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Agricultural marketing in North East India

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  • 1. Assignment On Agricultural Marketing in North East India: Prospects and Problems Submitted by: Suchiradipta Bhattacharjee Ph.D 1st year, 2nd Semester
  • 2. Introduction North East India comprising of seven states, also called the Seven Sisters, is a small but significant part of India squeezed between Nepal and Bangladesh. The seven states - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura – id connected to the rest of the country through the Siliguri Corridor of 21 to 40 kms in West Bengal. The region shares more than 4,500 kilometres (2,800 mi) of international border (about 90 per cent of its entire border area) with China (South Tibet) in the north, Myanmar in the east, Bangladesh in the southwest, and Bhutan to the northwest. In terms of geographical size, Northeast India constitutes about 8% of the total India's size and its population is approximately 40 million (2011 census), which represents 3.1% of the total Indian population (1,210 million). The Northeast region can be physiographically categorised into the Eastern Himalayas, Northeast Hills (Patkai-Naga Hills and Lushai Hills) and the Brahmaputra and the Barak Valley Plains. Northeast India (at the confluence of Indo- Malayan, Indo-Chinese, and Indian bio-geographical realms) has a predominantly humid sub-tropical climate with hot, humid summers, severe monsoons and mild winters. Along with the west coast of India, this region has some of the Indian sub-continent's last remaining rain forests which supports diverse flora and fauna and several crop species. Similarly, reserves of petroleum and natural gas in the region constitute a fifth of India's total potential. The region is covered by the mighty Brahmaputra-Barak river systems and their tributaries. Geographically, apart from the Brahmaputra, Barak and Imphal valleys and some flat lands in between the hills of Meghalaya and Tripura, the remaining two-thirds of the area is hilly terrain interspersed with valleys and plains; the altitude varies from almost sea-level to over 7,000 metres (23,000 ft) above MSL (Wikipedia, 2014a). And all these factors ultimately affect directly or indirectly the livelihood of the people which is intricately inter-wined with marketing facilities. All the increase in production and productivity is no good to the farmers if they cannot sell their produce in the market at a fair price. But to understand the marketing structure of North East India better, an overview of its agriculture and related infrastructure will help us get a better picture of the socio-economic condition of this part of the country.
  • 3. A) Agriculture in North East India: Present status The economy of North East India is basically agrarian. Along with settled agriculture, jhum (shifting cultivation) is still practised by a few indigenous groups of people. The inaccessible terrain and internal disturbances has made rapid industrialisation difficult in the region. The pattern of agricultural growth has however remained uneven across regions and crops. The NER continues to be a net importer of food grains even for its own consumption. In spite of covering 7.7% of the country’s total geographical area, NER produces only 1.5 % of the country’s total food grain production. Agriculture provides livelihood support to 70 % of the population of NER (NEDFi, 2014a). Because of structural and topographical constraints and also the livelihood pattern of the farmers of North East India, agriculture is still laid back and barely sufficient for livelihood. A large gap exists between the production and productivity of major agricultural crops in the region compared to the rest of the country. The following figures depict the area, production and productivity of agricultural crops in both NER and India as a whole. Fig 1. Area and production of food grains in NER 3910 3893 3894 3741 3767 3588 3729 3873 3889 4067 2765 6043 5932 6083 5706 5718 5158 5609 6365 6549 7499 7411 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 tonne)
  • 4. Fig. 2. Area and production of food grains in India Fig. 3. Area, production and productivity of pulses in NER 122779 113860 123446 120078 121599 123708 124067 122833 121333 126770 125491 212851 174771 213189 198362 208601 217282 230775 234466 218107 244492 259323 0 50000 100000 150000 200000 250000 300000 Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 tonnes) 188 178.8 187 175.7 174.8 183.6 198.6 195.3 199.7 124 118 128 116 136 142 142 143 143 833 796 792 881 864 852 865 844 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 tonne) Productivity (kg/ha)
