CONTAMINATION OF  RIVER  GANGES:  DETECTION OF TEN HEAVY METALS  BY ADVANCED TECHNIQUE   Ashutosh Kumar Sharma   (II MBBS)...
<ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>GANGA (GANGES), THE MOST  SACRED AND  IMPORTANT RIVER  OF  INDIA, IS REGARDED AS TH...
<ul><li>IN ADDITION, SEVERAL  SMALL AND  LARGE  INDUSTRIES HAVE BEEN DISCHARGING FILTHY EFFLUENTS INTO THIS RIVER FOR MORE...
GANGA JAL OR
 
DOES THIS LOOK LIKE A SACRED RIVER?
NO WONDER THAT THE TITLE OF THE FOLLOWING FILM IS SO APT:
<ul><li>STUDY  AREA </li></ul><ul><li>RIVER STREAM PASSING THROUGH TWO  MOST FAMOUS  CITIES  FOR  PILGRIMS  IN  UTTAR  PRA...
DISPOSAL  OF  WASTE
 
<ul><li>AIMS  AND  OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>TO  SCREEN  RIVER  GANGES  THAT  FLOWS  THROUGH  VARANASI  AND  ALLHABAD  ...
<ul><li>MATERIALS  AND  METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>WATER  SAMPLES  WERE  COLLECTED FROM  SELECTED  LOCATIONS  OF THE  RIVER...
<ul><li>EQUIPMENT  AND  CHEMICALS USED </li></ul><ul><li>CONC. NITRIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>CONC. PERCHLORIC ACID </li></...
<ul><li>PRIMARY  SCREENING </li></ul><ul><li>pH–METER  FOR  WATER  ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>THE  NORMAL RANGE FOR  pH  I...
GRAPH RELATED TO pH
GRAPH RELATED TO T.D.S
GRAPH  RELATED  TO  TURBIDITY
SECONDARY SCREENING PREPARED SAMPLES READY FOR METAL ANALYSIS
INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ICP-AES)
SAMPLES LOADED INTO  ICP-AES
OBSERVATIONS A total of 13 samples were collected from different places along the River Ganges, and tested for pH, turbidi...
The following metals were detected at high concentrations  –  iron, manganese, zinc, copper, arsenic, mercury, chromium an...
Permissible Limits for Various Metals  in Drinking Water Metal  Symbol  Prescribed Limit (mg/L)  Arsenic  Cadmium Chromium...
<ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>RIVER  GANGES  IS  CONTAMINATED  WITH  A  NUMBER OF  HEAVY METALS , OF  WHICH  HIGH  ...
 
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Subin Joy Koikkara (Research Guide) -Chief Guide - Dr. V.V pillai, Project by - Ashutosh (M.B.B.S-A.I.M.S Kochi ) ( Heavy Metal Contamination Ganges )Dept of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology AIMS Kochi,Kerala,INDIA

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Subin Joy Koikkara -Research Guide -Dept. Toxicology AIMS Kochi,Kerala,India

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Subin Joy Koikkara (Research Guide) -Chief Guide - Dr. V.V pillai, Project by - Ashutosh (M.B.B.S-A.I.M.S Kochi ) ( Heavy Metal Contamination Ganges )Dept of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology AIMS Kochi,Kerala,INDIA

