AHE 311 Practical Record


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AHE 311 Practical Record

  1. 1. Exercise No.1AUDIO – VISUAL AIDSDEFINITION Audio – visual aids are instructional devices which are used to communicatemessages more effectively through sound and visuals. The instructional devices through which the message can only be heard are known asAUDIO AIDS. The instructional devices through which the messages can only be seen areknown as VISUAL AIDS. The instructional devices through which the message can beheard and seen simultaneously are known as AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS.ADVANTAGESThe use of audio-visual aids has the following advantages:- 1. Capture audience attention and arouse their interest. 2. Highlight main points of the message clearly. 3. The possibility of misinterpreting concepts is reduced. 4. Structure the learning process more effectively. 5. Messages perceived with several senses are understood and retained better. 6. Provide experience otherwise difficult to get. 7. Help reach more people irrespective of their level of literacy and language. 8. Speed up the process of learning. 9. Can adapt the speed of presentation to the reactions of the audience. 10. Save time of teacher and learner.Classification of Audio Visual AidsAudio Aids Visual Aids Audio-Visual Aids1. Tape recorder Non projected Non projected2. Public address system3. Telephone 1. Chalk board 1. Drama, puppet show, 2. Bulletin board & other talking doll. display boards 3. Picture & photographs 4. Flash card, flannel graph & flip chart. 5. Poster 6. Diagram, chart, map & graph. 7. Specimen, model, diorama 8. Translide 1 SKM
  2. 2. Audio Aids Visual Aids Audio-Visual Aids Projected 1. Slide projector 2. Film strip projector 3. Opaque projector 4. Overhead projector 5. Direct projector 6. L.C.D. Panel. Projected 1. Motion picture (Cinema) 2. Video 3. MultimediaCHOICE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS Audio visual aids are used singly or in combination with other aids and the choiceshall depend on a number of criteria such as. 1. Teaching objective – whether to give information, to impart skill or to bring change in attitude, etc. 2. Nature of subject matter being taught-particular aspect of the technology and whether understanding depends on seeing or not. 3. Nature of audience – their age, education, interest, experience, knowledge, intelligence etc. 4. Size of the audience – small or large. 5. Availability of equipments, materials and funds. 6. Skills and experience of the extension agent in preparation and use of A.V. aids.Assignments: 1) Collect and affix the pictures or photographs of the various audio visual aids in the space given. 2 SKM
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  5. 5. Exercise 2 PRINCIPLES AND USE OF PROJECTORSProjected visual aids project the image well enlarged on to a screen placed in front of thelearners. This way the outside world can be brought into a small class room.There are three principles of projection.(i) Direct projection – E.g. Motion picture projector, film strip projector, slide projector.(ii) Indirect projection – E.g. Over head projector.(iii) Reflected projection – E.g. Opaque projector.Common projected visual aids used for extension teaching are; 1. Slide projector 2. Overhead projector 3. Epidiascope 4. Direct Projector 5. Film strip projector 6. L.C.D. panel.Assignments: 1) Learn the operation of the above visual aids. 2) Draw the principles of projectors. a) Principle of slide projector: 5 SKM
  6. 6. b) Principle of over head projector:Principle of opaque projectors: 6 SKM
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  8. 8. Exercise 3PREPARATION AND USE OF VISUAL AIDS LIKE POSTERS, CHARTS, FLASHCARDS AND FLIPCHARTSDESIGNING AND PLANNING ART WORKDesigning of visuals with various art works like, (a) Graphics – charts, diagrams, graphs etc. (b) Letters – letters of various types (c) Pictorial – simple line drawings, sketches, cartoons, etc. is the preliminary step in production of visuals. A combination of graphics, letteredand pictorial artwork will often make an effective visual material. After deciding upon thetype of art work, consideration should be given to the size and layout of the visual. Lay outis the spatial arrangement of pictures, letters, photographs, etc., with balanced color andcontrast so that viewer’s attention is drawn to the centre of interest.ART WORK PREPARATION Having produced a draft layout of the art work the next stage is to produce the artwork in final form. It is done in three steps. I. DRAWING II. COLOURING III. LETTERINGDRAWING Creating pictures is simple for persons with art background or having access toprofessional help. However, one can use pictures from chip-art files, magazines or any othersources of readymade pictures and integrate them into the final artwork. Whatsoever, somedrawing facilities and techniques are essential for this purpose?Drawing facilities A large amount of information and creativity stands first in the list. Further, workingspace, drawing board, ruler, a T square, set squares, a protractor, a compass, scissors, papercutters, pencils, pens of different thickness and colors, paper tracer, adhesive tape, drawingpins, etc. are essential.Drawing techniques (i) Tracing (ii) Light source copying (iii) Carbon paper copying (iv) The use of copying machines (v) Templates and stencils (vi) Simple forms of free hand drawing i. Match stick figures ii. Square rectangular & triangular elements iii. One-stroke drawing 8 SKM
