Demolition Of River Yamuna By Rubina & Akshata


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Demolition Of River Yamuna By Rubina & Akshata

  2. 2. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>INDIA GRAPH </li></ul><ul><li>CONSTRUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>SEGMENT & CATCHMENT </li></ul><ul><li>OBJECTIVES OF YAP </li></ul><ul><li>POLLUTED YAMUNA </li></ul><ul><li>REASONS BEHIND POLLUTION </li></ul><ul><li>WATER QUALITY MONITORING </li></ul><ul><li>MEASURES OF CLEANING RIVER WATER </li></ul><ul><li>PUBLIC - PARTICIPATION </li></ul>
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>YAMUNA RIVER </li></ul><ul><li>Yamuna,also called as”JAMUNA”,Originates from the BUNDAR POONCH glaciers in district UTTARKASHI of the state of UTTARANCHAL.It rises from JAMUNOTRI,in the HIMALAYAS.River tons,which flows along the boundary of HP,west of district TEHRI GARHWAL joins Yamuna river at KALSI & thereafter joins the plains.From KALSI,the river flows along the boundary of HP.Yamuna flows in a south direction through the Himalayan foothills & onto the north Indian PLAIN,ALONG THE UP-HARYANA State border.The Eastern & Western Yamuna canals are fed from the river at that time. </li></ul>
  4. 5. CONSTRUCTION <ul><li>MARCH 29,2006 </li></ul><ul><li>While banning constructions within 300 meters along the banks of river Yamuna,the DELHI HIGH COURT today directed the district courts not to grant any stay on demolition of any illegal structure on the river banks. </li></ul><ul><li>A division bench headed by justice VIJENDER JAIN said no subordinate court should grant any stay on demolition of unauthorised buildings carried out by DDA. </li></ul><ul><li>The court directed the authorities of the DELHI GOVT,DDA & DELHI POLICE to ensure that no construction was carried out within 300 mts along the banks. </li></ul>
  5. 6. SEGEMENT OF YAMUNA Himalayan Segment From Origin To TAJEWALA Barrage (172 KMS) Upper Segment TAJEWALA To WAZIRABAD Barrage (224 KMS) DELHI Segment WAZIRABAD To OKHLA Barrage (22 KMS) EUTRIPHICATED Segment OKHLA To CHAMBAL Barrage (490 KMS) DILUTED Segment CHAMBAL To GANGA CONFLUENCE (468 KMS)
  6. 7. CATCHMENT OF YAMUNA NAME OF STATE AREA IN YAMUNA(SQ) %AGE CONTRIBUTION UP 74,208 21.5 HP 5,799 1.6 HARYANA 21,265 6.5 RAJASTHAN 1,02,883 29.8 MP 14,028 40.6 DELHI 1,485 0.4
  7. 8. OBJECTIVES OF YAP <ul><li>Laying of trunk & Intercepting sewers, for diversion of sewage outfalling into the river. </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of Sewage Treatment Plants to the caputred sewage. </li></ul><ul><li>Non point sources of pollution have also been addressed by: </li></ul><ul><li>i) Providing electric/improved wood based crematoria to minimize the river pollution on account of disposal of unburnt dead bodies. </li></ul>
  8. 10. POLLUTION <ul><li>Non Point Sources(NPS)of Pollution </li></ul><ul><li>The diffused pollution originates mainly from the catchment area through movement of water.Pollutants originated from the topsoil losses include soil organic matter,toxic elements & bacteria.Soil can retain ,modify, decompose or absorb pollutants.The imp NPS contributing to river Yamuna are: </li></ul><ul><li>i)Agricultural Pollution Sources & </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Pollution due to in-stream uses of water. </li></ul>
  9. 12. AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION(AP) <ul><li>AP is contributed by following major sources: Cattle, Agricultural Residues & fertilizer & Pesticide use. </li></ul><ul><li>The pollution load generated through above sources may be contributed to the river either as point source or as non pt sources. </li></ul><ul><li>A large portion of generated agricultural pollution is subjected to PHOTOTROPIC food chain & consumed, hence never reaches to the river </li></ul>
  10. 13. POLLUTION DUE TO IN-STREAM USES OF WATER <ul><li>The main sources of pollution caused by in-stream use of river water are: </li></ul><ul><li>1) Cattle Wading, </li></ul><ul><li>2) Bathing & </li></ul><ul><li>3) Open defecation. </li></ul>
  11. 14. CATTLE WADING <ul><li>Both side banks of entire stretch of river Yamuna is occupied by the rural areas. </li></ul><ul><li>The cattle wading also contribute various diseases in the water,which may cause skin & other diseases,not only to the other animals but sometimes also to human beings using river water directly or indirectly. </li></ul><ul><li>cattle in the river disturbs the riverbed,where organic matter & other pollutants are settled in form of sludge. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to cattle movements,the settled sludge disturbs & again mixed with the water deteriorating its quality. </li></ul>
