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    Development of rural orissa Development of rural orissa Document Transcript

    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION India is a country of villages whose total number is approximately5.76 lakh. According to the 1981 Census, out of a total population 68.4crores in the country, the rural population was 52.8 crores and the urbanpopulation was 15.6 crores. The rural population therefore constitutes 77percent of the total. The distribution of the population of a country amongthe different occupations gives an indication of the stage of its economicdevelopment. Occupation may be broadly divided into three categories,viz, primary, secondary, and tertiary. The primary sector includesactivities like agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishery, mining andthe like. These are called primary because their products are essential forhuman life. Industries, large and small, come under the secondary sector.Transport, communications, banking and finance, and other services areplaced under the tertiary sector. Agriculture is the mainstay of Indian economy. About 64% of labourforce depends upon agriculture and it. Contributes approximately 26%ofgross domestic product. Agriculture contributes to 18 % of Indian exports.The ninth five year plan gives emphasis on running the capabilities ofsmall peasants and promoting sustainable agricultural system forpromotion of agricultural production. Agriculture as the main occupationof the people of Rural India. So, the Development of S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) is the nodalorganization of the DARE to develop agricultural technology inputmaterial and the use to gain self-sufficiency. Indian Agriculture is pegged, by nature’s vagaries, low levelproductivity, vast disguised unemployment, poor techniques ofagricultural production, etc. The significance of agriculture in India arisesfrom, the fact that the development in agriculture is an essential conditionfor the development of rural economy and national economy as well.AGRICULTURE AND ITS ORIGIN: Agriculture as a planned, systematic approach to food acquisitionexisted for at least 10,000 years. Evidence of the presence of wheat andsome legumes in the 6th millennium B.C., have been found in the Indusvalley. By 2500B.C.Rice was an important component of the staple diet inMohenjo-Daro near the Arabian Sea. By 3500 BCE Farming of Rice,coconut trade and cotton growing and Textiles were quite advanced in thevalley. With the growth of rapid Industrialization there had beendevelopment in agricultural production. Green Revolution implies toimprove agricultural production within and maintaining a high level ofagricultural production over a long, period of time to improveagricultural production. Use of high yielding varieties of seeds, use of chemical fertilizers,pesticides, use of improved technology, agricultural credit to farmers arepossible due to growth of Industrialization: Invest in agriculture in S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissairrigation facilities, tractors, ware houses etc. have been risingcontinuously increasing the demand for industrial output and adding tothe nations capital stock.AGRICULTURE IN INDIA: India is an agricultural country. The backbone of Indian economy isagriculture. India is one of the greatest growers of sugarcane, rice, cotton,groundnuts, tea, jute, etc. India has her place in the production of thesematerials. With the production of so many things, India is faced withdeficit in her food requirements. The methods of Indian Agriculture areunscientific. So the need for agricultural improvement is imperative frommany points of view.AGRICULTURE IN ORISSA: Orissa contributes one-tenth of the rice production in India. Gram,ragi, maize, are second ranking crops in different districts. Rice, oil seeds,jute, coconut, turmeric are important crops in India, rice is also the mostdominant crop of Orissa and is concentrated in areas of Cuttack,Sambalpur, Puri, Koraput. Oil seeds cultivation is concentrated inDistricts like Cuttack, Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir, Dhenkanal, etc. T likeKerala, in Orissa coconut is primarily grown as a fruit crop. Oil seeds likeSasameum, mustard, castor are the principal oil seeds grown in Orissa. The unprogressive outlook of the Indian farmers is the greatesthurdle III the way of, Improvement in agriculture. The barrier in adoptingthe scientific methods of farming is the conservative, orthodox and S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissailliterate of the Indian Farmers. So there is a need for RURALINDUSTRIALIZATION.RURAL INDUSTRIALISATION: Rural industrialization refers to the setting up of a wide range ofagro-industries, light engineering Industries, and consumer goodsindustries, organized on modern lines, in suitable rural growth centers forfruitful utilization of local resources, natural and human. The ruralindustries would form a part of the process of industrialization of thecountry. But these industries are expected to realize certain objectives likethe following: 1) To provide maximum support to agriculture by way of supplying its Inputs and industrial services; 2) The growth of agricultural production by providing a market 3) Manufacture a few selected articles for local consumption like soap edible oils. 4) Provide facilities for processing of agricultural goods, supplying spares for agricultural machinery and the likes; 5) Catering to towns and cities or even export markets in certain selected goods manufactured by using local resources and skills; 6) Sub-contracting to urban enterprises 7) Tap local mineral or energy resources S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of OrissaREASONS FOR RURAL INDUSTRILISATION:The necessity for rural industrialization arises out of the factors explainedbelow: 1. Industrialization of the rural areas becomes necessary for making the anti-poverty programmes more effective and self-sustained. It is the success of the anti-poverty programmes that "would make the process of planned econ09mic development of the country more meaningful. The anti-poverty programmes aim at approving the conditions of living of nearly 37% of the total population from 1985 onwards. 