluminum alloys, like all structural alloys, are also subject to internal stresses following heating operations such as welding and casting. The problem with aluminum alloys in this regard is their low melting point, which make them more susceptible to distortions from thermally induced stress relief. The toughness, as measured by crack propagation energy, decreases as yield stress increases. At the same yield stress, the under aged structure has greater toughness than the over aged structure. 5.3 Mechanism: The mechanism involved here is a four bar mechanism consisting of three revolute joints and one prismatic joint as depicted Fig 5.1: Mechanism of PIR H = 2r + 2d + 2h2×cosθ, Where, h1 = 30 mm, h2 = 85 mm, h3 = 105 mm (h1 =OA, h2 = BC = D, h3 = CF) . Page 23
  • 24. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 H=2×36+2×28+2×85× H=248.20mm Where D-Diameter of the pipe in mm, d-Distance between EE’ in mm.h1, h2, h3 are the length of the links in mm. r-Radius of the wheel, H=Height of robot outside the pipe. For uniform Diameter, Assume D = 2r+2d+2h2 D=2×36+2×28+2×85× D=237.27mm 5.2.1 Kinematics of Mechanism: The linkage structure can be represented as in figure depicted. This is a four-bar mechanism Consisting of three revolute joins and one prismatic as depicted. Thus, the motion of all revolute joints can be described in terms of the displacement db . 5.2.2 Static Analysis: In order to decide the actuator size, it is necessary to perform the static analysis. Assume that in (Figure 4), Fcx and Fcz denote the reaction force and the traction force exerted on the four-bar by the driving wheel, respectively. Now applying the virtual work principle to the free-body diagram gives: Figure 5.2: Linkages of PIR . Page 24
  • 25. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Figure 5.3: Static Analysis δW = Fcz δz – Fbx δx = 0 Where, Fbx is spring force. This is because only Fcz and Fbx conduct work. The corresponding coordinates of these forces relative to the coordinate located at the A hinge are expressed as: z = 2.33/ sin θ, x = 2.33/ cos θ δW = Fczδ (2.33l sinθ) – Fbxδ (–2.33l cosθ) = Fcz*2.333/ cosθ– Fbx*2.33/ sin θ δθ.= 0 Rearranging gives: Fbx = Fcz*cosθ/sinθ Thus, the spring force at the prismatic joint B is related to the normal force Fcz by Fbx = Fcz*tanθ And the total weight W of the robot is the sum of the six traction forces exerted on the belt. Thus, each traction force Fcx is one six of the whole weight of the robot structure. Thus, the size of the actuator enclosed in the wheel is calculated by: τ = Fcx*R = WR/6 . Page 25
  • 26. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Where, R is the radius of the wheel. From the above static analysis, it is also known that the large weight of the robot does not influence the foldable motion of the linkage. The spring stiffness is found to be 0.9 N/ mm and the spring force is found to be 4.5. Thus we came to the conclusion that the actuator should have at least 3 kg torque. So, we used 3 actuators with 1.5 kg torque (total 4.5 kg torque). It is safe to use an actuator with more torque than the required torque. 5.3 Design of various elements of PIR 5.3.1 Helical spring Inner diameter – 18 mm Outer dia – 20 mm Pitch – 5 mm Length of the spring – 60 mm Material – Stainless steel Figure 5.4: Helical Spring 5.3.2 Translational Element Inner diameter – 18 mm Outer diameter – 23 mm Length of the element – 25 mm Material – Mild steel . Page 26
  • 27. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Figure 5.6: Translational Element 5.3.3Wheel Diameter – 72 mm 5.3.4 Distance between the Extreme links Drilled Holes (Figure 7) Link 1 – 30 mm Link2 – 85 mm Link3 – 105 mm Thickness – 3 mm Drilled holes – 12 and 6 mm Material – Acrylic Figure 5.7: Extreme links . Page 27
  • 28. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 5.3.5 Central Element Hollow Inner dia – 15 mm Outer dia – 20 mm Length – 220 mm Material – Mild steel Figure 5.8: Central Element 5.4 COMPONENTS OF PIPE INSPECTION ROBOT Central Frame Central body is the frame of the robot. It supports all other components and holds batteries at the centre of the body. The joints are brazed on the central frame at 120 degrees. The central body is drilled and its ends are threaded internally for the insertion of pencil batteries and closing with externally threaded caps. Wireless camera is fixed at one end of the frame. Fig 5.9:- Central Frame . Page 28
