Poultry Development Strategies By Dr Subin MohanPresentation Transcript
Strategies for Enhancing poultry production in india By, Dr. Subin K.Mohan, MVSc PhD Scholar Dairy Extension Division NDRI
Indian Poultry population is 3% of the world’s poultry population.
The country ranks 4th in Egg production.
18 th in world chicken, meat production.
The overall rank is 17th in World Poultry production.
Present- 1.12 billion
Annual growth rate in %- 1.6
Some changes in people..
More aware about importance of health, nutrition and hygienic food.
India's large vegetarian population is increasingly converting to a non-vegetarian diet.
Income is increasing
poultry meat is considered as common dish.
Availability of land for agriculture is declining day by day
Nutrients especially Protein requirement can be met with the increased supply of protein from animal sources, where poultry industry can play an important role.
Egg consumption also increased
It may be nearly three times by 2020 .
increase of 200 percent from 34 billion in 2000 to 106 billion in 2020.
total poultry meat consumption to increase from 687 million kg to 1,674 million kg during the same time period.
Avg per capita poultry meat consumption also increases from 0.69 to 1.28 kg (2000-2020).
Reasons for the decline?? <
Native Chicken Rearing
Native fowls are of socioeconomic
Rural poultry needs low or no inputs
Scavenging feed source
Supplementary source of income
Contributes to family nutrition
a. Unavailability of good germplasm Heavy demand for backyard chicken varieties. Non-availability of broody hens Suggestion: Research efforts. b. Unvailability of feed BYC could not sustain only on scavenging. Need for the provision of small quantity of compounded layer feed for good performance. Cost of feed is more- Inadequate transportation facilities,Labour cost . Suggestion: Making the feed available in the rural areas in small packs of 5 or 10 kgs is essential.
c. Veterinary and health services: Non-availability of veterinary aid at the village level. Scarce skilled workforce for vaccination Threat from New Castle Disease Suggestion: Improved veterinary services with disease prevention programmes should be implemented. Emphasis for supply of immunized birds d. Predators: Predator attack especially in chick stage. Suggestion: Initial growing in the nurseries before distribution. Should be protected with nets.
e. Limited Scavenging area: Small and marginal farmers are the main growers of backyard chicken, therefore, scavenging area is found to be the limiting factor. Suggestion: Suitable package of recommendations for rear the birds in semi-intensive system so that number of birds per households can be raised within the available land area.
f. Resistance from the neighbours: Suggestions: Modified rearing systems instead of total free-range system of rearing. Good rapport g. Government Partnership The involvement of Govt. agencies to implement area specific projects to fit the needs of different localities in terms of germplasm, feed, veterinary services etc. Area specific tailor-made projects needed
h. Marketing The backyard poultry products fetches higher price and are in heavy demand. Suggestion: creation of farmer’s co-operative societies at village levels. egg collection and marketing through cooperatives bodies for price fixation should be there
i. Biosecurity issues At present highly pathogenic avian influenza is a serious constraint to family poultry production, which requires mass destruction of the poultry of the outbreak locality. Suggestions: Programmes to prevent such outbreaks and methods to be adopted in such exigencies. Awareness programmes Vaccination programmes
Problems faced by tribal poultry farmers in backyard rearing (Kumtagar, V.A., 1999)
Heavy mortality in chicks
Mortality in adult birds due to outbreak of disease
Malnutrition in birds
Low egg production
Disease outbreaks and lack of veterinary assistance in the villages
Lack of awareness and knowledge about poultry practices
Attack by predators.
Non-availability of feed and medicine.
Strategies for development of backyard poultry system in India awareness building training systematic planning
Introduction of a dual-purpose bird with a black barred brown plumage (eg. Krishna-J female x Synthetic male, Jabalpur) higher genetic potential resembling the ‘Desi’ (indigenous) birds in their physical characteristics. hardiness and color, egg laying capacity of 120-130 nos. per year in the scavenging (free ranging) system, and 220-240 nos. per year in the intensive system ( Krishna-J female) body weight of 1 kgms. in 6-8 weeks. The egg weight at 40 weeks age would be 50-51 gms having a tinted brown colored eggshell, similar to that of an egg of the ‘Desi’ bird.
Develop BYP as a group activity by training a few women as vaccinators and some for manufacturing low cost feed formulations at the village level. Maximum mortality occurs in the young chick stage. Proper awareness should be given in the simple management skills like covering the bamboo baskets with news paper or cow dung for insulation during brooding and protection in winters, creep feeding, low-cost balanced feed formulations, awareness about hygiene for feeding and watering of birds, burning of a lamp or charcoal burner inside the brooder in winter to give warmth to the chicks.
Enhance BYP as a rural cottage industry. Basic minimum medical facility is made available locally. BYP should be considered as a viable ‘semi-organized’ venture by the national and international development agencies as an element of economic development in rural areas.
Other suggestions based on the problems Availability of quality Germplasm Supplementation of feed Supply of Immunized birds Improved veterinary services Farmers must be provided with grownup birds Government-NGO-SHG-LSG Institution Partnership Strong Governmental support Efforts for Conservation of indigenous birds
Commercial poultry system
Constraints / Challenges faced in the commercial poultry system
Non-availability of land
High cost of feed
Low availability of quality chicks
High cost of labour
Higher VAT for chicken- 12.5%
Poor credit facilities
Poor insurance cover up
Suggested policy options
Need for a poultry development policy in India
Intensification of backyard poultry production
Specify preferred varieties
Backyard duck faming should be promoted
Quail and turkey farming should be promoted
Establishment of poultry farmer service centers and co-operatives-
KVKs, Farm clinics etc
Direct link b/w research station and farmers.
Feed, medicines, improved varieties of chicks, vaccines, technical advices should be provided
Strengthening of disease surveillance centers- To prevent epidemics like Avian Influenza