Water Pollution2 By Meenaxi & Shradha


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Water Pollution2 By Meenaxi & Shradha

  1. 1. Presentation on Topic “Water Pollution” By: Miss. Shradha Shirodkar & Miss. Meenaxi Bhatia
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>What is Water Pollution? </li></ul><ul><li>Different Types of water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Health Impact of Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>How Do We Prevent Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Removal of Pollutants from Waste Water (Treatment) </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Comprising over 70% of the Earth’s surface, water is undoubtedly the most precious natural resource that exists on our planet. Without the seemingly invaluable compound comprised of hydrogen and oxygen, life on Earth would be non-existent: it is essential for everything on our planet to grow and prosper. Although we as humans recognize this fact, we disregard it by polluting our rivers, lakes, and oceans. Subsequently, we are slowly but surely harming our planet to the point where organisms are dying at a very alarming rate.  In addition to innocent organisms dying off, our drinking water has become greatly affected as is our ability to use water for recreational purposes.  In order to combat water pollution, we must understand the problems and become part of the solution. </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Water Pollution? <ul><li>When toxic substances enter lakes, streams, rivers, oceans, and other water bodies, they get dissolved or lie suspended in water or get deposited on the bed. </li></ul><ul><li>This results in the pollution of water whereby the quality of the water deteriorates, affecting aquatic ecosystems. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollutants can also seep down and affect the groundwater deposits </li></ul>
  5. 5. Different Types of Water Pollution <ul><li>Point Source Pollution : If the pollution comes from a single source, such as an oil spill, it is called point-source pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Non-Point Source Pollution : If the pollution comes from many sources, it is called nonpoint-source pollution. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Surface Water Pollution <ul><li>Surface waters are the natural water resources of the Earth. They are found on the exterior of the Earth's crust and include: </li></ul><ul><li>Oceans </li></ul><ul><li>Rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes </li></ul><ul><li>These waters can become polluted in a number of ways, and this is called surface water pollution. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oxygen Depleting <ul><li>Microorganisms that live in water feed on biodegradable substances. When too much biodegradable material is added to water, the number of microorganisms increase and use up the available oxygen. This is called oxygen depletion. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ground Water Pollution <ul><li>A lot of the Earth's water is found underground in soil or under rock structures called aquifers. Humans often use aquifers as a means to obtain drinking water, and build wells to access it. When this water becomes polluted it is called groundwater pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater pollution is often caused by pesticide contamination from the soil, this can infect our drinking water and cause huge problems. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Pollution Caused By Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients are essential for plant growth and development. Many nutrients are found in wastewater and fertilisers, and these can cause excess weed and algae growth if large concentrations end up in water. </li></ul><ul><li>This can contaminate drinking water and clog filters. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be damaging to other aquatic organisms as the algae use up the oxygen in the water, leaving none for the surrounding marine life. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pollution Caused By M icroorganisms <ul><li>Microbiological water pollution is usually a natural form of water pollution caused by microorganisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Many types of microorganisms live in water and cause fish, land animals and humans to become ill. Microorganisms such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Viruses </li></ul><ul><li>Protozoa </li></ul><ul><li>The picture shows the people and animals in poorer countries using the polluted water for drinking. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Pollution caused by Suspended Matter <ul><li>Some pollutants do not dissolve in water as their molecules are too big to mix between the water molecules. This material is called particulate matter and can often be a cause of water pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Biodegradable </li></ul><ul><li>substances, </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>suspended in water </li></ul>