  12. 15. BATHING <ul><li>In the entire country river mass bathing is very common phenomenon. In the Yamuna river, mass bathing takes place during some special festivals & religious days.The mass bathing is very significant at urban centres e.g: Mathura, </li></ul><ul><li>Vrindavan,Bateshwar,Delhi,Agra etc.The large scale river bathing influence the water quality by increasing the disease causing pathogens quantity in the river. </li></ul>
  13. 17. OPEN DEFECATION <ul><li>River Yamuna basin is heavily populated with rural & urban centres where the sanitary facilities are to control the pollution of river Yamuna through KALI NADI flowing at the western side of MUZAFFARNAGAR town. It was proposed to intercept the five drains responsible for polluting KALI NADI into tapping chambers & then to connect the respective intermediate sewage pumping station. </li></ul>
  14. 18. REASONS BEHIND POLLUTION <ul><li>Delhi-The hot spot </li></ul><ul><li>Delhi alone contributes around 3,296 MLD (million litres per day) of sewage. </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid urbanization in Delhi has further compounded the pressure on the sewerage system. </li></ul><ul><li>Sewerage Problems. </li></ul>
  15. 21. WATER QUALITY MONITORING <ul><li>The river water quality monitoring is undertaken to ensure the effectiveness of various pollution abatement measures. The CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROL BOARD (CPCB) has been monitoring the water quality of the river Yamuna in the entire stretch since 1974.The NATIONAL RIVER CONSERVATION DIRECTORATE (NRCD), has also assigned the task of river water quality monitoring to the (CPCB) under the YAP since december,1994. </li></ul>
  16. 24. MEASURES OF CLEANING RIVER WATER <ul><li>In order to control the water pollution & improve the water quality of river Yamuna, some alternative measures are being taken up. </li></ul><ul><li>Intercepting & Trunk sewers, </li></ul><ul><li>Electric & Improved Crematoria. </li></ul>
  17. 25. Intercepting & trunk sewers <ul><li>Are provided to capture the untreated sewage from the drains/pumping stations outfalling into the river. </li></ul><ul><li>The intercepting sewage is taken to a sewage treatment plant for removing the organic as well as pathogenic pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate technologies such as activated sludge process, UPFLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET (UASB) digester, oxidation ponds, agro-forestry etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The older methods of controlling pollution are CHLORINATION of treated sewage, ULTRA VIOLET(UV) disinfection etc. </li></ul>
  18. 27. ELECTRIC & IMPROVED CREMATORIA <ul><li>From religious point of view, people prefer to cremate human bodies on the banks of river & sometimes partly burnt bodies are thrown into it. This is due to the fact that the poor are not able to afford the required quantity of wood for cremation. The firewood requirement is high per dead body. Therefore, provision of improved wood crematoria & electric crematoria have been made under YAP schemes. These will ensure complete burning of the bodies, saving the river from pollution due to dead bodies & consume less wood thereby saving trees . </li></ul>
  19. 29. PUBLIC PARTICIPATION <ul><li>To ensure the widest possible public involvement & co-operation in the efforts at reducing river pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure public acceptance & usage of the various public assets & facilities being created under YAP, improved crematoria. </li></ul><ul><li>To gain religious acceptance for the adoption of improved wood/electric crematoria. </li></ul>
  20. 31. CONCLUSION <ul><li>AWARENESS </li></ul><ul><li>To induce a change in public attitude & lifestyles related to water use, waste disposal, sanitation. In particular, minimize open defecation, dumping of poly-bags, waste disposal into water bodies , wasteful use of water & about GOVT schemes aimed at river pollution abatement, such as the </li></ul><ul><li>YAMUNA ACTION PLAN. </li></ul>
  21. 32. <ul><li>BY </li></ul><ul><li>AKSHATA. S </li></ul><ul><li>RUBINA. S </li></ul>