  • 5. Fig. 4. Area, production and productivity of pulses in India Pulses are consumed as Dal, which is a cheap source of plant protein. Some pulse crops like Gram, Lobia, Urdbean & Moongbean are fed to animals as green fodder. Moong plants are also used as green manure which improves soil health and adds nutrient into the soil (Farmers’ Portal, 2014). North East plain zone is one of the important pulse growing area of the country and as it can be seen from Fig. 3 and 4, productivity of pulses is much higher in North East India compared to the country average. Fig. 5. Area, production and productivity of vegetables in NER The area under vegetables has been more or less constant over the years in North east India and the yield obtained is also basically very low. 22008 20496 23458 22763 22391 23191 23633 22093 23282 25509 13368 11125 14905 13130 13384 14198 14761 14566 14661 16510 544 607 543 635 577 597 612 625 659 625 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 tonne) Productivity (kg/ha) 329.3 383.1 468.2 474.5 382.3 2933 4094.4 5569 5685 4202 7.1 7.86 9.51 9.61 8.52 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 1991-92 2001-02 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 MT) Productivity (MT/ha)
  • 6. Table 1. Area and production of oilseeds in NER and India 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 NER Area (‘000 ha) 456 452 452 454 434 402 431 431 NER Production (‘000 tonnes) 259 274 258 280.1 222.6 240.7 251.3 260.1 India Production (‘000 tonnes) 20662 14838 25290 243535 27977.5 24289 29755 27719 (Source: NEDFi, 2014b) While the average productivity of oilseeds, which is the second most important agricultural crop in India after foodgrains, in North East India has been 603 kg/ ha on an average, overall productivity of oilseeds in the country in 2011-12 was 1133 kg/ha. This shows the huge difference between productivity of oilseed crops in the region (DAC, 2013). The diverse agro-climatic situations in the region offer excellent scope for growing different horticultural crop groups like fruits, vegetables, spices, plantation crops, medicinal and aromatic plants. A wide range of tropical, sub-tropical and temperate fruits such as lemon, mandarin, pineapple, passion fruit, banana, ginger, turmeric, and vegetables, both indigenous and exotic, are grown in the region. In terms of its contribution to the national production, the region accounts for about 5.1% fruits production of the country (North East Mega Food Park, 2014). Fig. 6. Area and production of fruits in NER B) Infrastructural facilities in NE India: 249 270 287 287 238 287 294 293 553 578 598 367 1871.6 1954 2079 2146 1620 1926 1866 1963 2143 2247 3086 3431 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Area ('000 ha) Production ('000 MT)
  • 7. The process of development had been rather slow in the North Eastern region for many reasons. The traditional system of self-governance and social customs of livelihood in the NER had remained virtually untouched during the British rule. Creation of rail network for tea growing areas for commercial interests was, perhaps, the only major economic activity in the region. This was coupled with extraction of Petroleum and some Coal Mining in the Assam, Meghalaya and Nagaland belt. Partition of the country in 1947 which carved out Bangladesh, hitherto East Bengal, completely isolated the North Eastern region save a slender chicken's neck leading to severe distortion in the socio-economic situation. In effect, the market and the centres of production got separated by a political dividing line which had severe economic repercussion on the livelihood of people along the entire Bangladesh border. All the produce from agriculture and allied activities had hitherto ready-made markets in Bangladesh, which got cut-off. The physical infrastructures that mostly affect agriculture and allied activities related income of this region includes roads, irrigation, cold storages and market infrastructure which together hold the key for growth of this region. i) Roads: Roads are the underlying foundations for the entire economic development of the North East. The region, for geographic and sometimes strategic reasons has very thin railway network and air service cannot be the means to take care of the humungous transport needs of even one state, leave alone eight states. Thus how the road network shapes up is more than an integral part of the story of the development of the region, it is also a very key index. Table 2. Total length of road constructed from 20005-06 to 2009-10 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 Under PMGSY (km) 1698 2593 2539 3575 22081 Under Bharat Nirman (km) 1421 2520 2098 2972 2193 Total 3119 5113 4637 6547 24273 (Source: NEDFi, 2014c) India has one of the largest road networks in the world, aggregating to 4.7 million kilometres as of 2011 and consists of Expressways, National Highways, State Highways, Major District Roads, Other District Roads and Village Roads. Half the network is not paved and the National Highways account for only 2.0 per cent of the total length and 40 per cent of the total traffic (Planning Commission, 2011). The important component of infrastructure necessary for growth of agricultural marketing is communication/ transport which is utterly