  • 29. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 5.4.1 Translational Element Translational Element is the movable part in the robot which slides along the central body for repositioning in case of pipe diameter variation. This element is drilled at the centre for the translating along the central body. This will restrict the links to some extreme angles beyond which it could not be translated. The extreme angles are found to be 15 degrees and 60 degrees. The joints are brazed on the translational element at 120 degrees for the links to be fixed onto it. 5.4.2 Compression Spring A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical Energy. Spring used here is made out of hardened steel. Compression spring is mainly used to exert tension. The purpose of spring is as follows: The force that the mini robot mechanism exercises on the pipe walls is generated with the help of an extensible spring. The helical spring disposed on the central axis assures the repositioning of the structure, in the case of the pipe diameters variation. Fig 5.10:- Compression Spring 5.4.3 Links Each resistant body in a machine which moves relative to another resistant body is called Kinematic link or element. A resistant body is which do not go under deformation while transmitting the force. Links are the major part of the robot which translates motion. Links are connected to form a linkage. The mechanism involved here is a 4 bar mechanism which has 3 revolute pairs and1 single prismatic . Page 29
  • 30. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 pairs as depicted. Links holds the receiver, switch, and 9v battery for the camera. Also it supports the actuator. Fig 5.11:- Links 5.4.4 Actuators Actuators are the drive for the robot. Since we have chosen aluminum material for fabrication, the weight is comparatively less. So the motor should have 2 kg torque to travel inside the pipe. We used 3 motors which has 1 kg torque to make the robot in motion. The supply for the motor is 6v which is from the central body. The 3 motors are placed at120 degrees and are supported on the links by a tag Shaft Fig 5.12:- Actuator (Bo Motor) . Page 30
  • 31. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 5.4.5 Batteries Batteries give supply for a motor and wireless camera. Motor and radio frequency gets 6v supply from the central body and wireless camera gets supply from a 9vbattery. And 3v batteries for transmitter which has two toggle switch. One is for motor forward and reverse control and the other one is for glowing LED’s. 5.4.6 Transmitter The extension cable which attached the camera with output device transmits the video and picture. 5.4.7 Features of pipe inspection robot Flexible, self propelled Can take bends up to 1.5 D (partly 1.0) Vertical pipe sections can be traveled Pipe lengths of up to 500m can be traveled Can operate in pipes larger than 3 inches High quality camera with 10x optical zoom Pipe branches and diameter deviations present no problem . Page 31
  • 32. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 6: CONSTRUCTION A pipe inspection robot consist of central element having 12.7 mm dia, , 3 mm thickness and 176 mm in length , one translational element having 15mm dia. 3mm thick & 20mm in length. There are 12 links out of which 3 links are 105mm (A1, A2, A3),6 links of 85mm(B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,B6) & another 3 links of 30mm(C1,C2,C3).The spring is 90mm in length. The central element are joined to the 6 links the length of 28mm.On the central element links a lateral spacing at the points 1,2,3 resp. as shown in fig. Also 3 links are B4,B5,B6 are attach to another point 4,5,6 which are 50mm from point 1,2,3 as shown in fig. in the same way as in p in lateral spacing & the another end is attach to the links B4,B5,B6 at point with pin joint as shown in fig. The another link with length (A1,A2,A3) is attach to the end of the links (B1,B2,B3,B4,B5,B6) at the distance as shown in fig. The motor & wheels are mounted on the links (A1, A2, A3) as shown in fig..The front end of the structure is attached with the swiveling & turning head consist of camera & fitted with BO motor. Fig 6.1: Construction of links The camera & lights are mounted in a swiveling head are attached to the cylindrical body. The swiveling head are integrated to the lighting device a . Page 32
  • 33. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 typically used in LED. The LED is used to illuminate inside the pipe line. The camera is pan & tilt by remotely. The motor wiring as shown in fig. are supply with 12v dc power supply through adaptor. The 3v dc power is supplied to the BO motor of camera. Operate the motor wheel the robot remote is connected. Fig 6.2: Construction of camera head The camera is connected to the display equipment(output) via long cable wound upon a winch There are 6 wheels the dia. Of wheel 72mm.There are 6 D.C motor having 10rpm & 12v.There are 2 BO motor having 60rpm & 3-9v.The BO motor is used for actuate the camera & light and it is fixed to the front side of the robot. The spring is attached to the end of the robot and it provide expand & compression motion to the links with the help of translational element. . Page 33
