Participatory Training Methods By Dr Subin MohanPresentation Transcript
Participatory training methods By, Dr. Subin K.Mohan PhD Scholar Dairy Extension Division NDRI
Training methods : The techniques the adult educator uses to implement the workshop and transfer new knowledge, skills, and attitudes to participants. Techniques : Refer to the variations of the method, e.g. while Group Discussion (GDs), the method used could be buzz sections, brainstorming , etc. Methods : refers to how subject matter is going to be dealt with. e.g. group discussion, lecture, role play, demonstration , etc Tools/ Aids : refers to the various supporting materials that are used in the course of training e.g. slides, posters, film clips, models, etc. Equipments : refers to the infrastructure which helps in utilizing aids i.e. over head projectors, slide projectors , etc.
When choosing teaching methods for a particular session, you may consider the following questions. _ Is the method suitable for the objectives? _ Does the method require more background knowledge or skills than the participants possess? _ How much time does it take to prepare and then to use it in the learning session? _ Is that sort of time available with the adult educator and adult learners? _ How much space does the learning session take?
Is that kind of space available at the venue of learning sessions?
Is the method appropriate for the size of the learning group?
What kind of teaching materials does it require?
Are those materials available?
Does the method require special skills to use?
Does the adult educator possess these skills?
PARTICIPATORY TRAINING METHODS
Participatory training has several methods like
b) Case Study
c) Role Play
f) Learning Games
ii. Field visits
iii. Apprenticeship Practice
Effective way to introduce new information or concept to a group.
The lecture method is primarily used to build upon the learners’ existing base of knowledge.
Lectures are useful for conveying new information and concepts to the learners and for providing context so that learners can relate what has been learnt to a conceptual framework.
Lectures are also good for stimulating and motivating learners for further enquiry and for presenting a specialized body of external information.
How to give lecture?
The lecturer needs to prepare for the lecture
Be very familiar with the subject matter
Identify and prepare supporting aids to illustrate the points.
Provide examples to link the subject matter to the lives of the learners
Ask questions to check whether the learners are following
Maintain eye contact with the learners to assess whether they are following or not, whether they are interested or bored.
The seating arrangement has to be such that all can see the aids equally well and hear the lecture and maintain time stipulations.
It is important to be aware of one’s own body movements and facial expressions
Speak clearly, loudly and use simple language.
The group gets an opportunity to look at others’ experiences in the form of a case.
The learners reflect upon and analyze these experiences to derive new ideas.
The learner’s own experiences, values, feelings form the basis for analysis of others’ experiences.
The adult educator may present case studies in written or verbal forms or even through the medium of films or songs, depending upon the background and experiential level of learners.
How to conduct case study in training
Divide the group into smaller groups
Give each group the task (question) to reflect and discuss.
Each group’s views may be presented and consolidated in a collective session. It makes the group to reflect on its own situation in the context of others’ experiences and gives a chance to discuss complex situations.
This exercise sharpens learners’ analytical and diagnostic skills and exposes them to situations they might not ordinarily experience in their own lives.
In addition, it helps in creating new knowledge through collective reflection, analysis and synthesis.
Role-play is useful where learners share a somewhat similar experience, which is difficult to recall because of its emotional nature.
Here learning takes place from reenactment of past experiences.
It is a powerful training method if the focus of learning is to generate awareness.
The method of role-play is useful as it helps learners utilize their experiences of real life situations.
The enactment is helpful in developing awareness at individual and group levels.
Through role play it becomes easier to discuss complex social issues in a non threatening environment.
How role play is practiced?
In order to use role-play effectively, you need to select a suitable role play depending on the purpose of learning and identify role enactors/performers.
Next, you need to prepare briefs and explain the situation to the learners and tell the audience all the points to be noted.
Now is the time to set the stage and start role-play.
After the play you can consolidate and debrief.
How can we use role plays?