  • 8. deficient. Almost 58% of the villages in the region do not have proper link roads. According to an estimate, 88% of the total arrivals in selected primary markets in Manipur, 70% in Meghalaya, 56% in Assam and 48% in Mizoram are carried on head load by the producers. The average distance covered varies from 5-10 KM (Meghalaya State Agricultural Marketing Portal, 2014). Road transport is the primary mode of transport from the producer’s yard to the primary, secondary and terminal markets but North East India forms only a minute part of the road network of India which is again with very less maintenance which takes a toll on the economic activities of the region considering it is the most important means of transportation and connectivity in the region. ii) Market infrastructure: Agricultural Marketing continues to be the mainstay of life for majority of the Indian population. It contributes around 25% of the GDP and employs 65% of the workforce in the country. The Government of India under the ministry of agriculture has also set up specific commodity Boards and export promotion council for monitoring and boosting the production, consumption, marketing and export of various agricultural commodities. The government also promotes organised marketing of agricultural commodities in the country through a network of regulated markets. Regulated markets and market yard: Government organized marketing of agriculture in the country through the network of regulated markets established under the provisions of the Agricultural Produce Market Act enacted by the states and union territories. The regulated markets have helped in mitigating the market handicaps of producer’s sellers. These have also provided physical facilities and institutional environment to the wholesalers commission agents, traders and other functionaries for conducting marketing activities. Of the eight states in North East India, Manipur and Mizoram have not passed APMC Act yet and so market regulation does not exist in these states. Rural marketing is largely unorganized in the region and dominated by the private traders. The north-eastern states have high production of fruits, spices and cashew in the recent past but could not fetch market price equivalent to the other states. Major share of marketable surplus finds its outlet in the poorly equipped markets held periodically in the villages. The existing marketing system is three-tier as in other parts of the country. The primary markets are held periodically at village level, wholesale assembling markets at block level and terminal markets located at towns and at the places from where the goods could be transported. Marketing of agricultural commodities in the north-eastern states, by and large, is dominated by the private traders due to the absence of proper implementation of market regulation act by the state agricultural marketing boards
  • 9. Table 3. Number of agricultural markets in North East India Sl. No. States No. of wholesale markets No. of rural periodic market No. of regulated market No. of sub yards 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 2001 2011 1 Arunachal Pradesh - 6 50 63 - 129 - 113 2 Assam 172 405 650 735 16 226 19 206 3 Manipur 20 20 49 98 APMC Act not implemented - - 4 Meghalaya 5 35 82 84 2 2 - - 5 Mizoram 8 10 35 105 APMC Act not implemented - - 6 Nagaland 16 19 80 174 - 18 - - 7 Sikkim - 7 - 12 - 1 - - 8 Tripura 19 84 321 554 21 21 - - Total 240 586 1276 1825 39 397 19 319 India 6539 21238 7246 4813 (Source: Meghalaya State Agricultural Marketing Portal, 2014; CSO, 2011) As we can see from Table 3, in the last decade, there has been a very high growth in the number of markets in the region and this growth has been especially boosted by market regulation and establishment of market infrastructure in rural areas especially. In most of the states the governments have taken initiative in establishing pucca market yards but bringing the farmers to the yards still remain a good challenge as they still prefer to sell the produce at farm gate at minimum price to the middlemen and transport is again a major reason for that. Growth of market after establishment of APMC: Government organized the sale, storage and marketing of agricultural produce for each state through the network of regulated markets established under the provisions of the Agricultural Produce Market Act enacted by the states and union territories. The markets covered under APMC have been brought under the ambit of the regulation. The regulated markets have helped in mitigating the market handicaps of producer’s sellers. These have also provided physical facilities and institutional environment to the wholesalers commission agents. Regulated markets attract the farmers and buyers creating competitive trade environment thereby offering best of prices to the producer- sellers.