  • 34. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 7: WORKING Fig 7.1:- Block diagram showing working principal of pipe inspection robot 7.1 Working of the Pipe Inspection Robot: As Pipe Inspection Robot is designed mainly for circular bore pipes, it have ability to move inside any bore diameter pipes ranging from 8 inch to 10 inch( 203mm to 254mm ). Suitable mechanisms are provided so that it gains ability to move inside the bends and tapered pipes. The PIR have ability to see inside the dark pipes where no human eyes can see. This made possible by mounting the surveillance camera and LEDs on head of the PIACR. The output is send to outside screen where the digital hi-quality image can be received. The perfect fitness between the pipe and robot is first conformed after inserting the robot in the pipe. Then the supply of DC 12Vdc current from is on for working of robot and the camera is also started. With the help robot control having three buttons, working of robot can be easily control the motions which is forward and reverse by one button and by other two buttons the motion which is swiveling and tilting of the camera head fitted in front of the robot can be control so that we can see the pictures and videos inside the pipe. Working of PIR is starts from its insertion in pipe. The front three arms is compressed by hand and then inserted in the pipe and then back three arms is inserted by pushing the PIR. The motors driven are the first six arms mentioned here, they pull whole setup. PIR is about 175 cm in length and to move it freely inside the bend pipes, . Page 34
  • 35. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 a 2 degree of freedom joining is provided at the middle so that it can turn easily. As switch is on and current is flowing through wires, wheels starts moving and forces PIR to propel forward. Using the friction between wheels and pipe, the motion of wheels become possible Fig7.2: PIR moving inside the pipe . PIR could have more than three arms for better judgment and perfection but it would increase the weight and cost of manufacturing and hence we need to do tradeoff between money involvement and perfection. PIR wheel motion is provided with 10 rpm, 12 V DC motors hence its speed can be maintained between 10 to 10 rpm. The power provided to motors is from single 12V dc adapter hence load on each motor will be minimum that expected. As we mentioned earlier that PIR will be able to move inside any diameter ranging between 203mm to 254mm, we had to provide auto adjusting mechanism that can expand and contact as PIR moves inside the pipe. Spring of suitable stiffness is mounted on base rod, as seen in figure, so that as arms gets contracted due to load of compression against pipe, spring get compressed and tend to expand outward trying to push arms back to their normal position but as pipe restrict them, they cannot move. We took good care of stiffness of spring such that it can move against the pipe and do not put too high pressure of tires which can jam it and restrict the motion. Even if the pipe interior is smooth, using pressure between compressed tire and pipe, PIR can move easily. This is another application of spring. The main idea behind providing small shock-ups is not meant to absorb shocks but to make good individual expansion of arms in case of bends and . Page 35
  • 36. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 turns. When a vehicle turns, two vehicles cannot have same angular velocity. Hence the outer arm must expand and shorter arm must compress. But as if we have used simple links then this wouldn't be possible. The mini suspension arms (previously mentioned shock-ups) provide individual expansion provision to arms and hence all arms are sticked to the pipe while turning. If we were not used the mini suspension arms then one of the which might not be able to make constant contact with pipe interior and whole setup would be unstable, might collapse under gravity. Fig 7.3: Picture showing working of PIR inside the pipe The robot is run inside pipe by forward and reverse motion of the wheel which has the speed of 10 rpm. This constant slow speed is to insure better inspection because of the high speed there may be possibility to miss the any defect. The camera is tilted by another button provided camera head motion on the remote control. The swiveling of camera can be achieved for 180 degree in addition two 180 degrees for tilting and thus in combination the envelope of 180 degree can be easily seen through the camera. The output image from camera is send to Computer screen which may be laptop, monitor, TV or any such device which gives the visual picture. The camera sends this picture to the output screen with help of extension cable as shown in figure. . Page 36