  9. 9. Assignments: Familiarize the various drawing techniques.COLOURING Colour is an important component in visual preparation. The key to successful use ofcolour depends on an understanding of color relationship. There are three primary colors-red,blue and yellow (BRY). By mixing two primary colors we get a secondary colour such asorange from red and yellow; green from yellow and blue and violet from red and blue.INTERMEDIARY colors are obtained by mixing a primary with a neighboring secondarycolor. The farther any two colors on the color wheel, the more contrasting they are incharacter.Coloring materials(a) Water colors (e) Crayons (i) Chalk(b) Inks (f) Colored pencils (j) Charcoal(c) Dyes (g) Oil paints (k) Soil(d) Color papersColoring instruments1. Ready made brushes 4. Chicken feather2. Cotton swabs 5. Pens (Ink pen, ball pen & sketch pen)3. Bamboo stick with crushed tip 6. Tooth brushColoring methods1. Brush method2. Cotton swab method3. Pen method4. Air spray method5. Color paper cut outs 9 SKM
  10. 10. Assignment:1) Draw the colour wheel.2) Familiarize colouring using the different techniques. LETTERING Lettering serves to identify, label, emphasize, explain, clarify and reinforceinformation. For effective lettering, minimize the amount of text in a single visual. Let it bebold, clear and of lower case type. The accepted lettering size for varying distances is asfollows; Size of letters (in Distance of last row inches) from the board (In feet) ¼ 8 ½ 16 1 32 2 64FLANNEL GRAPH, FLASH CARDS, FLIP CHART FLANNEL GRAPH, FLASH CARDS and FLIP CHART are visual aids in which themessages are written or drawn on thick paper and presented step-by-step by the extensionagent to the audience to synchronize with the talk. They are suitable for a small groupteaching.FLANNEL GRAPH In flannel graph, papers containing the messages are prepared with sand paperbacking and are placed one by one in a sequence along with the talk, on a board covered withflannel or khadi cloth.FLASH CARDS They are set of paper cards that are flashed one by one in a logical sequence before anaudience to put forth an idea. The size of the cards may be 30’ x 25’ or 14’ x 11’.FLIP CHART Flip chart is a set of flash cards found at the top which work as a calendar. It is likean album or calendar of drawings, pictures, charts. The leaves are turned one-by-one in asequence as the talk proceeds. However, as it is a bound volume, the leaves cannot beremoved and used as one desires.Advantages of Flannel Graph, Flash Cards & Flip Chart 1. Facilitate presentation of the talk. 2. Help in clarifying concepts. 10 SKM
  11. 11. 3. Produce dramatic effect on the audience 4. Help in summarizing the talk. 5. Save time in presentation of a talk.Use of Flannel Graphs, Flash Cards & Flip ChartIt is done in four steps, i.e., 4 P’s-plan, prepare, practice and present.Planning  Decide on the objective  Identify key points and organize them in sequence  Decide how much lettering or illustration is to be included in each sheetPreparation  Procure good quality, thick paper of different colour.  Procure ink, poster, color, brush, stencil, illustrations, bond paper, gum, flannel board etc.  Use good colour combination  Write in bold letters, clearly visible from a distance  Cartoons, pictures, cut-out of a picture, photographs, from other publications, etc., may be used if necessary.Practices  Arrange presentation material in a sequence and number them.  In case of flash chards some important points may be written on back side of the cards to help in the presentation.  Rehearse and synchronize with the talk.Presentation  Present the visuals in perfect order along with the talk.  Limit the number of visuals from 10 to 15 in a single presentation.Assignments: Prepare and present the flash cards, flannel graphs and flip charts.POSTER DRAWING Poster is a simple, cheap and effective tool for mass contact. A good poster capturesattention, quickly conveys the message and stimulates action. Posters shall be liberally usedby extension agency.HOW TO PREPAREA good poster involves two things;1. A potent idea 11 SKM