A small group enacts role-play about a situation while other learners watch the role-play followed by discussion- learning occurs through observation . Here role-play merely acts as a stimulant or catalyst for the discussion that follows.
In certain situations, a role-play is also used to practice skills. For example, you can practice how to motivate adult learners by enacting different roles. The prime method of learning here is practicing and receiving feedback from learners and adult educators after that practice.
As a re-enactment of past experiences. Learners may enact a past situation with which they are familiar .
Simulation is a method based on ‘here and now’ experience shared by all learners.
It involves assigning definite roles to each participant and having them act out a situation according to the given roles.
to understand complex societal issues and to learn in a situation which is very similar to real life. Here learning takes place at different levels.
Select a simulation according to the purpose of learning and develop a conceptual framework.
Prepare a list of rules/ instructions and briefs for all roles and assign roles to different learners.
Include all learners, as simulations does not require audience.
Define the situations and events in which the characters will interact.
There may be more than one situation/ event.
Decide the location for simulation.
The site/s chosen need to be as close as possible to real life sites of the chosen situations.
You need to keep necessary props ready at hand, to be used for different roles.
For conducting a simulation, you need to assign roles, give each person the appropriate role brief.
Ask the participants to study their roles and try to ‘become’ the role.
Then brief the participants about the situation and let them start acting according to their interpretation of the role.
Stop the simulation when appropriate, or when the essential part is over, or if it is getting out of hand.
Post- Simulation phase
give the participants time to get out of their roles.
ask the participants to share their feelings by posing direct questions, for instance, what happened to you during the simulation, how you felt etc.
try to draw parallels with real life while analyzing the patterns in the data and collate the participants’ feelings.
Finally collect necessary inputs and summarize the entire proceedings.
printed forms containing clear instructions and a series of questions, either with multiple choices, or requiring brief replies.
Participants fill in the questionnaire individually or in twos/ threes for each other.
There are instructions at the end of the instruments explaining how to examine answers, assign scores and tally them.
Fun activities involving all participants.
There are rules and regulations and the games may or may not include a competitive element.
You may use games to convey feelings and processes which are implied within the game being played, e.g. trust games, leadership games and so on.
The reason for playing learning games is to explain group processes involving issues of trust, social relationships and so on. You can play the learning games by explaining the game and involving the learners in the game.
After the game, you need to consolidate, debrief and derive learning- otherwise become icebreaking activity
The purpose is to generate data about each learner.
However, it is left to the learners to decide how to use this information.
Some examples of instruments are the personality trait inventory, interpersonal perception form, T-P questionnaire for Leadership, FIRO-B, etc.
Methods in which the learners are provided with an opportunity to observe for themselves the object or processes that they wish to learn.
It can be real-life or make believe situations or models.
This method is useful in conveying complex information simply, as seeing and understanding is considerably easier than hearing and understanding.
E.g. Demonstrating what a biogas plant or a sanitary latrine through a model
refer to demonstrations in practical situations i.e. where the subject matter actually occurs or happens in real life.
e.g. taking the learners to a hospital in the course of health training.
emphasis in observing, asking questions and understanding.
Apprenticeship and Practice
Practice is done in controlled situations
Apprenticeship is done in real life situations and is usually of longer duration.
It is essential in both methods that the learner be supervised by the adult educator and given feedback.
These two methods can be used for any skill.
In the course of training, it is easier to incorporate practice, while apprenticeship can be an entire training in itself.
Guide to participatory training for trainers of primary health care workers. Training Handbook. www.rhrc.org/resources/general_fieldtools/.../51d%20TngHndbk.doc
Pant, M. Participatory training methodology and materials. www.unesco.org/education/aladin/paldin/pdf/course01/unit_12.pdf
Postel, E. 1997. Participatory training methods : what does it mean? www.popline.org/docs/1261/135690.html
Rowley, J. & Gant, K. Participatory training. www. participatorytraining .co.uk