  • 37. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Operator can control the robot and see the picture of the inside pipe on the output screen and thus if there is any defect such as such as internal material loss , big crack, weld defects dents corrosion erosion or blockage in the pipe . The exact location of the defect is judge by the distance meter provided on the robot it gives distance in centimeters from the starting point from which the robot was inserted inside the pipe. the distance the robot can travel i.e. the length which it can capable to inspect is depends upon the length of the extension cable provided to robot. To insure the tractive force required pulling the long extension cable and other accessories, robot train can be used which can be made by joining the two or more robots through the universal joints at the end. The inspection can be done on the basis of video and pictures inside the pipe provided by camera. The result can be obtained directly on the basis of these pictures or with the help image processing. The image processing can be explained as follows. 7.1.1 IMAGE PROCESSING Fig 7.4 :-Fundamental steps in digital image processing system In imaging science, image processing is any form of signal processing for which the input is an image, such as a photograph or video frame; the output of image processing may be either an image or a set of characteristics or parameters related to the image. Most image-processing techniques involve treating the image as . Page 37
  • 38. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 a two-dimensionalsignal and applying standard signal-processing techniques to it.Image processing is referred to processing of a 2D picture by a computer. Basic definitions:An image defined in the ―real world‖ is considered to be a function of two real variables, for example, a(x,y) with a as the amplitude (e.g. brightness) of the image at the real coordinate position (x,y). Modern digital technology has made it possible to manipulate multidimensional signals with systems that range from simple digital circuits to advanced parallel computers. The goal of this manipulation can be divided into three categories: Image Processing (image in -> image out) Image Analysis (image in -> measurements out) Image Understanding (image in -> high-level description out) An image may be considered to contain sub-images sometimes referred to as regions-of-interest, ROIs, or simply regions. This concept reflects the fact that images frequently contain collections of objects each of which can be the basis for a region. In a sophisticated image processing system it should be possible to apply specific image processing operations to selected regions. Thus one part of an image (region) might be processed to suppress motion blur while another part might be processed to improve color rendition. Sequence of image processing: The most requirements for image processing of images is that the images be available in digitized form, that is, arrays of finite length binary words. For digitization, the given Image is sampled on a discrete grid and each sample or pixel is quantized using a finite number of bits. The digitized image is processed by a computer. To display a digital image, it is first converted into analog signal, which is scanned onto a display.Closely related to image processing are computer graphics and computer vision. In computer graphics, images are manually made from physical models of objects, environments, and lighting, instead of being acquired (via imaging devices such as cameras) from natural scenes, as in most animated movies. Computer vision, on the other hand, is often considered high-level image processing out of which a machine/computer/software intends to decipher the physical contents of an . Page 38
  • 39. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 image or a sequence of images (e.g., videos or 3D full-body magnetic resonance scans). In modern sciences and technologies, images also gain much broader scopes due to the ever growing importance of scientific visualization (of often largescale complex scientific/experimental data). Examples include microarray data in genetic research, or real-time multi-asset portfolio trading in finance. Before going to processing an image, it is converted into a digital form. Digitization includes s sampling of image and quantization of sampled values. After converting the image into bit information, processing is performed. 7.1.2STEPS IN IMAGE PROCESSING The various steps required for any digital image processing applications are listed below: 1. Image grabbing or acquisition 2. Preprocessing 3. Segmentation 4. Representation and feature extraction 5. Recognition and interpretation. Preprocessing: A process to condition/enhance the image in order to make it suitable for further processing. It is more appropriate to explain the various steps in digital image processing with an application like mechanical components classification system. Let us consider an industrial application where the production department is involved in the manufacturing of certain mechanical components like bolts, nuts, and washers. Periodically, each one of these components must be sent to the stores via a conveyor belt and these components are dropped in the respective bins in the store room. In the image acquisition step using the suitable camera, the image of the component is acquired and then subjected to digitization. The camera used to acquire the image can be a monochrome or color TV camera which is capable of producing images at the rate of 25 images per sec. . Page 39
