Communication Concepts, Theories And Models1Presentation Transcript
Communication Concepts,Theories, Models and Processes Presented By Suchitra Patnaik
Topics For Discussion
What is Communication?
concepts , process, functions and conditions
Different types of communication
The different channels of communication
The word Communication has been derived from the Latin word ‘ Communis ” which means to make Common
Stop Communication And Life Just Withers Away….
Sharing of experiences on the basis of commonness--- Wilbur Schramm
Communication is the process which increases commonality--- Mc quail
Communication is an exchange of facts, ideas, opinions, or opinions by two or more persons-------------- Newman & Summer
It is the exchange of information and transmission of meaning -------- Katz & Khan
The Process…… Source M Receiver Scholars like Aristotle and Plato have termed the process of communication as Rhetoric. From the very beginning communication was seen as a process in which the speaker constructed messages to be transmitted to the receiver to bring about a desired response in his or her receiver—as set out in the figure below.
Pre-conditions for effective communication process
Area of commonness
Drum beats/ Smoke signals/ pigeon service/letters word of mouth
Printing technology/ newspapers
Different types of Communication
Intra personal Communication
Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
Interpersonal Group Mass Communication
Written Audio A/V
This refers to internal communication going on within a person.We receive the stimuli either through the senses or from the thought itself, these messages are sent to the brain as electric signals.
This refers to direct one to one communication between two persons. There are three stages : Phatic, Personal and Intimate. This is the most direct form of communication which utilizes both verbal and non verbal methods. This forms of communicatin is also called as Dyadic.
A M B
Successful interpersonal communication is possible only when there is
Openness : Primary willingness to open up
Empathy : Ability to understand the other person’s feelings
Supportiveness : Supporting the other person's view point
Positiveness: A positive feeling for the other person
Equality: differences between persons to be ignored
Homophily: The degree of similarity between the parties engaged in interpersonal communication
Redundancy: by repetition and illustration of the same point in different ways one can drive home a point / idea effectively
It takes place between two or more persons.The degree of directness and intimacy depends on the size of the group.
A B C D
Group Communication has been extended by the tools of Mass communication: Newspaper, Radio,Films,TV and Internet
Despite its large reach, the primary drawback of the medium is its lack of scope for feedback and its impersonal touch.
S Sender M Receiver C
The non-verbal communication is important for a variety of reasons:
It acts as a major determinant for meaning in interpersonal context
Feelings and emotions are more accurately exchanged by verbal and non-verbal means
True feelings and emotions can be expressed only through non verbal means
Types of Non-Verbal Communication
Kinesis: Communication through body motion or behavior.
Paralinguistic: Communication through gestures, voice of tone, or signals
Proxemic: Communication through space
Functions of Communication
Debate and Discussions
Transmission of Knowledge
Theories and models of Communication
In the years before World War II mass communication per se was hardly investigated. Scholars from different academic disciplines like history, sociology, looked into the specific role of the mass medium bringing about changes in society relevant to their discipline. Some basic studies were conducted but it lacked focus and direction. Decades later communication was studied in North American Universities where degree programmes were offered in mass communication studies.
The entire subject of communication can be studied through two schools of thought:
The Semiotics School
The Process School
The Semiotics school
The foundations for semiotics was laid by Morris-1946, for the theory of languages or symbols. The semiotics school approaches communication as generation of meaning a mixture of signs, symbols and messages, which the sender wants to convey and expects a specific reaction from the receiver of the messages-the sign itself. This study covers the ways the variety of codes have developed in order to meet the needs of society and culture. The focus of the semiotics school is on the text. He divided it into three areas of general study: syntactic, semantics and pragmatics.
SYNTACTIC : The study of how symbols relate to each other
SEMANTICS : A study of symbol to referent relationship
PRAGMATICS : A study of how symbols relate to the people
The Process school
This school of thought looks at communication as a process, a simple transmission of messages and meanings which the sender wants to convey irrespective of the reaction of the receiver or his interaction. Examples: Works of art, culture and music fall under this category, because messages are not created with any motive, but as an expression of the senders feelings or emotions. The receiver is free to interpret the message in his own way.The process school of thought is also called as LINEAR school
The difference between the two schools of thought
The linear process schools and their models give the text no more attention than other stages in the process; while the semiotics school of thought attaches primary importance to the text.
The status of the receiver or reader who in semiotics is seen performing a very important role. The reader ascertains meanings to texts
The simplest definition of a Model is that is an analogue.