2. One may approach the process of development on the basis of the observed facts about economic activities in the rural and urban areas.ral areas are found specializing in agriculture and industries are generally found in urban areas. Therefore, it may be considered reasonable to develop agriculture i9nrural areas and industries in urban areas. But such a strategy of development suffers from two shortcomings. In the first place, it leads to uneven development, as agriculture has a tendency to grow at a slower pace than industry. Secondly, as the level of output per worker in the industrial sector is higher than in agriculture, the gap in the income levels in the two sectors becomes very large in course of time. In fact, it is this strategy of S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa development adopted in our country in the past that lies at the root of the tragic contradictions in Indian planning.3. Traditional agriculture is found to be greatly dependent on the industrial sector. The latter supplies some of the inputs of agriculture and also provides the market for many kinds of agricultural output. The wealth generate9 in rural areas, the food grains grown there and the raw materials produced have gone into urban areas where value added to them has been very great. But the reverse flow of the value added to rural areas, either partly or wholly, has not materialized. As a consequence, the relationship between traditional agriculture and modern industry has become exploitative. This should be stopped by a process of meaningful rural industrialization, Agro-industrial centers and the establishment of a large number of rural fabricating centers is likely to put an end to this rural exploitation.4. We have a huge mass of rural landless laborers who constitute over one-third of the rural population. These people are helped only when employment and wages rise in the agricultural sector. If such opportunities don’t exist, they have to be provided with employment avenues in sectors other than agriculture in the rural areas. This gives an additional reason for rural industrialization. With the growth and impact of Industrialization, there are many large-scale, small scale industries and cottage industries have been increasing on a large number to increase national income. Similarly Agro-industries have contributed towards the gro.wth of rural S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa economy. These Agro industries are established in the rural areas as well as urban areas for the improvement of agricultural productivity.AGRO-INDUSTRIES: Agro-industries in a broad sense refer to those industries which useagricultural raw materials for production and produce certain inputs thatfarmers need for agricultural purposes. The development of agro-industries in rural areas like food-processing, dairy products, wood products, oil mills, rice mills shouldform an important part of our future development strategy. These agro-industries are based on the crops grown and output produced in theagricultural e tor and should be located in rural areas close in rural areasclose to raw material sources. These industries are known to have strongforward n backward Linkage effects. The reasons for emphasizing agro-industries ill our future,development energy may be explained. 1. There is very great scope for expansion of such industries like food, tobacco, wood products and furniture, dairy products and paper. In view of their high growth potentialities and forward and backward linkage effects, development of such agro-based industries will enable us to have faster growth of output, employment and percapita income in a shorter period. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa2. These industries are easier to set up and provide more Income and employment per unit of capital investment. As such, they are very much suitable for a country suffering from capital shortage.3. Agro-industries produce consu.mer goods· whose demand increases with the growth of employment and income. As a result, these industries would help us to control the pressure of inflation.4. These industries expand the demand for agricultural goods and raw materials. This encourages agricultural production. Against the background of increased demand, integrated development of agriculture and industry would be possible.5. Agro-industries will not only provide an incentive to farmers to raise the productivity of agriculture but also help in modernization of the rural e tor. There is the possibility of a change in attitudes and greater enthusiasm to adopt improved methods of production.6. One of the important shortcomings of our process of economic development so far has been a high concentration of industrial activity in a few cities and relative neglect of the rural areas. The rural industrial sector has -remained relatively stagnant. The rural areas have been insulted from the overall industrialization process III the country. It is necessary to involve the rural masses in the development process. This would be possible only through the establishment of agro-industries in the rural areas. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of OrissaTYPES OF AGRO-INDUSTRIES:Agro- industries are mainly classified into four categories such as: a. Agro-Produce processing unit’s viz., Rice mills, Flour mills, and oil extracting units, sugar mills. b. Agro-Produce manufacturing units viz, Bakery, Bread, and sugar. c. Agro-Inputs manufacturing units viz, fertilizers and pesticides, etc.