  • 40. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 The second step deals with the preprocessing of the acquired image. The key function of preprocessing is to improve the image such that it increases the chances for success of other processes. In this application, the preprocessing techniques are used for enhancing the contrast of the image, removal of noise and isolating the objects of interest in the image. The next step deals with segmentation—a process in which the given input image is partitioned into its constituent parts or objects. The key role of segmentation in the mechanical component classification is to extract the boundary of the object from the background. The output of the segmentation stage usually consists of either boundary of the region or all the parts in the region itself. The boundary representation is appropriate when the focus is on the external shape and regional representation is appropriate when the focus is on the internal property such as texture. The application considered here needs the boundary representation to distinguish the various components such as nuts, bolts, and washers. In the representation step the data obtained from the segmentation step must be properly transformed into a suitable form for further computer processing. The feature selection deals with extracting salient features from the object representation in order to distinguish one class of objects from another. In terms of component recognition the features such as the inner and the outer diameter of the washer, the length of the bolt, and the length of the sides of the nut are extracted to differentiate one component from another. Feature Extraction: A process to select important characteristics of an image or object. The last step is the recognition process that assigns a label to an object based on the information provided by the features selection. Interpretation is nothing but assigning meaning to the recognized object. The various steps discussed so far are depicted in the schematic diagram as shown in Figure. We have not yet discussed about the prior knowledge or the interaction between the knowledge base and the processing modules. Knowledge about the problem domain is coded into the image processing system in the form of knowledge database. This knowledge is as simple as . Page 40
  • 41. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 describing the regions of the image where the information of interest is located. Each module will interact with the knowledge base to decide about the appropriate technique for the right application. For example, if the acquired image contains spikelike noise the preprocessing module interacts with the knowledge base to select an appropriate smoothing filter-like median filter to remove the noise. . Page 41
  • 42. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 8: SPECIFICATION 8.1 Dc motor Fig 8.1:- Dc motor 8.1.1 Description: The 12V DC Geared Motor can be used in variety of robotics applications and is available with wide range of RPM and Torque. Length: 80mm Torque: 1.5 kg.cm Shaft Diameter: 6mm Weight: 130.00g m Speed : 10 RPM 8.2 Bo Motor 8.2.1 Description 60 rpm Single/Dual Shaft Plastic Gear Motor - Bo Motor gives good torque and rpm at lower operating voltages, which is the biggest advantage of these motors. Small shaft with matching wheels give optimized design for your application or . Page 42
  • 43. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 robot. Mounting holes on the body & light weight makes it suitable for in-circuit placement. Fig 8.2 :- Bo Motor Series: Bo Motor DC Geared Operating voltage : 3V to 9V Motor Speed: 60 rpm at 9V Motor torque: 1.5 Kgf.cm 8.3 CAMERA Fig 8.3: Camera head. 1/4 SONY CCD ; 520TVL resolution; 0.01LUX; color / black and white aut omatic switching Zoom: 10 times (1X optical, 1X electronic), focus automatically With high brightness LED light source. Pan:360°; Tilt: 180° Pressure:8-18PSI . Page 43
  • 44. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Shell material: aviation alu minum, stainless steel, the surface oxidation proc ess Size: diameter:40mm, length: 70 mm; 8.4 CIRCUIT DIAGRAM Fig 8.4. Circuit for wheel motor 8.5 DISTANCE METER Fig: 8.5 Distance meter Advanced digit counter, which have five digit counters. These are especially made for low cost hand winding machines. Our Digital Counters are equipped with left/right lever reset & both side drive shaft extension. Along with this, these are equipped with top going or top coming drive direction. Further specifications are as the following: Overall size (mm) : L-166, W-66, H-70 Mounting holes: 4 hole, 5mm X-98.5 mm, Y-16.5 mm. . Page 44