  1. 1. CONTAMINATION OF RIVER GANGES: DETECTION OF TEN HEAVY METALS BY ADVANCED TECHNIQUE Ashutosh Kumar Sharma (II MBBS) Subin Joy (Research Guide) V. V. Pillay (Head) Dept of Analytical Toxicology Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences Cochin, Kerala
  2. 2. <ul><li>INTRODUCTION </li></ul><ul><li>GANGA (GANGES), THE MOST SACRED AND IMPORTANT RIVER OF INDIA, IS REGARDED AS THE CRADLE OF INDIAN CIVILIZATION. </li></ul><ul><li>ABOUT 2506 km OF THE RIVER STREAM GIVES LIFE TO 29 CITIES, 7 TOWNS AND MORE THAN 1000 VILLAGES. </li></ul><ul><li>THEY IN TURN ARE CONTAMINATING THE RIVER BY OVER 1.3 BILLION L WASTE WATER PER DAY. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>IN ADDITION, SEVERAL SMALL AND LARGE INDUSTRIES HAVE BEEN DISCHARGING FILTHY EFFLUENTS INTO THIS RIVER FOR MORE THAN 30 YEARS . </li></ul><ul><li>EVERY DAY, SCORES OF DEAD BODIES ARE BURNT ON THE BANKS, AND THE ASHES ARE SCATTERED OVER THE WATER. </li></ul><ul><li>HUNDREDS OF PEOPLE WASH THEMSELVES AND THEIR CLOTHES IN THIS RIVER EVERYDAY. </li></ul>
  4. 4. GANGA JAL OR
  5. 6. DOES THIS LOOK LIKE A SACRED RIVER?
  6. 7. NO WONDER THAT THE TITLE OF THE FOLLOWING FILM IS SO APT:
  7. 8. <ul><li>STUDY AREA </li></ul><ul><li>RIVER STREAM PASSING THROUGH TWO MOST FAMOUS CITIES FOR PILGRIMS IN UTTAR PRADESH: VARANASI AND ALLAHABAD . </li></ul><ul><li>IN BOTH PLACES, SEVERAL SMALL AND LARGE INDUSTRIES, INCLUDING SILK SAREE FACTORY IN VARANASI, AND FERTILISER FACTORY IN ALLAHABAD, AND MANY OTHER INDUSTRIES ARE POLLUTING THE RIVER FOR MORE THAN 30 YEARS. </li></ul>
  8. 9. DISPOSAL OF WASTE
  9. 11. <ul><li>AIMS AND OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>TO SCREEN RIVER GANGES THAT FLOWS THROUGH VARANASI AND ALLHABAD FOR THE PRESENCE AND CONCENTRATION OF TEN HEAVY METALS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ARSENIC, MERCURY, IRON, MANGANESE, ZINC, COPPER, CADMIUM, CHROMIUM, LEAD, NICKEL. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>METHOD: </li></ul><ul><li>INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY (ICP-AES) </li></ul><ul><li>IT IS THE MOST SOPHISTICATED METHOD OF ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FOR HEAVY METALS. </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>MATERIALS AND METHODS </li></ul><ul><li>WATER SAMPLES WERE COLLECTED FROM SELECTED LOCATIONS OF THE RIVER GANGES </li></ul><ul><li>DIGESTED WITH NITRIC ACID AND PERCHLORIC ACID AND </li></ul><ul><li>SUBJECTED TO HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS (FOR 10 METALS) BY ICP-AES </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICALS USED </li></ul><ul><li>CONC. NITRIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>CONC. PERCHLORIC ACID </li></ul><ul><li>BEAKERS </li></ul><ul><li>MICROLITRE PIPETTES-1ml </li></ul><ul><li>GLASS FUNNEL </li></ul><ul><li>CONICAL FLASK </li></ul><ul><li>HOT PLATE WITH A TEMPERATURE MODE </li></ul><ul><li>DISTILLED WATER </li></ul><ul><li>FILTER PAPER </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRONIC BALANCE (0.00001mg Sensitivity) </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>PRIMARY SCREENING </li></ul><ul><li>pH–METER FOR WATER ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>THE NORMAL RANGE FOR pH IN SURFACE WATER SYSTEM SHOULD BE 6.5 – 8.5. </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE TESTED SAMPLES IT RANGED FROM 7.11 - 8.53 </li></ul><ul><li>T.D.S. VALUE </li></ul><ul><li>PERMISSIBLE LIMIT SHOULD BE 500. </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE TESTED SAMPLES IT RANGED FROM 330-530 </li></ul><ul><li>3. TURBIDITY ANALYSIS </li></ul><ul><li>PERMISSIBLE LIMIT SHOULD BE UPTO 5 nTU. </li></ul><ul><li>IN THE TESTED SAMPLES IT RANGED FROM 1-11 nTU </li></ul>
  13. 15. GRAPH RELATED TO pH
  14. 16. GRAPH RELATED TO T.D.S
  15. 17. GRAPH RELATED TO TURBIDITY
  16. 18. SECONDARY SCREENING PREPARED SAMPLES READY FOR METAL ANALYSIS
  17. 19. INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROPHOTOMETER (ICP-AES)
  18. 20. SAMPLES LOADED INTO ICP-AES
  19. 21. OBSERVATIONS A total of 13 samples were collected from different places along the River Ganges, and tested for pH, turbidity, and TDS value, followed by secondary screening for the following heavy metals - arsenic, mercury, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, cadmium, chromium, lead and nickel. The pH was mostly alkaline (7.11 - 8.53), TDS values ranged from 330 to 530, and turbidity was obtained in the range of 1 to 11 nTU.
  20. 22. The following metals were detected at high concentrations – iron, manganese, zinc, copper, arsenic, mercury, chromium and lead ( values: 6.066-288.7 ppm, 0.16-0.33 ppm, 12.195-985.57 ppm, 0.23-0.497 ppm, 0.163-0.494 pm, 0.13-0.329 ppm, 0.337-4.05 ppm, and 0.16-0.18 ppm respectively ). Cadmium was not detected in any sample, where as arsenic ( 0.001-0.003 ppm ) and mercury ( 0.003-0.032 ppm ) were detected only in a few samples.
  21. 23. Permissible Limits for Various Metals in Drinking Water Metal Symbol Prescribed Limit (mg/L) Arsenic Cadmium Chromium Copper Iron Lead Manganese Mercury Nickel Zinc As Cd Cr Cu Fe Pb Mn Hg Ni Zn 0.05 0.005 0.05 0.05 0.3 0.05 0.1 0.001 - 5.0
  22. 24. <ul><li>CONCLUSION </li></ul><ul><li>RIVER GANGES IS CONTAMINATED WITH A NUMBER OF HEAVY METALS , OF WHICH HIGH CONCENTRATIONS WERE OBSERVED WITH REGARD TO IRON, MANGANESE, ZINC, COPPER, ARSENIC, MERCURY, CHROMIUM, & LEAD . </li></ul><ul><li>THIS POSES SERIOUS ENVIRONMENTAL AND HEALTH CONCERNS , AND NEEDS TO BE ADDRESSED URGENTLY BY WAY OF PROPER WATER TREATMENT AND DECONTAMINATION </li></ul>
  23. 26. Thank You

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