- d. Agro-Service centers.ROLE OF AGRO-INDUSTRIES IN DEVELOPMENTOF A NATION: Agro- industries play a vital role in the economic development of acountry. More particularly its role in the rural development is significantbecause of the importance of agriculture in the rural economy. Agro-industries help to improve the state income and lead to an equitable,distribution, of the same among different sectors, and regions in theeconomy. Furthermore, they help to promote decentralization ofdevelopment in the economy; these industries generate employmentopportunities on a large scale and contribute significantly the process ofself-sustained growth. The economic prosperity of a developing economy S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissadepends on the forward and backward linkages of development process.Agro-industries lead to the creation of these linkages on a large scale bymaximizing complementarities of agriculture and industry. As improvement in agricultural productivity depends largely on avariety of inputs of Industrial origin including fertilizers, pesticides,agricultural tools and implements. The role of agriculture in thedevelopment of industry cannot be ignored.Industries supply fertilizers, pesticides to the development of agriculture.While agriculture intern supplies to the industries not only wage goodsbut also raw materials.ROLE OF AGRO-INDUSTRIES IN THE RURALORISSA: Orissa is endowed with vast agricultural resources that providewide scope for the development of agro-industries. Bhubaneswar, Puri,Koraput, Sambalpur, Cuttack, etc. being agriculturally developed, offersimmense possibilities for the growth of agro-industries units which acts aguide post to similarly situated districts and even to not so similarlysituated districts In respect of several parameters of agro-industrialdevelopment.AGRO-BASED INDUSTRIES: Amongst the agro-based industries, the jute mill at Dhanmandal inGajpur district is the most important. Raw jute is being supplied from thejute growing belt or the Mahanadi-Brahmaili delta. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of OrissaCOTTON TEXTILE: A textile mill was established at Chaudwar 111 1949 with a capacityof .50,000 spindles and 864 looms. This mill is market based. It gets itssupplies or raw cotton from the cotton belt located in the WesternPeninsula. Six cotton spinning mills are also operating at Jharsuguda,Bargarh, Khorda, Tistol, Athyarh, Tara and Govindapur mostly in thecooperative sector. Other small weaving and spinning mills are operatingat Sambalpur, Baripada-SERICULTURE: Sericulture is an agro - based industry having very high potential inrural Orissa. Sericulture is high employment oriented, requires lowinvestment and brings high return. It has a low gestation period, can helpearn a lot of being exchange can dis non -polluting. Orissa is second toBihar in the manufacture of Tassar with a production of about 10 tonnesper annum. This variety of silk is mostly manufactured in old maturbhanj,sundergarh. Kendhujhar, Sambalpur and Koraput district. The Tassarworms thrive mostly on the shorea robusta (sal), Terminelia Arjuna andTerminalia Tomentosa. All these tress are found in abundance in theforestry of Orissa. Sericulture which stared in Orissa 1926 in Cuttack, Puriand Ganjam districts gradually spread to-·sundergarh, phulabani andKoraput districts. Mulberry silk is much less important compared toTassar and Eri in Orissa. Since1981, the Bivoltive Sericulture Developmentproject has been taken up by the state Government. It covers areas in R. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of OrissaUuayagiri and Mohana blocks and in old Koraput, Ganjan, phulabani,Kalahandi, Cuttack, Puri, Sambalpur and Kendujhar districts.SUGAR MILLS: A sugar mill was started in Orissa on the eve of the Second WorldWar, at Aska. All sugar factories are raw material oriented. The sugarfactory at Aska is the oldest in the state. At the end of the seventh plan,three sugar factories were operational at Aska, Bargarh and Rayagada.Two more factories are being set up at Nayagarh, in Nayagarh districtsand Badamba "in Cuttack. Besides, some other Sugar mills were started atDharmagarh in old Kalahandi district, Haripur in Dhenkanal district,abarangapur in Nabarangpur district, Deogaon in Balangir district andnandapur in Kendujhar district.RICE MILL: Rice mill are an important agro-based industry in Orissa. Theycluster variably around the railheads of old Baleshwar, Cuttack andSambalpur districts. Besides, a large number of rice hullers are operatingin rural collecting centers all over Orissa. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Chapter-2 REVIEW OF- LITERATURE The term of review of related literature basically constitutes twowords namely, review and literature. Ordinarily by review we mean to goback or to have a detailed view about the progress made during theprevious period about any phenomena whereas .literature means theknowledge of particular area. From there search point of view, review ofrelated literature refers to reviewing the already published materials andto discover and integrate new information which has never been reportedand never considered. The task of reviewing the related literature is not soeasy as it requires expertise knowledge and creative ability as theresearcher has to synthesize the available knowledge of the field in aunique way in order to provide the rationale for his study. According to W.R.Borg is," The Review of related is the literature inany field forms the foundation upon. Which all future work will be built? If we fail t.9 build the foundation of knowledge provided by thereview of literature our work is likely to be shallowed and naive and willoften duplicate work that has already been done better by same are else." Fundamentally, it has two phases. The first phase includesidentification all the relevant published materials in the problem area bythe help of which the investigator develops fundamental ideas on thebasis of which to develop his/her own study. The second phase of reviewof related literature involves writing, the foundation of ideas into a section S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissaof research report. This section proves to be very much essential for theresearcher as well as the reader. For the researcher