  • 10. iii) Agricultural Research Institute with respect to marketing: National Institute of Agricultural Marketing (NIAM) is a premier national level institute set up by the Ministry of Agriculture, of India to cater to the needs of agricultural marketing personnel in India and South East Asian countries. NIAM was established on 8 August 1988 at Jaipur, Rajasthan, as an autonomous body set up as a registered society. The institute is dedicated to Chaudhary Charan Singh, the fifth prime minister of India from where it derives its full name, the Chaudhary Charan Singh National Institute of Agricultural Marketing. NIAM should be the nodal agency for implementation of training, extension and research programmes in agricultural marketing. NIAM imparts training to various level functionaries in the thrust areas identified in the field of agricultural marketing for client organization. The training is imparted to senior and middle level executives of agricultural and horticultural departments, agro- industrial corporation, apex level cooperatives, commodity boards and commercial banks. Besides these target clients, the institute also has a mandate to reach out to farmers to impart training on management. The institute conducts long-term and short-term research on the various issues of agricultural marketing and allied discipline. NIAM has been engaged in preparing development proposals and providing required consultancy services for institutions and corporations dealing with agricultural marketing. NIAM offers a two-year PGDM (ABM) (AICTE approved) program for students with graduation and post- graduation in agriculture and allied sciences. iv) Agro Industries in North East Region: The economy of North- East India has got its definite identity due to its peculiar physical, economic and socio-cultural characteristics. This region consists of eight states viz., Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Sikkim. There are differences among the eight States in the North Eastern region with respect to their resource endowments, level of industrialisation as well as infrastructural facilities. Industrially, the NER continues to be the most backward region in the country, and the states in the region hardly have any industrial base, except perhaps Assam, because of its traditional tea, oil and wood based industries .To some extent Meghalaya has made some headway in setting up of small and medium industries. Agro-based industries it includes tea industry, sugar industry, grain mill products industry (rice, oil and flour mills), food processing industry and textile industry. Some of industries in north east india are: 1. Tea Industry: Tea being an agricultural plantation crop and a major revenue generator, it plays a vital role in improving the socio-economic condition of the States of North Eastern Region of India. Assam and Tripura are the traditional tea growing
  • 11. areas in this region. Assam is the largest producer of tea in India. Some effort has been made in the recent past to introduce tea in all the other North Eastern States viz Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland and Sikkim. Assam accounts for nearly 53% of the all India production and 69% of North Indian production. 2. Oil Industry: Assam is the first state in the country where in 1889 oil was struck at Digboi Assam can boast of oldest oil refinery in the country (set up at Digboi) in 1901. The refinery, now belonging to the Assam Division of the Indian Oil Corporation, has a refining capacity of 3 lakh tonnes of petrol, kerosene, diesel and other petroleum products. Assam has the oldest and the longest cross country crude oil pipeline (about 1148 km). It is endowed with oil shale reserves, estimated at 137 billion tonnes with a recovery factor of 20.35%, which is capable of sustaining its crude oil production in the years to come. It also has a significant reserve of low ash high sulphur coal. Oil Exploration in Assam has the highest success ratio in the world. Assam also accounts for one of the biggest pool of professional and skilled manpower engaged in the oil and petroleum industry. 3. Tourism industry: The North Eastern part of India is almost another world. It is a place of magical beauty and bewildering diversity. It is a land, where exotic wildlife exist in the jungles, where flow rivers like the Bramhaputra, the Barak and the Imphal and where the hills are full of breathtaking landscapes.With more than a hundred and fifty tribes speaking as many languages, this region is a melting pot of variegated cultural mosaic of people and races, an ethnic tapestry of many hues and shades. The folk culture is still vital in this region. Well integrated with life and nature, the folk artworks have a common element of tune and tone. It is a tourists’ delight. 4. Silk industry: Sericulture is also a very important agro-based industry and in developing countries like India, a high priority is being accorded to this sector because of its employment potential, particularly in the rural and semi-urban parts of the country.Sericulture has an important role in the economic profile of many of the North Eastern states. Some of the states, which have accorded a fairly high priority to sericulture and silk weaving, include Assam, Manipur and Mizoram. Assam is the most important silk producing state in the North Eastern Region. .Assam has got a suitable climate and environment for practising sericulture. v) Information sources: A number of initiatives by governments aim to provide market price services, driven by the view that greater price transparency is a public good. Price has been disseminated in many ways—chalked on notice boards, broadcast by local
