Enzymes

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Enzymes

  1. 1. ENZYMES B M Subramanya Swamy M.Sc. B.Ed. CIE Co ordinator & Examination Officer Kanaan Global School Jakarta Indonesia swamy@kanaanglobal.sch.id
  2. 2. Enzymes • Introduction • Mode of function • Coenzymes • Uses of enzymes • Enzyme activity • Enzymes in seed germination
  3. 3. Introduction • Enzymes are proteins that function as biocatalyst • It has a unique shape that acts on specific substrates like a lock and key • Enzymes are produced in minute quantities by living cells • It can be used over and over again as it remain unchanged at the end of reaction • Enzymes are named by adding suffix ase to the name of its substrate E.g. sucrase acts on sucrose
  4. 4. Mode of action Inactivation (by changing the active site) Very specific in their substrate Heat (usually above 50 C) Binds to substrate on the active site pH changes Bonds are temporary By position Anabolic : produce complex molecules from simple molecules Catabolic : split large molecules into smaller ones Heavy metals such as lead,arsenic,mercury
  5. 5. Mode of action of enzymes
  6. 6. Coenzymes • Non protein molecules e.g. vitamin B • Joins enzymes temporarily during a reaction • Remains unchanged at the end of a reaction • Without the coenzyme, these reaction will not occur E.g. lack of vitamin B leads to a stunted growth paralysis and loss of appetite
  7. 7. Uses of enzymes Enzymes Usage type Effects Protease Industrial use Skinning fish , removing hair Amylase Industrial use Production of chocolate, syrup Cellulase Industrial use Softening vegetable, removing seed coats Protease Everyday Added to washing powder to remove protein stains Lipase Digestion Converts fats to fatty acids and glycerol Amylase Digestion Converts starch to glucose
  8. 8. Enzyme activity Temperature pH Increase in temperature increases the activity ------------------------------------------------------------- Increase 10 C leads to the activity doubling Specific pH for every enzymes Optimal temperature around 45 C Work best at optimal pH Temperature above 50 C will denature the enzyme Changes in acidity and alkalinity will denature the enzymes Temperature damage not reversible Damage is reversible by changing pH
  9. 9. Seed germination • Seed germination takes place in the presence of water oxygen and a suitable temperature • During germination water enters the seed causing the seed to swell rupturing the testa • Water serves to soften the testa making it more permeable to oxygen and carbon di oxide • Water enters the cotyledon's activates the secretion of enzymes to digest the insoluble starch and protein present in the cotyledons
  10. 10. • E.g. amylase to convert starch to glucose Protease to convert protein to amino acids • These products of digestion are send to the plumule and radical for growth • Glucose is used during respiration to provide energy for cell growth • Amino acids are used in the formation of new cell proteins

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