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Genetics By Swati & Sheela
 

Genetics By Swati & Sheela

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    Genetics By Swati & Sheela Genetics By Swati & Sheela Presentation Transcript

    • Swati. R. Shirolkar & Sheela. I. Rodrigues
    • TOPICS TO BE COVERED
      • INTRODUCTION TO BIOTECHNOLOGY
      • INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING
      • WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING
      • APPLICATIONS
      • DNA FINGER PRINTING
      • TISSUE CULTURE
      • CLONING
      • HAZARDS
      • ETHICAL ,SOCIO-ECO ISSUES
    • BIOTECHNOLOGY Cytology, Microbiology, Genetics, Biochemistry are the various branches of Biology. Infusion of these branches with modern technology has resulted in new branch of science namely BIOTECHNOLOGY. Defn..: “The Application of Technology utilizing the Characteristics of living organisms to obtained useful products”.
    • INTRODUCTION TO GENETIC ENGINEERING
      • Genetic engineering had its origins during the late 1960s in experiments with bacteria, viruses, and plasmids, small, free-floating rings of DNA found in bacteria.
    • WHAT IS GENETIC ENGINEERING
      • “ Genetic engineering is a laboratory technique
      • used by scientists to change the DNA of Living
      • Organisms”.
      • It’s the manipulation of genetic structure of an
      • organism at the molecular level to alter its
      • Characteristics.
      • Insulin production
      • Growth hormone production
      • Agriculture
      • Farm animals
      • Vaccines
      • Monoclonal antibodies
      • Gener therapy
      Applications
    • Insulin production
      • In the beginning of 20 th
      • century, if a person was
      • diagnosed as diabetic it was
      • like passing a death sentence
      • on the person.
    • Growth hormone production
      • Hormones are chemical messengers produced
      • by glands in the Endocrine system . Endocrine
      • tissues are specialized to produce such hormones,
      • which have genes switched on according the
      • hormones they were designed to produce.
    • Agriculture
      • Transgenic plants are
      • becoming important in
      • agriculture.genes for desirable
      • traits are being introduced into
      • varieties of plants which are
      • more suitable for cultivation .
    • Farm animals
      • Somatotropins of cattle has now been produced by genetically engineered bacteria to be made available to dairy farmers & beef growers.
    • Vaccines
      • Vaccines against Herpes virus & hepatitis virus has been recently manufacture by genetic engineering techniques
    • Monoclonal antibodies
      • These are the antibodies produced by the cloned cells in this case the original cell happened to be hybrid,called a hybridoma.
    • Gener therapy
      • It is a process in which a persons genes are altered to combat a diseases. It can be applied in 2 ways
      • 1.somatic gene therapy
      • 2.germ line cell gene therapy
    • Ashanti DeSilva & Dr. French Anderson Who underwent Gene Therapy Treatment for SCID.(severe combined immunodeficiency) which is caused by defective ADA gene.
    • DNA
      • “ It is an analytical technique that is used in detecting & comparing specific nucleotide sequences. In DNA of individuals & there by identifying similarities & differences in such a sequences”.
      DNA Finger Printing
    • Sir Alec Jeffreys
    • TECHNIQUE
      • Collection of sample
      • Extraction of DNA
      • Fragmenting DNA
      • Separating DNA
      • fragments
      • Tagging radioactive
      • probes
              • Autoradiography
      • Comparison
    • Its an important technique in biology,is a method of separating cells,tissue or organs of plant or animal body & growing them in nutrient medium in vitro (in culture tubes or flasks). Tissue Culture
      • Medium.
      • The Explant.
      • Callus Stage.
      • Root & Shoot Initiation.
      Procedure
    • Tissue culture gallery
    • Genes “A Gene is a heredity material that carry the Characteristics from parents to offspring's”.
      • “ This involves production of multiple and
      • identical copies of the selected genes is also
      • called as Gene Cloning.”
      CLONING
    • First cloned adult sheep(DOLLY)
    •  
    • Hybridized Cloned Images
    •  
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      • No Long-Term Safety Testing
      • Toxins
      • Allergic Reactions
      • Decreased Nutritional Value
      • Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria
      • Side Effects can Kill
      Health hazards Hazards
    • Environmental Hazards
      • More Pesticides
      • Ecology may be damaged
      • Gene Pollution Cannot Be Cleaned Up
      • Its use in reproduction & genetic screening which brings unique questions of discrimination & exploitation of women.
      • Inserting animal gene into human or vice versa or plant gene into micro organisms & other species is not correct .
      • Vegetarians may be forced to consume food containing genetic material from insects ,fish ,pigs or other animals.
      CONTD…… Ethical Issues
      • Would mothers will be willing to buy their infants milk which is formulated with Bio-engineered ingredients extracted from udders of transgenic cow’s.
      • Gene therapy should be restricted to the alleviation's of genetic diseases in individuals patients.
      CONTD……
      • It is expensive on combating rare genetic disorders than in research for malaria vaccines
      • Tissue culture ,stock plants production , modern seed testing with DNA probes and many other practices are going to replace traditional current practices of farming.
      • Finance to molecular Bio-Tech will cause constraint on other important technologies.
      Socio-Economic Issues
    • Conclusion Some of the procedures & processes that are adapted by Biotechnology have been against nature & natural laws. In light of the above consideration, it is necessary that the tools of Biotechnology should be used properly & only for the beneficial purposes & not for destructive activities.
    • THANK YOU !
      • The first tissue cullture experiments came from the
      • laboratories of Frank Steward & colleagues in 1953.They propagated carrot plants from the phloem of roots.
      • Sophesticated lab’s are required for tissue culture ,such lab’s will have 3 separate rooms
      • To prepare nutrient medium.
      • For culturing.
      • For infections.