  • 12. radio stations, published in newspapers, and (more recently) posted on websites. The information on these websites is confined mainly to product standards and specifications as well as market studies—particularly of external markets but increasingly of local value chains—including databases of contacts such as buyers, traders, agricultural processors, and input suppliers. For market information, farmers rely very little on the Internet but turn to multiple other sources, including farmer organizations, other farmers, newspapers, radio, TV, and short messaging service (SMS) and voice services. A few trader also depended on APMC bulletins, agricultural magazines and announcement by APMC, district information office and district statistical officer on daily basis whereas, the annual reports are being circulated to the Zilla Panchayat, agricultural research stations, deputy commissioner and state marketing board. vi) Commodity boards in North East Region: The commodity boards function under the purview of ministry of commerce, government of india. This commodity boards are mainly confined to plantation and commercial crops in india. The different types of commodity boards established in india are, tea board, rubber board, coffee board, spices board, tobacco board, coir board, silk board. Given below are the commodity offices in north east region. 1. Tea board: a) Guwahati – assistant director of tea development, north eastern zonal office b) Silchar – assistant director of tea development, tea board c) Jorhat – executive director of tea development (plantation), tea board, tea research association complex. d) Itanagar – assistant director tea development tea board, regional office. e) Agartala – assiatant director of tea development, tea board, regional office f) Tezpur – assistant director of tea development tea board. 2. Rubber board: a) Dimapur - Rubber Board Regional Office - Development Officer b) Agartala - Rubber Board Regional Office -Deputy Rubber Production Commissioner c) Dharmanagar - Rubber Board Regional Office - Deputy Rubber Production d) Jorhat - Rubber Board Regional Office -Development Officer commissioner e) Silchar - Rubber Board Regional Office - Development Officer f) Tura - Rubber Board Regional Office - Development Officer
  • 13. g) Guwahati - Rubber Board Regional Office - Deputy Rubber Production Commissioner 3. Coffee board: a) Assam - Regional Coffee Research station, Diphu - 782 460, Karbi Anglong District 4. Spices board: Regional offices at Tripura, Mizoram, Manipur, Nagaland, Sikkim, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Meghalaya. vii) Minimum Support Price: The Commission for Agricultural Costs & Prices (CACP since 1985, earlier named as Agricultural Prices Commission) came into existence in January 1965. Currently, the Commission comprises a Chairman, Member Secretary, one Member (Official) and two Members (Non-Official). The non-official members are representatives of the farming community and usually have an active association with the farming community. The price policy for agricultural commodities is an integral part of India’s overall agricultural policy. The MSP for important cereals, pulses, oilseeds, and other commercial crops, namely, cotton, jute and sugarcane, are fixed by the Government every year on the basis of the recommendations made by the CACP. One of the important factors considered by the CACP in making its recommendations on MSPs for different crops is the cost of cultivation/production. An analysis of various price policy issues in the emerging socio-economic environment requires advance information on the production of different crops, the supply-demand scenario, and regular monitoring of price movements in both the domestic and international markets. An agency has been established in the North Eastern states of Nagaland, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh and Tripura for generating estimates of area and production of principal crops and land-use statistics, through complete enumeration of 20 per cent of the villages every year and the conduct of crop-cutting experiments which is used in determining the MSPs. MSPs of some of the important agricultural crops grown in North East are given in Table 4. Table 4. MSPs of some important crops grown in North East India Commodity Year and MSPs(in Rs.) 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 KHARIF Paddy common 645 850 1000 1000 1080 1250 1310 Paddy 675 880 1030 1030 1110 1280 1345
  • 14. (F)/Grade A Maize 620 840 840 880 980 1175 1310 Arhar 1550 2000 2300 3000 3200 3850 4300 Moong 1700 2520 2520 2900 3300 4300 4300 Groundnut 1500 2100 2100 2300 2700 3700 4000 Sesamum 1580 2750 2850 2900 3400 4200 4500 Soybean Black 910 1350 1350 1400 1650 2200 2500 Soybean Yellow 1050 1390 1390 1400 1690 2240 2650 RABI Wheat 750 1000 1050 1100 1120 1285 1350 Gram 1445 1660 1730 1760 2100 2800 3000 Lentil 1545 1700 1870 1870 2250 2800 3000 Rapeseed- mustard 1715 1800 1830 1830 1850 2500 3000 (Source: DMI, 2014) Problem and prospects in Agricultural Marketing There are several challenges involved in marketing of agricultural produce. There is limited access to the market information, literacy level among the farmers is low, multiple channels of distribution that eats away the pockets of both farmers and consumers. The government funding of farmers is still at nascent stage and most of the small farmers still depend on the local moneylenders who are leeches and charge high rate of interest. There are too many vultures that eat away the benefits that the farmers are supposed to get. Although we say that technology have improved but it has not gone to the rural levels as it is confined to urban areas alone. There are several loopholes in the present legislation and there is no organized and regulated marketing system for marketing the agricultural produce. The farmers have to face so many hardships and have to overcome several hurdles to get fair and just price for their sweat. The globalization has brought drastic changes in India across all sectors and it is more so on agriculture, farmers and made a deep impact on agricultural marketing. It is basically because of majority of Indians are farmers. It has brought several challenges and threats like uncertainty, turbulence, competitiveness, apart from compelling them to adapt to changes arising out of technologies. If it is the dark cloud there is silver lining like having excellent
