Wk3 1 operation4


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Wk3 1 operation4

  1. 1. CLASS OVERVIEW <ul><li>REVIEW </li></ul><ul><li>OPERATION IV </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SPECTATOR INJURIES (MORE) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WAIVERS & AGREEMENTS TO PARTICIPATE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WRAP-UP </li></ul>
  2. 2. REVIEW <ul><li>SPECTATOR INJURY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectator: People coming to sport venues who have paid for the event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governing law: Negligence (= participant) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary defense: Assumption of risk (limits, though) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. SPECTATOR INJURIES <ul><li>DUTY OWED TO SPECTATORS: IN GENERAL </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Invitee: Sport organization owes a duty of a reasonable inspection & precaution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All known danger & </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The source of risk that would have been discovered by reasonable inspection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SPECTATOR INJURIES <ul><li>ASSUMPTION OF RISK & SPECTATORS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most popular affirmative defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sutton v. ENYYA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: A player’s dad injured when hit by soccer ball behind the goal line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: Assumption of risk applies not only to participants but also to spectators </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. SPECTATOR INJURIES <ul><li>PROJECTILES (FOUL BALLS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General rule: “Limited duty rule” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benejam v. Detroit Tigers, Inc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: A plaintiff injured from a broken bat that curved around the safety net </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: Ball club is not liable if some safety measure was there </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Same policy ground as assumption of risk doctrine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Imposes a limited duty upon facility owners </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. SPECTATOR INJURIES <ul><li>PROTECTION FROM 3 RD PARTY: PRIOR SIMILAR INCIDENTS RULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior incidents have been so similar (jury decides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talasazan v. NASL: The history of violence in the past after soccer games (3/5)  facility owner should have provided securities </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. SPECTATOR INJURIES <ul><li>PROTECTION FROM 3 RD PARTY TORT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bearman v. Notre Dame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: P injured at a parking lot from a drunk patron (3 rd party) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: Sport venue must protect a spectator from not only known but also foreseeable danger </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responsible for actual + constructive knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You should have known” (constructive knowledge)  D had to exercise reasonable precautions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Here school knew about the tailgating (drunk spectators) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SPECTATOR INJURIES <ul><li>DRAM SHOP STATUTE: A COMMERCIAL ENTITY SERVING ALCOHOL IS LIABLE IF  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving alcohol to a minor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Serving to a visibly intoxicated person + injury to 3rd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The law can be justified in terms of causation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ But for” drinks, no accident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proximate cause: Foreseeable risk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. WAIVERS & EXCULPATORY CLAUSES <ul><li>WHAT IS EXCULPATORY CLAUSE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ A contractual provision relieving a party from liability” (very serious in this legal system) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as: a release; waiver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If it is legally effective (= court upheld the waiver)  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The injured party’s claim against the sport organization is dismissed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ You promised not to sue when you signed it ” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. WAIVERS & EXCULPATORY CLAUSES <ul><li>CAN PARENT WAIVE KID’S RIGHT TO SUE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooper v. Aspen Skiing Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: Minor seriously injured after mom signed release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: A parent cannot waive children’s right to sue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationale: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public policy protects minor </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parental rights do not extend to this crucial one </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorado legislature later overruled the court decision </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. WAIVERS & EXCULPATORY CLAUSES <ul><li>CAN PARENT WAIVE KID’S RIGHT TO SUE? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharon v. City of Newton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fact: Minor injured (cheerleading) after dad signed release </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule: A parent can waive his kid’s right to sue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationale: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Making decisions for kid is a fundamental right for parents </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Court worried about deterrence effect on extracurricular programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. WAIVERS & EXCULPATORY CLAUSES <ul><li>PUBLIC POLICY DISFAVORS WAIVER </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of contract v. public interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If service is essential  generally not effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair dominance  generally not effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No release: VA, MT, LA, & federal land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All state courts are against use of waiver </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. WAIVERS & EXCULPATORY CLAUSES <ul><li>LANGUAGE MUST BE CONSPICUOUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger typeface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bold letters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location of easy attention </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. AGREEMENTS TO PARTICIPATE <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signed before activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legal devise different from waiver (only explains risk) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language must clearly explains  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The nature of activity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you expect from participants (e.g., skill level, physical condition, must instruction, etc.) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Sample_Waiver_1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. AGREEMENTS TO PARTICIPATE <ul><li>USE OF AGREEMENTS TO PARTICIPATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preempts action for failure to warn </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen your defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption of risk (“You knew it was dangerous”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contributory or comparative negligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in conjunction with exculpatory clauses </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. WRAP-UP <ul><li>SPECTATOR INJURIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defenses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assumption of risk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited duty rule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Previous events were different from the present case (If injury from 3 rd party) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. WRAP-UP <ul><li>EXCULPATORY CLAUSES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.K.A., waiver, release </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy issues (few bright-line rules) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of Cs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential services to public </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unfair dominance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No more than negligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot override statutory standard of care </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language of release must be explicit & conspicuous </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. WRAP-UP <ul><li>AGREEMENTS TO PARTICIPATE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different legal ground to avoid liability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly explains risk involved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waiver v. agreements to participate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Waiver: If effective, injured party cannot bring an action </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agreements to participate: Injured party still can bring an action but your organization has enhanced defense because it explained everything (e.g., assumption of risk) </li></ul></ul></ul>