  • 45. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 8.6 BILL OF MATERIAL SR. NAME OF MATERIAL QUANTITY 1. M. S. round bar 02 2. Acrylic sheet 1*2 feet 02 3. Screw 40 4. Nut 40 5. M.S. plate 01 6 Sheet metal (pipe) 8 feet 01 7. D.C. Motor 12 8. Bo Motor 02 9. CCD Camera 01 10. Extension cable of camera 01 11. Remote 01 12. Robot wheel 12 13. 10 core wire 15 feet 01 14. Spring 02 15. Adapter ( 12V) 01 16. Supply wire 10 feet 01 17. Washer 40 NO. . Page 45
  • 46. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 8.7 COST OF ESTIMATION SR. NAME OF MATERIAL NO. 1. QUANTITY M. S. round bar 12.7mm dia. ×3mm 2 AMOUNT 60 thick 2. Acrylic sheet 3mm thick 2 160 3. Screw 12.7mm 40 20 4. Nut 40 20 5. M.S. plate 1 20 6 Sheet metal (pipe) 8 feet×9‖ 1 1500 7. D.C. Motor 12v/10 rpm 12 2220 8. Bo Motor 3v/60 rpm 2 325 9. CCD Camera 12 mega pixel 1 650 10. Extension cable of camera 10m 1 150 11. Remote 3 switch 1 90 12. Robot wheel 12 480 13. 10 core wire 15 feet 1 150 14. Spring 2 60 15. Adapter ( 12V) 1 450 16. Supply wire 10 feet 1 30 17. Washer 40 20 TOTAL . 6435 Rs. Page 46
  • 47. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 Chapter 9: Advantages of pipe inspection robot 9.1 Advantages The pipe inspection robot inspects situation inside the pipe which will be recorded and displayed on the monitor screen, it also facilitates working personnel for effective observation, detection, quick analysis and diagnosis. Save comprehensive investment, improve work efficiency, more accurate detection. Reduce the frequency of entering into the testing environment. Operating cost related to other method is low. Cost of manufacturing of this robot is relatively low. 9.2 Limitation of pipe inspection robot Pipe inspection robots have such limitations as their ability to turn in a Tshaped pipe or move in a plug valve. Another drawback of earlier robots is that the friction between the pipe and the cables for communication and power supply makes it difficult to move a long distance. A fiber optic communication system can reduce the friction. This robot does not work in water. This robot works only in empty pipe. . Page 47
  • 48. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 CONCLUSION: Robots play an important role in inside pipe-network maintenance and their repairing. Some of them were designed to realize specific tasks for pipes with constantdiameters, and other may adapt the structure function of the variation of the inspected pipe. In this projectinside pipe modular robotic system are proposed. An important design goal of these robotic systems is the adaptability to the inner diameters of the pipes. Thegivenprototype permits the usage of a mini-cam for visualization of the in-pipe inspection or other devices needed for failure detection that appear in the inner part of pipes (measuring systems with laser, sensors etc). Themajor advantage is that it could be used in caseof pipe diameter variation with the simplemechanism. We developed a pipe inspectionrobot that can be applied to 203mm- 254mmpipeline. A real prototype was developedto test the feasibility of this robot for inspectionof in-house pipelines. The types of inspection tasks are very different. A modular design was considered for easily adapted to new environments with small changes. Presence of obstacles within the pipelines is a difficult issue. In the proposed mechanism the problem is solved by a spring actuation and increasing the flexibility of the mechanism. The robot is designed to be able to traverse horizontal and vertical pipes. Several types of modules for pipe inspection minirobot have been presented. Many of the design goals of the Pipe inspection robot have been completely fulfilled. . Page 48
  • 49. Design and fabrication of pipe inspection robot 2013 REFRENCES: Books Theory of Machine -Prof. R. S. Khurmi & Prof. J. K. Gupta. Automation production systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Prof. M. P. Groover Links: http://www.ulcrobotics.com/products http://www.piacr.tk/Introduction to Pipe Inspection and Cleaning Robot http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094114X06002254 http://capitalpipeliners.com/cctv-pipe-inspection-method-applicability http://www.google.co.in/patents?hl=en&lr=&vid=USPAT5084764&id=tislA AAAEBAJ&oi=fnd&dq=+of+pipe+inspection&printsec=abstract#v=onepage &q=of%20pipe%20inspection&f=false http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/mostRecentIssue.jsp?punumber=3951 http://www.faadooengineers.com/tube/2012/06/11/mechanical-engineeringproject-pipe-inspection-robot/ En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pipeline_vedio_inspection . Page 49