it provides thebackground of the study and for the reader it provides the summary ofthe thinking and research necessary for them to understand the study.The related literatures can be reviewed from different sources like booksand text book materials, periodicals, journals, abstracts, encyclopedia,handbooks, yearbooks guides, references on international sociology,dissertations and press and newspapers. IMPORTANCE OF RELATED RESEARCHSTUDIES: The importance of review of related literature can In no way beundermined in any research activity because it solves a number ofpurposes like firstly it provides theories, ideas, explanations or hypothesiswhich may prove useful in the formation of new problem. Secondly, it indicates whether the evidence already available solvesthe problem adequately without requiring further investigation. Thirdly itprovides sources for formulating relevant hypothesis. Fourthly, itrecommends method, procedure, sources of data and statisticaltechniques appropriate to the solution of problems. Fifthly it helps to havecomparative data and findings necessary in the interpretation anddiscussion of results. Sixthly it helps to discover important variables todetermine the meanings, relevance of the study and relationship with thisand its deviation from the available study. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Further, Review of Related literature helps the researcher to assessthe work done in past and to put the hypothesis to be examined in theresearch report in the proper context. It is very important for any research activity because they are of theearly steps in planning a research work is to review research donepreviously in the particular area of interest. 1t is also very essential on thepart of the investigator to be upto date in his information about theliterature related to his own problem already done by others. It enablesthe investigator to avoid unnecessary replication of the previous study. Ithelps the researcher by providing specific information required tointerpret the definitions, assumptions, limitations and hypothesis ofresearch. A careful and detailed study of related research studies providesclues concerning the research approach, method, ·instrumentation anddata analysis to the investigator.Review of related research studies: 1. "Agro-Industries through mutual development of agriculture and industry has a complementary character, growth of one being a ~ recondition and cause of the other (Misra and Misra: 1988) 2. Agro- industries are those industries which use agricultural raw materials for production and produce certain inputs that farmers need for agricultural purposes. (Kurukshetra, July 2001) S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa3. Agro-industries are widely used simply as a convenient portmanteak of agriculture and industry, referring to the range of activities and disciplines encompassed by modern food production. (encyclopaedia)4. Agro-industries are related to the production or provision of materials needed by both agriculture and indus.try: (Encarta dictionary)5. Agro-industries have the large scale production, processing and· packaging of food using modern equipment and methods (Dictionary)6. The amount appears to be small, yet it indicates the linkage the agro industries seek to establish In the agriculture for growth. (Venkaiah: 1992)7. In the scheme of agro-industries development more emphasis be given for the establishment of agro-input manufacturing industrial units. (Sharma: 1992)8. Agro-industries have a great impact on rural economy and development of agro-industries is the advancement of rural economy." (Venkaiah, v.1987)9. "Agro- industries expand the demand for agricultural goods and raw materials. This encourages agricultural production. Against the background of increased demand, integrated development of S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa agriculture and industry would be possible. This would create the background for large- scale industrial development."10."One of the important short- comings of our process of economic development so far has been a high concentration of industrial activity in a few cities and relative neglect of the rural areas. The rural industrial sector has remained relatively stagnant. The rural areas have been insulted from the overall industrialization process in the country. Hence a majority of the population living in the rural areas have not been touched by the process of modernization. It is necessary to involve the rural masses in the development process. This would be possible only through the establishment of agro- Industries in the rural areas. ( K. M. Patnaik,19,86) S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Chapter-3 METHODOLOGY Methodology is the procedure of research techniques. It is the logicof scientific investigation. It is not a research model employed in aparticular project but is a technique which entails theoretical principles aswell as a framework that provides guidelines about how research is donein the context of a particular paradigram. It translates the principles of aparadiagram into research language and shows how the society can beexplained and studied. Literally methodology means the science of methods. It contains thestandards and principles employed to guide the choice, structure, processand use of methods, as directed by the underlying paradiagram.Methodology in sociology includes- 1. The analysis of the basic assumption of science in general and sociology in particular. 2. The process of theory construction. 3. The interrelationship of theory and research. 