  12. 12. 2. A clear presentation of the idea through designA good post should be;1. Attractive in colour2. Brief in message3. Clear in message and design (ABC of poster drawing).Work out the following components; 1. Caption in words – As small as possible. In easy and popular words. Give only one idea. Cap6tion may be in slogan form. 2. Illustration or picture – The actual thing to be shown, i.e., the picture should be brought out in bold design. Avoid unnecessary details. 3. Colour – Use bright attractive colours. Do not use more colours. Use the best colour combination. 4. Space – Do not load posters with words and pictures. Provide adequate space. 5. Lay out – It should be well balanced so that viewers eye can pass smoothly and quickly through the caption and illustration. A poster of 28” x 44” size is more effective with two inch size plain letters in caption. Assignment – Draw a poster on a suitable message intended for livestock farmers. 12 SKM
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  14. 14. Exercise 4 USE OF LITERATURE AND MEDIA IN EXTENSION- NEWS, FEATURE ARTICLES, SUCCESS STORIES AND POPULAR ARTICLES NEWS STORY News is any timely information that interests a number of persons. It is a current event that is of interest to the readers of the news papers. The ornament of a news paper is news. It should be any accurate fact or idea. News is the record of the most interesting importance and accurate information. News is anything you didn’t know yesterday. Procedure in writing the news story Be alert in what is happening around you Know the format and the standard of your news paper Equip yourself with the literature and clippings on the subject allotted to you Establish contacts with people for information Collect all the facts you want Write them in the order of importance Pick the most important and most interesting facts for the lead Write the story in logical and organizing manner Develop the rest of the story Edit and rewrite Give an interesting caption Assignment: 1) Draw the inverted pyramid style of writing or reporting 2) Write a news story FEATURE STORY Feature stories are stories of people, places and events. These stories highlight feelings and moods rather than basic facts. They are often biographical stories of some personalities. A feature story is a good way to tell others about something in detail. Local people enjoy learning about the lives of others through feature stories. We can tell stories about community people who are making a difference. Instructions for writing feature stories  Contact the person who is the main character of the story  Interview the person  Prepare open ended questions before the interview  If possible record the interview  Maintain eye contact  Review the answers after the interview  Identify the main focus of the story that you are going to write 14 SKM
  15. 15.  Write an outline first  Write the story  Start with some interesting facts or events  Give descriptions about the persons or events  You can include direct codes of the person you interviewed  Present information in an interesting way so that your audience keep reading  Your conclusion should make some sort of impact on your readers  You can put morals or important messages in conclusion  Determine where to publish the article e.g. news papers, magazines etc.  Determine to whom (editor or reporter) to send the article  Prepare the article in the format of that news paper or magazineAssignment: Write a feature story about a successful dairy farmer.SUCCESS STORY A success story is a testimonial about how your product helped someone in the realworld. It is also called as case study application stories or user stories. It can be short as a fewparagraphs or as long as 10 pages. They are often produced as one page glossies with colorprints. It is the most powerful document that one can write.Stages in writing success storiesThere are three stages in writing success story.Stage-I consumer facing a challengeStage-II with the advice-help of extension agencies they took actionStage-III action achieved resultsTell your story through these stages i.e. Typical outline of success storySuccess story should contain  Title  Define the problem  Program description  Impact statement  Contact informationPOPULAR ARTICLES Popular articles are those articles which are published in popular dailies and in otherfarm publications which are intended for farmers and general public. All leading dailies areregularly publishing popular articles through their farm feature pages. While writing populararticles, we should know about its readers. Based on this, the subject should be selected. Weshould have a clear cut idea about the purpose of writing. Basically it imparts needed 15 SKM
  16. 16. knowledge to the farmer. We should know how, what and why we are writing. Afterassessing all these parameters, study the topic in detail. Collect as much relevant informationas possible.Principles of writing 1. ABC principle (accuracy, brevity, clarity) 2. 5 W’s and 1H principle (who, what, why, where, when, and how) 3. KISS principle (Keep it short and simple)RADIO SCRIPTHow to write radio script? Learning how to write radio script is critical for proper execution of radio program. It is achallenge because it is a format has its own rules. Only very up-to date news or program issuitable. Step 1- Formulate a story idea.  Outline the characters, plot, setting, conflict and resolution.  