BIOTECHNOLOGY Cytology, Microbiology, Genetics, Biochemistry are the various branches of Biology. Infusion of these branches with modern technology has resulted in new branch of science namely BIOTECHNOLOGY. Defn..: “The Application of Technology utilizing the Characteristics of living organisms to obtained useful products”.
INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING
Genetic engineering had its origins during the late 1960s in experiments with bacteria, viruses, and plasmids, small, free-floating rings of DNA found in bacteria.
WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING
“ Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique
used by scientists to change the DNA of Living
It’s the manipulation of genetic structure of an
organism at the molecular level to alter its
Growth hormone production
In the beginning of 20 th
century, if a person was
diagnosed as diabetic it was
like passing a death sentence
on the person.
Growth hormone production
Hormones are chemical messengers produced
by glands in the Endocrine system . Endocrine
tissues are specialized to produce such hormones,
which have genes switched on according the
hormones they were designed to produce.
Transgenic plants are
becoming important in
agriculture.genes for desirable
traits are being introduced into
varieties of plants which are
more suitable for cultivation .
Somatotropins of cattle has now been produced by genetically engineered bacteria to be made available to dairy farmers & beef growers.
Vaccines against Herpes virus & hepatitis virus has been recently manufacture by genetic engineering techniques
These are the antibodies produced by the cloned cells in this case the original cell happened to be hybrid,called a hybridoma.
It is a process in which a persons genes are altered to combat a diseases. It can be applied in 2 ways
1.somatic gene therapy
2.germ line cell gene therapy
Ashanti DeSilva & Dr. French Anderson Who underwent Gene Therapy Treatment for SCID.(severe combined immunodeficiency) which is caused by defective ADA gene.
“ It is an analytical technique that is used in detecting & comparing specific nucleotide sequences. In DNA of individuals & there by identifying similarities & differences in such a sequences”.
DNA Finger Printing
Sir Alec Jeffreys
Collection of sample
Extraction of DNA
Its an important technique in biology,is a method of separating cells,tissue or organs of plant or animal body & growing them in nutrient medium in vitro (in culture tubes or flasks). Tissue Culture
Root & Shoot Initiation.
Tissue culture gallery
Genes “A Gene is a heredity material that carry the Characteristics from parents to offspring's”.
“ This involves production of multiple and
identical copies of the selected genes is also
called as Gene Cloning.”
First cloned adult sheep(DOLLY)
Hybridized Cloned Images
No Long-Term Safety Testing
Decreased Nutritional Value
Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
Side Effects can Kill
Health hazards Hazards
Ecology may be damaged
Gene Pollution Cannot Be Cleaned Up
Its use in reproduction & genetic screening which brings unique questions of discrimination & exploitation of women.
Inserting animal gene into human or vice versa or plant gene into micro organisms & other species is not correct .
Vegetarians may be forced to consume food containing genetic material from insects ,fish ,pigs or other animals.
CONTD…… Ethical Issues
Would mothers will be willing to buy their infants milk which is formulated with Bio-engineered ingredients extracted from udders of transgenic cow’s.
Gene therapy should be restricted to the alleviation's of genetic diseases in individuals patients.
It is expensive on combating rare genetic disorders than in research for malaria vaccines
Tissue culture ,stock plants production , modern seed testing with DNA probes and many other practices are going to replace traditional current practices of farming.
Finance to molecular Bio-Tech will cause constraint on other important technologies.
Conclusion Some of the procedures & processes that are adapted by Biotechnology have been against nature & natural laws. In light of the above consideration, it is necessary that the tools of Biotechnology should be used properly & only for the beneficial purposes & not for destructive activities.
THANK YOU !
The first tissue cullture experiments came from the
laboratories of Frank Steward & colleagues in 1953.They propagated carrot plants from the phloem of roots.
Sophesticated lab’s are required for tissue culture ,such lab’s will have 3 separate rooms