Genetics By Swati & Sheela

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  • 1. Swati. R. Shirolkar & Sheela. I. Rodrigues
  • 2. TOPICS TO BE COVERED
    • INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY
    • INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • APPLICATIONS
    • DNA FINGER PRINTING
    • TISSUE CULTURE
    • CLONING
    • HAZARDS
    • ETHICAL ,SOCIO-ECO ISSUES
  • 3. BIOTECHNOLOGY Cytology, Microbiology, Genetics, Biochemistry are the various branches of Biology. Infusion of these branches with modern technology has resulted in new branch of science namely BIOTECHNOLOGY. Defn..: “The Application of Technology utilizing the Characteristics of living organisms to obtained useful products”.
  • 4. INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • Genetic engineering had its origins during the late 1960s in experiments with bacteria, viruses, and plasmids, small, free-floating rings of DNA found in bacteria.
  • 5. WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING
    • “ Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique
    • used by scientists to change the DNA of Living
    • Organisms”.
    • It’s the manipulation of genetic structure of an
    • organism at the molecular level to alter its
    • Characteristics.
  • 6.
    • Insulin production
    • Growth hormone production
    • Agriculture
    • Farm animals
    • Vaccines
    • Monoclonal antibodies
    • Gener therapy
    Applications
  • 7. Insulin production
    • In the beginning of 20 th
    • century, if a person was
    • diagnosed as diabetic it was
    • like passing a death sentence
    • on the person.
  • 8. Growth hormone production
    • Hormones are chemical messengers produced
    • by glands in the Endocrine system . Endocrine
    • tissues are specialized to produce such hormones,
    • which have genes switched on according the
    • hormones they were designed to produce.
  • 9. Agriculture
    • Transgenic plants are
    • becoming important in
    • agriculture.genes for desirable
    • traits are being introduced into
    • varieties of plants which are
    • more suitable for cultivation .
  • 10. Farm animals
    • Somatotropins of cattle has now been produced by genetically engineered bacteria to be made available to dairy farmers & beef growers.
  • 11. Vaccines
    • Vaccines against Herpes virus & hepatitis virus has been recently manufacture by genetic engineering techniques
  • 12. Monoclonal antibodies
    • These are the antibodies produced by the cloned cells in this case the original cell happened to be hybrid,called a hybridoma.
  • 13. Gener therapy
    • It is a process in which a persons genes are altered to combat a diseases. It can be applied in 2 ways
    • 1.somatic gene therapy
    • 2.germ line cell gene therapy
  • 14. Ashanti DeSilva & Dr. French Anderson Who underwent Gene Therapy Treatment for SCID.(severe combined immunodeficiency) which is caused by defective ADA gene.
  • 15. DNA
  • 16.
    • “ It is an analytical technique that is used in detecting & comparing specific nucleotide sequences. In DNA of individuals & there by identifying similarities & differences in such a sequences”.
    DNA Finger Printing
  • 17. Sir Alec Jeffreys
  • 18. TECHNIQUE
    • Collection of sample
    • Extraction of DNA
    • Fragmenting DNA
    • Separating DNA
    • fragments
    • Tagging radioactive
    • probes
            • Autoradiography
    • Comparison
  • 19. Its an important technique in biology,is a method of separating cells,tissue or organs of plant or animal body & growing them in nutrient medium in vitro (in culture tubes or flasks). Tissue Culture
  • 20.
    • Medium.
    • The Explant.
    • Callus Stage.
    • Root & Shoot Initiation.
    Procedure
  • 21. Tissue culture gallery
  • 22. Genes “A Gene is a heredity material that carry the Characteristics from parents to offspring's”.
  • 23.
    • “ This involves production of multiple and
    • identical copies of the selected genes is also
    • called as Gene Cloning.”
    CLONING
  • 24. First cloned adult sheep(DOLLY)
  • 25.  
  • 26. Hybridized Cloned Images
  • 27.  
  • 28.  
  • 29.  
  • 30.  
  • 31.  
  • 32.  
  • 33.  
  • 34.
    • No Long-Term Safety Testing
    • Toxins
    • Allergic Reactions
    • Decreased Nutritional Value
    • Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
    • Side Effects can Kill
    Health hazards Hazards
  • 35. Environmental Hazards
    • More Pesticides
    • Ecology may be damaged
    • Gene Pollution Cannot Be Cleaned Up
  • 36.
    • Its use in reproduction & genetic screening which brings unique questions of discrimination & exploitation of women.
    • Inserting animal gene into human or vice versa or plant gene into micro organisms & other species is not correct .
    • Vegetarians may be forced to consume food containing genetic material from insects ,fish ,pigs or other animals.
    CONTD…… Ethical Issues
  • 37.
    • Would mothers will be willing to buy their infants milk which is formulated with Bio-engineered ingredients extracted from udders of transgenic cow’s.
    • Gene therapy should be restricted to the alleviation's of genetic diseases in individuals patients.
    CONTD……
  • 38.
    • It is expensive on combating rare genetic disorders than in research for malaria vaccines
    • Tissue culture ,stock plants production , modern seed testing with DNA probes and many other practices are going to replace traditional current practices of farming.
    • Finance to molecular Bio-Tech will cause constraint on other important technologies.
    Socio-Economic Issues
  • 39. Conclusion Some of the procedures & processes that are adapted by Biotechnology have been against nature & natural laws. In light of the above consideration, it is necessary that the tools of Biotechnology should be used properly & only for the beneficial purposes & not for destructive activities.
  • 40. THANK YOU !
  • 41.
    • The first tissue cullture experiments came from the
    • laboratories of Frank Steward & colleagues in 1953.They propagated carrot plants from the phloem of roots.
    • Sophesticated lab’s are required for tissue culture ,such lab’s will have 3 separate rooms
    • To prepare nutrient medium.
    • For culturing.
    • For infections.