  • 15. export opportunities for our agricultural products to the outside world. Agricultural Market Reforms Below are the certain measures that can be affected to bring out the reforms in agricultural marketing so as to ensure just and fair price for the farming community. • Provide loans to the farmer at low rate of interest so that they will be freed from the clutches of local moneylenders who squeeze them. • It is essential to provide subsidized power supply and loans to the farmers as the expenses towards power consumption takes considerable amount of investments. • Generate a new distribution network that connects the farmers directly to the consumers to get maximum returns • Elimination of the existing loopholes in the present legislations is warranted. • There should be stringent action against black marketers and hoarders who buy the stocks from farmers at cheap prices and create artificial demand and then sell the stocks at higher prices. • Creating local outlets at each village where the farmers sell their stocks directly to the consumers or the authorized buyers at fixed prices would help to a great extent. • At the village level there should be counselling centres for farmers about the worth of their stocks so that they can get fair price. • The existing legislations are outdated and are not in tune with the changing trends and technological inventions and the same need to be updated forthwith. • The retail revolution has brought several changes in the retail sector where the retail giants buy in bulk directly from the suppliers and sell to the consumers directly and in this process they pass the benefits to the consumers as well. • The government is already fulfilling the objective of providing reasonable prices for the basic food commodities through Public Distribution System with a network of 350,000 fair- price shops that are monitored by state governments. It is more effective in states like Punjab, Haryana and some parts of Uttar Pradesh and it need to be strengthen in North east India also. • Government should levy single entry tax instead of levying multiple entry taxes either directly or indirectly for the transactions and activities that are involved in agricultural marketing such as transportation, processing, grading etc., as it would benefit both farmers and consumers directly. References
  • 16. Agricultural Marketing, (unknown). Concept paper on reforms in agricultural marketing (APMC Act). CSO (Central Statistical Organization), (2011). Number of wholesale, rural, primary and regulated markets in India. Statistical Abstract India, Ministry of Statistics and Program Implementation, Government of India. DAC (Department of Agriculture and Cooperation). (2013). Annual Report 2012-13. Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India. Farmers’ Portal. (2014). Pulses. Retrieved from http://farmer.gov.in/cropstaticspulses.html. Accessed on 30.05.2014. ICT in Agriculture source book, (unknown). Strengthening Agricultural Marketing. Retrieved from http://www.ictinagriculture.org/sourcebook/ict-agriculture-sourcebook. India: An Overview, International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science, vol. 3(3): 108-118. Krishna Kanta Handiqui State Open University, (2014). Introduction to Northeast economies. Retrieved from http://www.kkhsou.in/main/about.html Meghalaya State Agricultural Marketing Portal. (2014). Agricultural Marketing. Department of Agriculture, Government of Meghalaya. NEDFi (North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited). (2014a). North East India. Retrieved from http://databank.nedfi.com/content/north-east-india. Accessed on 30.05.2014. NEDFi (North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited). (2014b). Oilseeds. Retrieved from http://databank.nedfi.com/content/oilseeds (Accessed on 29.05.2014). NEDFi (North Eastern Development Finance Corporation Limited). (2014c). Roadways. Retrieved from http://databank.nedfi.com/content/roadways (Accessed on 29.05.2014). North East Mega Food Park. (2014). The North East at a glance. Retrieved from http://www.nefoodpark.com/background.php?bck=3. Accessed on 29.05.2014. Planning Commission. (2011). Faster, sustainable and more inclusive growth: An approach to 12th Five Year Plan. Government of India. Tea Board of India, (unknown). Retrieved from http://www.teaboard.gov.in/Hyperlinking.asp Vaidivelu, A and Kiran, B.R, (2013). Problems and Prospects of Agricultural Marketing in
  • 17. Wikipedia. (2014a). North East India. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Northeast_India. Accessed on 30.05.2014; Updated on 29.5.2014. Wikipedia. (2014b). Spice Board of India. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spices_Board. Accessed on 03.06.2012, Updated on 31.03.2014. Wikipedia, (2014c). National Institute of Agricultural Marketing. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ National Institute of Agricultural Marketing. Accessed on 03.06.2012. Updated on 18.04.2014.