Wk4 1 hr2


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Wk4 1 hr2

  1. 1. <ul><li>REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>H.R. MGMT II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination in employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WRAP-UP </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>REVIEW: PROVISIONS OF EMPLOYMENT CONTRACT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms of employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covenant not to compete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment at will </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>REVIEW: ENFORCEABILITY OF CONTRACT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promissory estoppel: Agreement w/o consideration is still legally bound if  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A reliance is reasonably expected when it was made </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In fact, there was a reliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The party relied upon has damage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>DISPARITY IN WORK PLACES IN TERMS OF  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Termination </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>RELEVANT LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (1964 & 1991) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>U.S. Constitution (14 th AM Equal protection clause) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Age Discrimination in Employment Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Americans with Disability Act of 1990 </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>TITLE VII OF CIVIL RIGHTS ACT: SCOPE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No discrimination in work place based upon race, color, religion, sex, or national origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to apply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>15+ employees (Not mom & pop business) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not for independent contractors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not for bona fide membership club (e.g., August National) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No “benign” discrimination allowed (e.g., no discrimination against the racial/religious majority, WASP) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>TITLE VII OF CIVIL RIGHTS ACT: PROCEDURE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EEOC: Equal Employment Opportunity Commission </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grievance: Local EEOC  Federal EEOC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If not resolved at the federal EEOC, petitioner may sue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remedy: back pay, reinstatement, retroactive seniority, attorney fees, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>TITLE VII OF CIVIL RIGHTS ACT: 2 CAUSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disparate treatment: Intentional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Direct evidence: Rare </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inference of discrimination (burden-shift test) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiff: “It was an intentional discrimination” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Defendant: “No, we have non-discriminatory reason” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiff: “Defendant’s argument is pretextual” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disparate impact: Protected group negatively affected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Law is written neutral but creates unintended discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plaintiff must prove both discriminatory impact + discriminatory intent </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>TITLE IX OF EDUCATION AMENDMENTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No discrimination based upon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If school receiving federal funds </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE: THE LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th AM of U.S. Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enacted during the reconstruction era after Civil War </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted racial discrimination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Now expanded to all discrimination if done by state </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ No state shall make or enforce any law … [to deny] equal protection of the laws” </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE: THE LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Threshold question: Discriminatory practice must be a state action (e.g., state law) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Done by state or its branch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: BGSU Recreation Center discriminating Caucasian students in membership fee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different rule based on types of discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict scrutiny </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate scrutiny </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rational basis review </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE: STRICT SCRUTINY RULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination based on “suspect classification” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race, ethnicity, national origin, & alienage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strict scrutiny standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State law must be “necessary” to achieving a “compelling” government interest (otherwise, illegal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courts almost always strike down </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE: INTERMEDIATE SCRUTINY RULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Quasi-suspect classification” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender, legitimacy of birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate scrutiny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State law must be “substantially related” to achieving an “important” government interest (otherwise illegal) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courts usually strike down </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>EQUAL PROTECTION CLAUSE: RATIONAL BASIS REVIEW RULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Non-suspect classification” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disability, sexual orientation, age, place of injury* </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational basis review standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State law must be “rationally related” to achieving a “legitimate” governmental goal (easy for government) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Courts usually uphold the law </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Age discrimination  subject to “rational basis test” (not enough to protect seniors from discrimination) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Congress specifically wanted to protected seniors (40+ years old) by enacting this law </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CLAIMS UNDER ADA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination based on disability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense: Undue hardship, significant risk to public </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>TYPES OF SEXUAL HARASSMENT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quid pro quo harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Harassment was done in exchange of job-related benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relatively easy to prove </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hostile environment harassment: 2 prong test </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether a reasonable person would have perceived the sexually offensive behavior as hostile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Whether the plaintiff’s experience was sufficiently severe to perform his or her job (hard to prove) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT: THE LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title VII: Race, color, religion, sex, or national origin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Title IX: Gender discrimination in education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>14 th AM: “No state … denies equal protection of the laws” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict scrutiny (suspect classification) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate scrutiny (quasi-suspect classification) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rational basis review (all others) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT: THE LAW </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ADEA: Prohibits age discrimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ADA: Prohibits discrimination based upon disability </li></ul></ul>