4. The procedures of empirical investigation. Thus, methodology IS not concerned with building knowledge butdeals with the procedures. Conceptual, logical and research-by whichknowledge is built. Methodology is determined not by the research model S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissabut rather by the principles of research entitled in the paradiagram. Themethodology may either be qualitative or quantitative.According to George.L.Lundberg" scientific method consists of systematicobservation, classification, and interpretation of data. The main differencebetween our day- to- day generalization and conclusion usuallyrecognized as scientific method lies in the degree of formality;rigorousness, verifiability and general validity of the latter.” Methodologyinvolves the formulation and application of research design. So,methodology plays an important role in research undertakings. It has been clearly pointed out by some sociologists that everyresearcher has to follow certain methods systematically while and doingand type of study or research following the principles the presentresearcher has also followed some systematic principles. These are asfollows:-1. OBJECTIVES: a. To study the role of agro-industries in Rural Orissa. b. To study the socio-economic life of the workers of agro-industries. c. To study the living conditions of the workers,2. RESEARCH DESIGN: Research Design is a preliminary step in every research activity.Designing provides a picture for the whole research project before startingthe work. In brief, it is a blue print of proposed Research problem and it S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissaincludes an outline of what the researcher proposes to do. The purpose ofresearch may broadly grouped into four categories. i. Explorative or formulative ii. Descriptive iii. Diagnostic iv. experimental Exploratory or formulate studies are those which aim at gainingfamiliarizes with a phenomena or which Insights into the phenomena orstudies which deal with formulation of a more· precise Research problem.The study which accurately portray the characteristics of a particularsituation or groups or individuals are descriptive studies, Diagnosticstudies determine the frequency with which something occurs withsomething else, Experimental studies can aim at testing the hypothesis ofa casual relationship between variables. Generally experimental and diagnostic are not used by theresearcher as it difficult to bring data by these methods, So the researcherhas used exploratory and descriptive method in this research. Theresearcher has explored the condition of agro-industries workers. Thenincludes the description of these people, their.. age, sex composition,education and caste wise distribution, etc. The researcher has explainedalso the socio-economic status, various problems of the workers,3. UNIVERSE OF STUDY: S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa The total number of items or objects and the respondents which areto be covered, known as universe of study. So it is desirable that theuniverse should be manageable, taking into consideration available in theor deals with 500 workers of a Rice Mill, baliguali, Puri-24. SAMPLING:Sampling plays an important role in the selection of universe when a 11group .is selected as the representative of whole mass is called samplingmethod. In this study the researcher has taken 20 respondents for studyfrom Baliguali Rice Mill.5. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES: Data collection is of course very important but these are differenttools of data collection which need not only careful consideration but alsoproper attention and planning.. The different technologies of datacollection; these are observation, questionnaire, interview schedule, etc.The researcher has used interview schedules in their study as the maintechnique. The term interview schedule is usually applied to a set ofquestions, which are asked and filled in by the investigator in a face-to-face contact with the respondent. The schedule used by the researcherconsists of a total of 25 questions having two sections. The first sectionwith the personal identification of the respondent having 11 questionsand the second consists of a total of 14 questions which reflects thecondition of Agro-Industrial worker. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa6. VARIABLES TAKEN IN THIS RESEARCH: Variables play a significant role in classifying the complex data.Variables in this study have been conceptualized as those bring aboutvariations in the attitude, outlook and mentality of the attitude, outlookand mentality of the respondents. Variables are of two types 1. Independent Variable 2. Dependent variable The independent variables are those, which can be usedindependently. The researcher has taken caste, age, religion., occupation,etc as any force can change independent variables.But dependent variables are those which are used with the help ofindependent variables such as the life or the social background of theslum dwellers7. ANALYSIS OF DATA: Research findings very much depend on the analyzing of data.Analysis of data sums up the findings and answers questions for whichresearch was conducted. While analyzing some important points likecoding the categories, tabulation, use of statistical methods, etc. should betaken into consideration. In this Research, the researcher has arranged thedata - he respondent on the basis of there. age, sex, occupation, education,monthly income, level of development among the slum dwellers. As thisresearch contains in numerical form various measurements like S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissapercentage, frequency distributions etc. have been used by the researcherto compute the data for the sake of comparison.8. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY: It was very interesting to conduct the study on the Agro-industries,on the part of the researcher. But to achieve something, you have tostruggle, so inspite of many obstacles the researcher was determined tocomplete the research and to collect data from the agro-industrialworkers. As 20 workers are taken for study as a sample, so theinformation is limited.9. RELEVANCE OF THE STUDY: This study takes note of the economic and living condition of theworkers of the Rice Mill, Baliguali, Puri-2. Though there are various typesof agro-industry in Orissa. But we study this Rice Mill, one type of agro-industry and this study helps the researcher to study the workers’ livingcondition, their problems and their economic condition. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Chapter- 4 SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE In order to understand the very essence of the agro-industrialworkers, e has to study their socio-economic conditions in details. It is avery crucial aspect in understanding their problems and needs. Theessential factors which give about the standard of living of the agro-industrial workers ate like their age, sex, marital status, educationalstatus, monthly income, their spending. In this Research project, the respondents/ agro- industrial workersare of different age, sex. These should be analyzed in forms of their agestructure, sex-structure religion, caste, marital status, level of education,size of household. 4.1 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF AGE. AGE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)25-35 5 2535-45 6 3045-55 7 35Above 55 3 15Total 20 100 S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa The above table 5.1 represents the frequency distribution of therespondents on the basis of age-structure. This table shows that 5 out of 20respondents(25%) falls within the age group of 25-35 years,6(30%) of thetotal respondents fall in the age group of 35-45 years, 7(35%) of the totalrespondents belong to the 45-55 age group. Thus majority of therespondents comes under 45-55 years age group who are middle-aged. 4.2 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF SEX.SEX RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE (%)Male 17 85Female 3 15Total 20 100The above table shows that the frequency distribution of the respondenton the basis of sex composition. 17(85%) of the total respondents are aleand 3(15%) falls in the female category, So majority of the respondentsbelongs to male category, 4.3 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF EDUCATION LEVEL OF EDUCATION RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE (%)No education 4 20Primary school 11 55Upto primary school 5 25Total 20 100 On the basis of, we found that 4(20%) falls in the no educationcategory of the educational status. 11(55%) complete the primaryeducation and others 5(25%) up to primary level. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa 4.4 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF THEIR MARTIAL STATUS. MARITAL STATUS RESPONDENT PERCENTAGE (%)Married 19 95Un Married - -Divorced 1 5Widowed 0 0Total 20 100 This table reveals that out of 20 respondents 19(95%)are married, noone unmarried, l (5%) is divorced and no one is widowed categories fromthis research, the researcher knows that majority of married persons workin the rice mill.4.5 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SIZE OF THE FAMILY SIZE OF THE FAMILY RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)Nuclear 5 20Joint 15 75Total 20 100 S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa This table shows that out of 20 respondents 5(20%) belong to thenuclear families and 15(75%) belong to the joint families. 4.6 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF CASTECASTE RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)Brahim 7 35Kshatriya 11 55Vaishya 1 5Shudra 1 5Total 20 100Table shows that the caste affiliation of the industrial workers of BaligualiRice Mill. Castes have been classified into four categories like Brahmin,Kshatriya, Vaishya and Sudra. It ·was observed that out of 20 respondents7(35%)belong to Brahmin caste. 11(55%) of the total respondents areKshatriya, 1 (5%) of the total respondents are sudra. So majority of theworkers belong to Kshatriya caste. 4.7 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF RELIGION RELIGION RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE (%)Hinduism 20 100Islam 0 0Christianity 0 0Sikhism 0 0Total 20 100Table 5.7 shows that out of 20 respondents all the 20( 100%) belong to theHindu religion. So mostly the rice-mill workers come from the Hindureligion in Puri. 4.8 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF LAND OWNERSHIP OF THE RESPONDENTS. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa LAND IN DECIMAL RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE1-2 2 102-3 18 903-4 0 0Total 20 100The above 5.8 shows the out of 20 respondent 2(10%) have their own andin between 1-2 decimal & the rest 18(90%) have their land from 2-3decimal. No one has 3-4 decimal of land. 4.9 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF MONTHLY INCOME OF THE RESPONDENTS:MONTHLY INCOME RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGERs. 1000-1500 2 10Rs. 1500-2000 - -Rs. 2000-2500 18 90Total 20 100 The above table shows that the out of 20 respondents 2( 10%) earnRs.1000-1500per month and the rest 18(90%) earn Rs. 2000-2500. No oneearn Rs.1500 -2000.AN OVERVIEW: From the socio-economic profile, the researcher came to know thatthe largest percentage of the workers of the Rice mill belong to the middleage group (35 to 45).The male workers work more than the femaleworkers in the Rice lY1ili. Only the married persons work in the Rice Milland in terms of family background a large number of workers come from S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissajoint families. In terms of religious background most of the Hindu work inthe Rice Mill. Many of the workers belong to the Kshyatriya caste. Most ofthe workers have the 2-3 decimal land of their own. Most of the workersearn Rs.2000-2500 per month. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Chapter-5 WORKING CONDITION 5.1 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SKILLNESS. ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 18 90 No 2 10 Total 20 100 The above table shows the skillness of the workers of the Rice Mill.It indicates that out of 20 respondents 18(90%) respondents are skilled intheir work, but the rest 2(10%) are freshers. In this research the researcherfound that on majority of workers are skilled in their work. 5.2 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THE TYPE OF WORKING CLASS THEY BELONG ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Seasonal 2 10 Permanent 18 90 Total 20 100 The above table shows the working status of the workers. Itindicates that out of 20 respondents 18(90%) respondents are permanentworkers and 2(10%) are seasonal workers. In this research the researcherfound that on majority of the workers are permanent workers. 5.3 DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR WORKING HOUR. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa The above table shows the working hour of the workers. It indicatesthat out of 20 respondents 2( 10% ) respondents work for 4-6 hours and3(15%) respondents work for 6-8 hours. 15(75%) work for upto 8 hours. Inthis research the researcher found that on majority of the workers workfor upto 8 hours. 5.4 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR WORKING EXPERIENCE: ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE 1-2 years 2 10 2-4 years 8 40 4-6 years 10 50 Upto 6 years - - Total 20 100 The above table shows the working experience of the workers. Itindicates that out of 20 respondents 2( 10%) respondents work for 1-2years and 8(40%) respondents work for 2-4 years. 10 (50%) work for 4-6years. In this research the researcher found that on majority of theworkers work for 4-6 years. No respondents work for up to 6 years. 5.5 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR OVER TIME WORK: ANSWER REPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 18 90 No 2 10 Total 20 100 S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of OrissaThe above table shows the over- time work of the workers. It indicatesthat out of 20 respondents 18(90%) respondents work for over time while2(10%) respondents dont work for over time. 5.6 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THE BONUS THEY GET FOR OVER-TIME WORK ANSWER REPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 18 90 No 2 10 Total 20 100 The above table shows that out of 20 respondents 18(90%) get bonusfor working overtime and 2(10%) respondents dont get any bonus as theydont work over-time.5.7 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THE TYPE OF EQUIPMENTS THEY USE ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Modern 20 100 Old - - Total 20 100The above table shows that out of 20 respondents that means allrespondents use modern equipments. No one use old equipments. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa PERSONAL STATUS: 5.8 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR RESIDENCE. ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Hut 9 45 Ajbested 9 45 Pakka 2 10 Total 20 100 The above table shows that out of 20 respondents 9 (45 %)respondents live in hut. 9(45%) live in ajbested houses and 2(10%) live inpakka houses. 5.9 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR NUMBER OF CHILDREN ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE1 to 2 2 102 to 4 8 40Upto 4 10 50 Total 20 100The above table shows that out of 20 respondents that means 2(10%)respondents have 1 to 2 children and 9(45%) have 2 to 4 children and9(45%) have upto 4 children. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa 5.10 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THE EDUCATIONAL STATUS OF THEIR CHILDREN ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 20 100 No - - Total 20 100 The above table shows that out of 20 respondents that means all the20 workers send their children to school. 5.11 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THE UNION THEY HAVE: ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 18 90 No 2 10 Total 20 100The above table shows that out of the 20 respondents 18(90%) respondentshave their own union and 2(10%) respondents have not any union. 5.12 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR VIEW ABOUT THE ROLE OF AGRO- INDUSTRIES ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGEYes 20 100No - - Total 20 100 S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of OrissaThe above table shows that out of the 20 respondents all the respondentssaid that agro-industries play a greater role in giving employmentopportunities to the unemployed one. 5.13 DISTIBUTION OF RESPONDENTS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SATISFACTION WITH THE JOB. ANSWER RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE Yes 20 100 No - - Total 20 100The above table shows that out of the 20 respondents all the respondentssaid that they are all satisfied with their job. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa AN OVERVIEW: From the working condition and personal status of the workers of the Baliguali Rice Mill, the researcher came to know that: i. Most of the workers that is 18(90%) are skilled. ii. Most of the workers 18(90%) are permanent workers. iii. Majority of the workers i.e., 15(75%), work for upto 8 hours. iv. Majority of the workers i.e., 10(50%) work for 4-6 years. v. Majority of the workers 18(90%) work for over time vi. 18(90%) get bonus for working over-timevii. All the respondents i.e., 20(100%) use modern equipmentsviii. Majority of the workers 9(45%) respondents live in hut. ix. 10(50%) have 2-4 children x. All the respondents send their children to school. xi. 18(90%) have their union xii. All the respondents i.e., 20(100%) agree that agro-industries play a greater role in giving employment opportunities to the unemployed onexiii. All the respondents i.e., 20(100%) said that they are all satisfied with their job. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Chapter-6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION The present Research study entitled the Role of Agro-Industries inDevelopment of Rural Orissa" is an attempt to explore the role of agroindustries in Puri. This project report consists of 6 chapters including thischapter. The first chapter deals with "What is Agro-industry". The second chapter is the Review of Literature. The third chaptermethodology consists of description of the procedure adopted, tools andtechniques of data collection, objectives of the study, and description ofthe universe and field experience. The main objective of the preceding chapter was to explore the Roleof Agro-industries. These objectives are1. Objectives: a. To study the role of agro-industries in Rural Orissa. b. To study the socio-economic life of the workers of agro-industries. c. To study the living conditions of the workers Against the background of the binding the socio- economic natureof the Agro-industries in the Puri, can be described as follows.In our study 20 respondents are taken as sample of the universe. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa i. Majority of the workers that is 7(35%) are between the age group of 45-55 years. ii. The maximum number of respondents that is 11 (55%) belong to Kshatriya caste. iii. Most of the workers that is 19(95%) live in joint families are get married iv. Most of the workers that is 15(75%) live in joint families. v. Most of the workers that is 18(90%) earn Rs. 2000-2500 per month. vi. Most of the workers that is 18(90%) have 2-3 decimal land. The fifth chapter deals with the fact that: i. Majority of the workers that is 18(90%) are skilled. ii. Majority of the workers that is 18(90%) are permanent. iii. Majority of the workers that is 15(75%) work for up to 8 hours. iv. Majority of the workers i.e., 10(50%) work for 4-6 years. v. Majority of the workers i.e., 18 (90%) work bonus for over-time. vi. All the 20 respondents use modern equipments.vii. Majority of the workers i.e., 9(45%) respondents live in hut.viii. Majority of the workers 10(50%) have up to 4 children ix. All the 20 respondents send their children to school. x. Majority of the workers 18 (90%) have their own union. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissaxi. All the workers i.e., 20 respondents opine that agro- industries play a greater role in giving employment opportunities to the employed one.xii. All the workers that is 20 workers opine that they are all satisfied with their job. In response to the present piece of research work, the researcher isgoing to conceive some of the basic postulates regarding the livingcondition, educational status of the children of the workers, while theresearcher put the prepared questions. Most of the workers are co-operative in providing the answers but alittle bit of troubles have to be taken by the researcher because she has tofail to meet them even if they have given the time schedule. Simply they are giving answer that is much burden upon us forattaining other answers. However, may be the difficulties in their cases,but the researcher by taking such hazardous moments has collected all thedesired data by which she has completed- the thesis by analyzing andtabulating the data from the respondents. S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa Bibliography1. Patnaik, K.M., Rural Industrialization, Cuttack, Kitab Mahal Publication House Pvt. Ltd. 1986.2. Misra Band S.N., Misra, Rural Industrilization, Cuttack, Vidyapuri Publication, 1988.3. Sharma, Somnath, Socio-economic study of Agro-industries, New Delhi, Mital Publication Pvt. Ltd., 1992.4. Venkaiah. V., Impact of Agro-industries on Rural Economy, Bombay, Himalaya Publication House Ltd., 1992.5. Chopra Suresh, “Role of Agro-Industries in Rural Orissa”, The Kurukshetra, New Delhi, July 2001, p. 156. “Agro-Industries”, Encyclopaedia Britanica, 14th Edition.7. “Macmillian”, Encarta Dictionary.Websites: www.google.com www.wikipedia.com ****** S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa PROJECT THE ROLE OF AGRO- INDUSTRIES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RURAL ORISSA (A STUDY ON THE WORKERS OF BALIGUALI RICE MILL, PURI-2)This project contains two parts i.e. PART- A and PART- B containing 9and 13 questions respectively which were asked to he workers of that ricemill. INTERVIEW SCHEDULE PART-A SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILESL. NO DATE1. Age i. 25-35 ii. 35-45 iii. 45-55 iv. Above 552. Sex i. Male ii. Female3. Qualification S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa i. No education ii. Primary school iii. Upto primary school4. Marital status i. Married ii. Unmarried iii. Divorced iv. Widowed5. Size of family i. Nuclear ii. Joint6. Caste i. Brahmin ii. Kshyatriya iii. Vaisya iv. Sudra7. Religion i. Hinduism ii. Islam iii. Christianity iv. Sikhism8. Land ownership. i. 1-2 decimal ii. 2-3 decimal iii. 3-4 decimal9. Income i. Rs. 1000-1500/- ii. Rs. 1500-2000/- iii. Rs. 2000-2500 PART-B WORKING CONDITION:1. Are you skilled? i. Yes ii. No2. To which working class do you belong? i. Seasonal ii. Permanent3. How many hours do you work in Mill? i. 4-6 hours ii. 6-8 hours iii. Upto 8 hours4. What is your working experience? i. 4-6 years ii. 2-4 years iii. 4-6 years iv. Upto 6 years5. Do you work for overtime in rice Mill? S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa i. Yes ii. No6. Do you get bonus for working overtime? i. Yes ii. No7. What type of equipments do you use? i. Modern ii. Old8. To which type of residence do you belong? i. Hut ii. Ajbested iii. Pakka9. How many children do you have? i. 1-2 ii. 2-4 iii. Upto 410.Do you send your children to school? i. Yes ii. No11.Do have your own union? i. Yes ii. No12.Do you think that agro-industries play a greater role? i. Yes ii. No13.Are you satisfied with their job? i. Yes ii. No ******* S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9
    • The Role of Agro Industries in the Development of Orissa i. Yes ii. No6. Do you get bonus for working overtime? i. Yes ii. No7. What type of equipments do you use? i. Modern ii. Old8. To which type of residence do you belong? i. Hut ii. Ajbested iii. Pakka9. How many children do you have? i. 1-2 ii. 2-4 iii. Upto 410.Do you send your children to school? i. Yes ii. No11.Do have your own union? i. Yes ii. No12.Do you think that agro-industries play a greater role? i. Yes ii. No13.Are you satisfied with their job? i. Yes ii. No ******* S.C.S. (A) College, Puri Page 9