Models represent system or processes. They are a symbolic way at looking at systems to help us to think about them more lucidly.
Models give us an idea of complicated objects or events in a general way
The most important purpose of model building is to assist in the development of more precise theories. Theories are not models and the most fundamental difference between them is that the theory is an explanation and a model is a representation.
A model can be constructed to describe a particular form of behavior of which no theory exists or is inadequate.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle’s Model Speaker Speech Effect Audience This model was developed some 2000 years ago. Aristotle includes in this model the 5 essential elements of communication: Speaker, Speech or message, Audience , Effect and Occasion. In his rhetoric Aristotle advices the speaker on constructing a speech for different audiences on different occasion for different effects. This model is most applicable for public speaking. Occasion
Lasswell’s Model-1948 Lasswell states that in order to understand the process of mass communication one has to understand each of the stages. This model stresses on the effect rather than the message itself.effect means observable or measurable change In the receiver. It also suggests that any change in the elements will change the effect. Untill the 1960’s Lasswells questions dominated the scene of Mass Media research WHO Speaker What Message Channel Medium Whom Audience Effect =
Shannon and Weaver’s Model-1949 Source Transmitter Channel Receiver Destination Message Signal Received signal Message Noise Source
Shannon and Weaver’s Model-1949
This model is also called as the engineering model of communication. It is an clear example of the process school of thought.
Also referred to as the Mathematical theory of communication as it provided an approach to the problem of how to send maximum information in a given channel.
It introduced the concept of noise for the first time
As engineers during world war II, Shannon and Weaver’s primary concern was to find out the most effective means of human communication.
This is the first of the models to introduce the role of communication in a society or a social relationship
The primary role according to Newcomb is to maintain equilibrium in a social relationship.
A B X
Charles E.Osgood's Model- 1954
Here communication is seen as a dynamic process where there is an healthy interactive relationship between the source and the receiver.
Interpreter Encoder Decoder Encoder Decoder Interpreter M M A B
Wilbur Schramm’s Model
Schramm proceeded from a simple human communication model to a more complicated model that accounted for the accumulated experiences of two individuals trying to communicate and then to a model that considered human communication with interaction between two individuals.
In his second model Schramm introduces the notion that only what is shared in the fields of experience of both source and destination is actually communicated, because only that proportion of the signal is common to both of them.
The Third model sees communication as an interactive process with both the receiver and the sender acting as encoder, interpreter, transmitter and receiver of signals.
Wilbur Schramm’s Models Receiver Source Encoder Signal Decoder S S De D Field of experience Field of experience E Model I Model II
Wilbur Schramm’s Models Interpreter Encoder Decoder Encoder Decoder Interpreter M M A B Model III
Gebner’s Model-1956 Means and control E M 2 S E 1 Percept E event Selection context availability M SE 1 Selection context availability Access to channels of media control Content Signal Event Human/ machine M’s percept of event E Human M 2 ’s Perception
David Berlo’s Model-1960 Source Communication skills Attitudes Knowledge Social system Culture Channel Seeing Hearing Touching Smelling Tasting Receiver Communication skills Attitudes Knowledge Social system Culture M Element Treatment Structure Content
Since the world War II several studies have been conducted in the field of communication. Most of such studies are based on the impact of communication and media on the human society.
One of the earliest studies in this category is the Hypodermic / Bullet Theory.
Hypodermic/ Bullet Theory
This theory was based on the principle that media is all powerful and its consumers are passive and naïve. It further stated messages channelised through media are like MAGIC BULLETS which not only strikes the audience immediately but also influences them to take up the desired action immediately.
Media X 1 X 2 X 3 X 4 X 5
Two Step Flow of Information
The main authors of this theory were: Paul Lazaefleld, Elihu Katz, Berelson and Hazelduadet.
This theory was the first to state that perhaps mass media did not exert the kind of influence on the audience as was generally believed .
The audience arrived at decisions not directly under the influence of mass media but more by means of interaction among themselves.This was the finding of a study conducted way back in the 1940’s during U.S presidential elections.
Mass Media f t s r p a b c d e i h g l m n o q v u k j Step 1 Step 2
Communication Uses and Effect Theories
Agenda Setting Theory
Catharsis and Narcosis Theory
Theory of Incidental Effects
Spiral of silence theory
Third person effect
Social learning Theory
Uses and Gratification Theory
1.Agenda Setting Theory
The 1 st systematic study of Agenda Setting was conducted by Malcom Mc Comb and Donald shaw during the American Presidential Campaign of 1968; the duo focused on the 100 undecided voters of Chapple Hill who were susceptible to the media’s agenda.