The script for radio talk should select a very current and interesting topic for the benefit of the audience/target group. One of the most important challenge is to make the useful information available to the farmers making their meaning clear to them so that they are motivated and finally they will adopt the practices  It should be practically relevant  It should be technically feasible  It should be economically viable  Time duration should be 5-10 minutes.  Five minutes talk is ideal with 120 words per minute.  600 words for the talk plus 50-100 words as stand by.  The central fact should be written out  The first ten second of the broadcast will catch or lose the attention of the listener.Step 2- Write a narrative of the story. Always keep the limitations of radio in mind. We should not forget radio broadcast voiceto ear method. In radio, the talker cannot make use of his smile. He cannot gesticulate or usevisuals. He cannot even see how his listener is reacting or taking it in mind. It has no actorsfor the people to see. So, we have to be very careful about how we phrase our dialog. And infact, the writing in a radio script is even more important in some ways than the writing in aplay or a screenplay because the audience has nothing to look at; therefore theyre going to belistening to our words a lot more tentatively. Therefore,  The script should be very clear and convincing.  It should be in local language 16 SKM
  17. 17.  The impact of radio language was heavy upon the written style, rather than on the spoken idiom.  The talkers arguments should be logical so that it stimulates and maintaining enough interest in the listener.  It has to be prepared in short, simple and direct with familiar words and simple sentences.  Need to strike a balance in the language they use.  Script cannot be ploddingly detailed and dull, yet being too colloquial may lead to sloppiness and lack of credibility.  The main points must be repeated several times.  Summarize the talk clearly.Step 3- Divide the narrative into scenes, with good descriptions of setting, character, andsound effects. The script must include various cues for dialogue, music and sound effect andbe able to quickly & clearly communicate the writers’ objective.Step 4- Write the dialogue based on the narrative. Let the characters and sound effectsgive the listener a clear picture of the action in their mind.Step 5- Put the story into radio script format.This includes:a. Write a page heading.b. Write a scene heading.c. Include script cues.There are three things a listener mainly retains from a radio drama: dialogue, music, andsound effects. Each of these audio components is identified as a cue—because they happen ata given time in the script and the director may have to instruct someone to produce it.d. Insert music cues.Varying emotions can be achieved through the choice of music. Clearly written instructionsregarding music cues will greatly assist the cast and crew in influencing the mood of a givenscene.e. Include the dialogue cues.This helps the director and the actors prepare themselves for proper timing and execution.f. Insert the sound effect cues.Sound effects help to establish the scene or depict action. Sound effect cues are alwaysunderlined.g. Compose your production notes.Engineers cast or crew require specific instructions that are handled as production notes-comments from the writer on how to coordinate cues or achieve particular effects. These needto be clear and precise.Step 6- Edit your radio script after letting it sit for a few hours or days.A fresh set of eyes will help to catch any mistakes in grammar or plot. Consider having athird-party scrutinize the script.Step 7- Present the script to your producer or editor and make revisions as necessary. 17 SKM
  18. 18. Radio scripts are the blueprints of our presentation. There is seldom time in radioprograms for script memorization so our notes and cues must be precise to achieve the resultsin real time. 18 SKM
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  21. 21. Exercise 5 SOCIAL SAMPLING AND COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS OF DATASOCIAL SAMPLING Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non-probability. Inprobability samples, each member of the population has a known non-zero probability ofbeing selected. Probability methods include random sampling, systematic sampling, andstratified sampling. In non-probability sampling, members are selected from the population insome non-random manner. These include convenience sampling, judgment sampling, quotasampling, and snowball sampling. The advantage of probability sampling is that samplingerror can be calculated. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from thepopulation. When inferring to the population, results are reported plus or minus the samplingerror. In non-probability sampling, the degree to which the sample differs from thepopulation remains unknown.Probability SamplingRandom sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. Each member of thepopulation has an equal and known chance of being selected. When there are very largepopulations, it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population, sothe pool of available subjects becomes biased.Systematic sampling is often used instead of random sampling. It is also called an Nth nameselection technique. After the required sample size has been calculated, every Nth record isselected from a list of population members. As long as the list does not contain any hiddenorder, this sampling method is as good as the random sampling method. Its only advantageover the random sampling technique is simplicity. Systematic sampling is frequently used toselect a specified number of records from a computer file.Stratified sampling is commonly used probability method that is superior to randomsampling because it reduces sampling error. A stratum is a subset of the population thatshares at least one common characteristic. Examples of stratums might be males and females,or managers and non-managers. The researcher first identifies the relevant stratums and theiractual representation in the population. Random sampling is then used to selecta sufficient number of subjects from each stratum. Stratified sampling is often used when oneor more of the stratums in the population have a low incidence relative to the other stratums.Convenience sampling is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested ingetting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample isselected because they are convenient. This non-probability method is often used duringpreliminary research efforts to get a gross estimate of the results, without incurring the cost ortime required to select a random sample.Judgment sampling: The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. For example, aresearcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city, even thoughthe population includes all cities. When using this method, the researcher must be confidentthat the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population. 21 SKM
  22. 22. Quota sampling is the non-probability equivalent of stratified sampling. Like stratifiedsampling, the researcher first identifies the stratums and their proportions as they arerepresented in the population. Then convenience or judgment sampling is used to select therequired number of subjects from each stratum. This differs from stratified sampling, wherethe stratums are filled by random sampling.Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method used when the desired samplecharacteristic is rare. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents inthese situations. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generateadditional subjects. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs, it comes at theexpense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that thesample will represent a good cross section from the population. 2) Explain the various tools for data collection. a) Interview schedule: b) Mailed questionnaire: c) Observation: 22 SKM
  23. 23. d) Rating scales/ schedules:e) Documents: 23 SKM
  24. 24. Exercise 6IDENTIFICATION OF KEY COMMUNICATORS AND OPERATIONPROGRAMMECommunication is the process by which messages are transferred from a source to receiver.Identification of key communicator or functional leaderLeader- A leader is a person who effectively influences a group to cooperate in setting andachieving the goals.Key communicator- A person who has maximum information about his society and vicinityarea on different aspect.What are the different methods in identifying and selecting leaders or keycommunicators? 1) Sociometric method 2) Election: 3) Discussion method: 24 SKM
  25. 25. 4) Workshop method:5) Group observer method:6) Key informant technique: 25 SKM
  26. 26. Exercise 7CONSTRAINT ANALYSISThe simplest dictionary meanings of constraint (grammatically noun) are: to compel, to force,to confine, to restrict the motion of (a body or particle), to secure by bonds, to restrain, toclose tightly, to hold back by force, to violate, to straighten, to oppress, to confine forcibly,restriction of liberty, affliction, compulsion put upon the expression of feelings or behavior,always implying unnaturalness or embarrassment, repression of natural behavior; as to havean air of constraint, the act or action of using force or threat of force to prevent.Assignments: 1) What are the different methods of constraint analysis? 2) Identification of constraints in the adoption of improved animal husbandry practices. 3) Enumerate the organizational constraints in animal husbandry extension programmes. 26 SKM