  12. 12. Chemical Pollution <ul><li>Industrial and agricultural work involves the use of many different chemicals that can run-off into water and pollute it. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture shows the industries located on the banks of a river. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Sewage & Waste Water Pollution <ul><li>Domestic households, industrial and agricultural practices produce wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>The photograph shows the detergent water being let into a river. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pollution Caused By Marine Dumping <ul><li>Dumping of litter in the sea can cause huge problems. Litter items such as 6-pack ring packaging can get caught in marine animals and may result in death. Different items take different lengths of time to degrade in water: </li></ul><ul><li>Cardboard – Takes 2 weeks to degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper – Takes 6 weeks to degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Photodegradable packaging – Takes 6 weeks to degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Foam – Takes 50 years to degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Styrofoam – Takes 80 years to degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Aluminum – Takes 200 years to degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic packaging – Takes 400 years to degrade. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass – It takes so long to degrade that we don’t know the exact time </li></ul>
  15. 15. Pollution Caused By Marine Dumping
  16. 16. Pollution Caused By Industrial Waste <ul><li>Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are extremely harmful to people and the environment. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pollution Caused By Radioactive Waste <ul><li>Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes that use radioactive material. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Water Pollution Caused By Oil <ul><li>Oceans are polluted by oil on a daily basis from oil spills, routine shipping, run-offs and dumping. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil spills make up about 12% of the oil that enters the ocean. The rest come from shipping travel, drains and dumping. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Pollution Caused By Underground Storage Leakage <ul><li>A tank or piping network that has at least 10 percent of its volume underground is known as an underground storage tank (UST). They often store substances such as petroleum, that are harmful to the surrounding environment should it become contaminated. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Pollution Caused By Air <ul><li>In the atmosphere, water particles mix with carbon dioxide sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, this forms a weak acid. </li></ul><ul><li>Air pollution means that water vapour absorbs more of these gases and becomes even more acidic. </li></ul><ul><li>When it rains the water is polluted with these gases, this is called acid rain. </li></ul><ul><li>When acid rain pollutes marine habitats such as rivers and lakes, aquatic life is harmed . </li></ul>
  21. 21. Global Warming <ul><li>An increase in water temperature can result in the death of many aquatic organisms and disrupt many marine habitats. </li></ul><ul><li>The rise in the Earth's water temperature is caused by global warming. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Eutrophication <ul><li>Eutrophication is when the environment becomes enriched with nutrients. This can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause algal blooms. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Health Impacts of Water Pollution <ul><li>Heavy metals from industrial processes can accumulate in nearby lakes and rivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial waste often contains many toxic compounds that damage the health of aquatic animals and those who eat them </li></ul><ul><li>Microbial pollutants from sewage often result in infectious diseases that infect aquatic life and terrestrial life through drinking water. </li></ul>
  24. 24. How Do We Prevent Water Pollution? <ul><li>The following are the ways to prevent water pollution: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve water by turning off the tap when running water is not necessary. This helps prevent water shortages and reduces the amount of contaminated water that needs treatment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet. Don’t throw paints, oils or other forms of litter down the drain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use environmentally household products, such as washing powder, household cleaning agents and toiletries. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilisers. This will prevent runoffs of the material into nearby water sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>By having more plants in your garden you are preventing fertiliser, pesticides and contaminated water from running off into nearby water sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up any litter you see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure it is safe to collect the litter and put it in a nearby dustbin. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Removal of Pollutants from Waste Water (Waste Water treatment) <ul><li>Before raw sewage can be safely released back into the environment, it needs to be treated correctly in a water treatment plant. In a water treatment plant, sewage goes through a number of chambers and chemical processes to reduce the amount and toxicity of the waste . </li></ul>
  26. 26. Removal of Pollutants from Waste Water <ul><li>Denitrification is an ecological approach that can be used to prevent the leaching of nitrates in soil, this in turn stops any ground water from being contaminated with nutrients. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Removal of Pollutants from Waste Water <ul><li>Septic tanks treat sewage at the place where it is located, rather than transporting the waste through a treatment plant or sewage system. Septic tanks are usually used to treat sewage from an individual building </li></ul>
  28. 28. Removal of Pollutants from Waste Water <ul><li>Ozone wastewater treatment is a method that is increasing in popularity. An ozone generator is used to break down pollutants in the water source. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Photos of River Pollution
  30. 34. Conclusion
  31. 35. Thank You