They made an content analysis of all the media channels used by residents of Chappell hill ; and found an interlink between the priorities of issues identified by the media and those identified by the group of respondents.
In another study conducted by G.Rayfunkhouse in the 1960s, an attempt was made to study the relationship between public rating of important issues and media content. He also studied the relationship between media coverage and reality.
Rayfunkhouse found that the issues to which the public gave a high ranking were also issues which media gave coverage. Similarly he attributed that media coverage did not correspond to reality.
This is also called the limited effects model. Klapper who propounded this theory stated that mass media has limited effects on its audience. It merely reinforces existing values and attitudes.
Lazarsfeld and Merton further stated that the Mass media cannot be relied upon to work for changes.
3.Catharisis and Narcosis Theory
This theory was propounded by Lazarsfeld, Merton and Winn.
They argue that the media have a “ Narcotising dysfunction”. They state that the audience are so engrossed/ lullified during their exposure to mass media particularly A/V media , that it becomes difficult for them to make logical reactions.
It engrosses the audience attention to the extent that it prevents them from taking any logical decisions.
This theory was propounded by Semyour Feshbatch.
Feshbatch’s experiments in the lab. Showed that media content particularly non-violence helps to vent out frustration.He studied the same by setting up two groups of respondents in control and experimental setup.
Students of both groups were exposed to verbal abuse, later the experimental group was shown a violent film while the other group was not shown the same.
Findings indicated that the experimental group respondents had feelings of less hostility then that of the control group.
4. Theory of Incidental effects
This theory was formulated by Aldous Huxley.
He stated that media effects were limited to copying of style, mannerism. etc.
Huxley stated that Television could be an effective agent of incidental learning among children.
5. Cultivation Theory / Cultural Indicators Theory
This theory was formulated by George Gebner.
Heavy TV viewing tends to induce audiences to adopt perception and values which were constantly portrayed in different programmes.
This phenomenon was more dominant among heavy TV watchers than those who watched less.E.g.: Soaps on TV inculcate a picture of affluence all around.
6. Spiral of Silence Theory
This theory was formulated by NOELL NEUMANN.
This theory postulates that individuals have a quasi- statistical sense organ by which they determine their opinion represent the minority point of view.In such a case they remain silent.
In her analysis of German elections, Neuman states that individuals hate to be isolated from their fellow beings and thus tend to follow the dominant opinion.
Thus Mass media shapes:
as to which opinion is dominant
which impressions are increasing
which opinions one can utter in public without fear of being isolated.
7. The Third Person effect
The theory is propounded by W. Phillips Davison
The hypothesis suggests that people tend to over estimate the impact of mass media on others rather than themselves.
Mass communication messages will have greater impact on others than on themselves; due to this perception they take action.
Thus people are more influenced by media than they really think they are..
8. Social Learning Theory
The theory is propounded by Albert Bandura
Many effects of Mass Media can happen through the process of social learning.
Human Beings learn things by observation and model behaviors.
9. Uses and Gratification theory
The theory is propounded by Elihu katz, Denis Mcquail and Michale Gurewitch
This theory studied how the audience utilised the media.
Based on Audience study a set of gratifications were determined.
Cognative Needs (Acquiring Information)
Affective Needs ( emotions, pleasure and asthetic experience)
Personal Integrative Needs( Strengthening credibility, confidence, status)
Social Integrative Need (Strengthening contacts with family)
Tension Release Needs( Escape and Diversion)
Normative Theories of Press
The term was first coined by Sibert which refers to an arrangement in which the press is subordinate to state power.This theory is more relevant to repressive or dictatorial regime where there is press censorship
FREE PRESS THEORY:
Also known as the Libertarian theory, is based on the fundamental right of an individual to freedom of expression. The same is seen in the 1 st amendment to the American constitution.
However Milton, Stuart and Mill state that Press Freedom cannot be provided unrestrained.
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY THEORY:
The term was first originated in the Hutchins committee report-1947 tat was appointed in the U.S. According to it the press had not fulfilled the informational , social and moral needs of the society. It led to the establishment of regulatory bodies like PRESS COUCILS
COMMUNIST MEDIA THEORY:
Also known as the SOVIET MEDIA theory, is based on the basic tenets and Marx and Engels. It envisages that media should be under the control of the working class. There was no private ownership of the media and was required to serve positive functions in the society relating to information, education , motivation and mobilsation.
According to this theory media must work under the control of the state.