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  28. 28. Exercise 8TECHNIQUES AND PROCEDURES OF GROUP DISCUSSIONS ANDAWARENESS CAMPAIGNSGROUP DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES:Panel: In a panel discussion, a small group of individuals (from three to five) who areknowledgeable about a particular subject discuss the topic among themselves in front of anaudience. Panel participants make no formal presentations; they exchange ideas throughconversation.Dialogue: This method is very similar to a panel discussion, but only two individuals takepart in discussing the subject in front of an audience.Symposium: In a symposium, a small number of speakers who are knowledgeable about aparticular subject make short presentations in succession. These presentations usually rangefrom five to fifteen minutes each.Forum: This form of discussion allows for participation by the audience. There are severaltypes of forums. The most common are: Open forum: Members of the audience are allowed to participate at any time during the meeting. Panel-forum: Members of an audience hear a panel discussion and are then allowed to ask questions or to comment on the subject under discussion. Symposium-forum: Members of the audience hear presentations by invited speakers and are then allowed to question, discuss, or comment. Dialogue-forum: Members of the audience are allowed to question, discuss, or comment after the dialogue. Lecture-forum: After a formal presentation by a knowledgeable speaker, audience members are given the opportunity to question, comment, seek clarification, or discuss the information presented.Colloquy: This method combines a panel discussion with a forum. During the course of apanel discussion, audience members may be invited to comment or ask questions if panelmembers or the chair perceive a need to clarify points, avoid neglecting an issue, or assurethat a misperception is not allowed to stand. Any interruptions of the panel discussion mustbe focused on the point at hand. When the matter has been resolved, the organized discussionamong panel members resumes.Buzz Session: The audience is divided into groups of six to eight persons for discussion ofrelevant questions posed by the leader. One individual from each group may be asked tosummarize the groups discussion and report to the entire audience. 28 SKM
  29. 29. Audience -Reaction Team: Three to five members of the audience are preselected to listento a presentation and respond by offering a brief summary and interpretation of theinformation presented. This discussion method can be used effectively in large group settingsand when time is limited.Question Period: Members of the audience are provided an opportunity to ask questions ofprogram participants after their formal presentations have been completed. Usually, a timelimit is set for each question and for the entire question-and-answer period.Brainstorming (Philips 66 format): Members of the audience are encouraged to participateby sharing their ideas or suggestions for solving a problem. No discussion of each point isallowed until all ideas have been expressed. Since, the intent of this discussion method is togenerate a wide range of ideas; no contributor is allowed to defend the information presented.The atmosphere should be open and encouraging.Discussion Group: A group of people meet informally to discuss a topic of mutual concern.Workshop: A small group of people (25 or fewer) with a common interest meet to study,research, and discuss a specific subject or to enhance their individual knowledge andproficiency.Seminar: A group of people who are studying a specific subject meet for a discussion led bya recognized authority.Conference: Large or small groups of people having similar interests meet to hear formalpresentations to the entire group.Assignment: Involve in various group discussion activities and write down theprocedures.CAMPAIGNS It is an intensive teaching activity undertaken at an opportune time for a brief period;focusing attention in a concerted manner on a particular problem, with a view to stimulate thewidest possible interest in a community, block or other geographical area. Campaigns arelaunched only after a recommended practice has been found acceptable to the people as aresult of other extension methods like method or result demonstration etc.PurposeTo encourage emotional participation of a large number of people and to foster a favorablefor psychological climate for quick and large scale adoption of an improved practice.Procedure 1. Determine the need for a campaign 2. Be clear about the purpose by making sure that it fulfills the need of local people. 3. Plan the campaign a. Consult local leaders and organization b. Consult specialists. c. Ensure timely supply or men and materials. d. Select a suitable time for launching the campaign. e. Give wide publicity in advance. 29 SKM
  30. 30. f. Build up enthusiasm of the people. g. Allot specific areas and items to each service personnel and local leaders. 4. Conduct the campaigns. a. Ensure that campaign is carried out as per plan. b. Work with and through local leaders. c. Watch the campaign closely throughout. d. Avoid failures. 5. Follow up a. Make individual and group contacts to find out reactions. b. Assess extent of adoption. c. Find out and analyze failures. d. Publicize successful items e. Give due recognition to local leaders responsible for success.Assignment: Participate at least in one campaign pertaining to animal husbandry. 30 SKM
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