green house gases


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  • green house gases

    2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide , nitrous oxide , and methane , for example) trap energy from the sun. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Incoming Radiation <ul><li>Some trace gases are known as “greenhouse&quot; gases because they function like the glass in a greenhouse </li></ul><ul><li>Incoming radiation strikes the earth and some is absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>This heats the earth and the earth reradiates in the infrared portion of the spectrum </li></ul>
    4. 4. Greenhouse Gas Properties <ul><li>Greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation that corresponds to the vibrational and rotational energy levels of their bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Normally these gases have three or more atoms. </li></ul>
    5. 5. TYPES OF GREEN HOUSE GASES <ul><li>CARBON DIOXIDE </li></ul><ul><li>METHANE </li></ul><ul><li>NITROUS OXIDE </li></ul><ul><li>CHLOROFLUROCARBONS </li></ul><ul><li>These gases--together with water vapor--create the natural greenhouse effect </li></ul><ul><li>They trap some of the sun's energy and keep the Earth warm enough to sustain life </li></ul>
    6. 6. Carbon dioxide <ul><li>More than 80% of carbon dioxide emissions are caused by : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning fossil fuels in industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cutting down and burning trees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thermal power plants and automobiles. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deforestation accounts for about 20 percent of the carbon dioxide increase from human activities </li></ul>
    7. 7. Deforestation <ul><li>Until 50 years ago most of the carbon dioxide from deforestation was released from temperate zones </li></ul><ul><li>Now tropical deforestation is the largest source </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical forests are being burned and cut for farming, mining and raising cattle </li></ul>
    8. 8. Automobile Exhaust <ul><li>Burning One Gallon of Gasoline Generates 22 Pounds of Carbon Dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>When gasoline is burned, the carbon in it combines with oxygen in the air to form carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><li>Because the oxygen adds weight, the newly formed carbon dioxide weighs more than the original unburned fuel </li></ul>
    9. 9. Cars and Population Increase <ul><li>There are over 600 million motor vehicles in the world today </li></ul><ul><li>If present trends continue, the number of cars on Earth will double in the next 30 years </li></ul>
    10. 10. Methane <ul><li>Generated naturally by bacteria ,called methanogens which is habitat in marshes, swamp and wet land soils </li></ul><ul><li>It also escapes from natural gas deposits </li></ul><ul><li>Methane gas escapes from garbage landfills and open dumps </li></ul><ul><li>It also leaks out during mining, extraction and transportation of coal, oil and natural gas </li></ul>
    11. 11. Adding Methane <ul><li>Each year we add 350 to 500 million tons of methane to the air mainly by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Raising livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coal mining and drilling for oil and natural gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rice cultivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposing of garbage in landfills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burning forests and fields </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. New Source of Methane <ul><li>In 2006, research has shown that permafrost melting in the arctic is releasing methane trapped in formerly frozen sediments </li></ul><ul><li>Permafrost melting is the result of global warming </li></ul>
    13. 13. Potential Source of Methane <ul><li>A great deal of natural gas is trapped as a solid clathrate complex </li></ul><ul><li>These methane clathrates are found in bands under the coastal sediments offshore from continents in a number of areas </li></ul><ul><li>They represent a possibly large new source of energy </li></ul><ul><li>Utilization of this resource may resource in large releases of methane </li></ul>
    14. 14. Animals and Methane <ul><li>Bacteria in the gut of cattle break down the food these animals eat, converting some of it to methane gas </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle can belch up to a half-pound of methane a day </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep, goats, buffalo and camels also belch methane </li></ul><ul><li>Rapidly growing world population produces greater demand for meat and dairy products </li></ul><ul><li>Number of cattle has doubled in the past 40 years </li></ul>
    15. 15. Nitrous Oxide <ul><li>Nitrous oxide is released naturally from oceans and by bacteria in soils </li></ul><ul><li>Each year we add 7 to 13 million tons of nitrous oxide to the atmosphere mainly by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using nitrogen-based fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disposing of human and animal wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automobile exhausts </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Chemical Fertilizers <ul><li>Nitrogen-based fertilizer use has doubled in the past 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fertilizers provide nutrients for crops </li></ul><ul><li>When these fertilizers break down in the soil, nitrous oxide is released into the air </li></ul>
    17. 17. Sewage <ul><li>Human and animal wastes release nitrous oxide </li></ul><ul><li>Sewage treatment plants may be a major source of this gas </li></ul><ul><li>More research is needed </li></ul><ul><li>Animal feed lots also contribute </li></ul>
    18. 18. Fluorocarbons <ul><li>Fluorocarbons come almost entirely from human activities </li></ul><ul><li>They are manufactured by humans for refrigeration and other uses </li></ul><ul><li>Some fluorocarbons, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs),CFC along with chlorine and bromine containing compounds also involve in acceleration of ozone hole formation . </li></ul><ul><li>It also result in increasing the amount of hydrogen peroxide in the atmosphere and induce acid rain </li></ul>
    19. 19. Effect of Greenhouse Gases <ul><li>Chart shows how much warming could be caused by each of the gases that human activities release </li></ul>
    20. 20. A Global Problem <ul><li>An increase in global temperature would bring changes to the entire planet, and therefore to every nation </li></ul><ul><li>This makes it an international issue which needs worldwide study and responses </li></ul><ul><li>Individual countries are each responsible for their own greenhouse gas production </li></ul>
    21. 21. CONSEQUENCES OF GREEN HOUSE EFFECT <ul><li>Global warming. </li></ul><ul><li>Rise in sea level flooding low lying regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in rainfall. </li></ul><ul><li>Disruption of whole ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>Soil will become infertile. </li></ul><ul><li>Plants wll be less in N2 susceptible to pests. </li></ul>
    22. 22. CONTROLING MEASURES <ul><li>Reducing the consumption of fossil fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Afforestation. </li></ul><ul><li>Eco friendly alternative CFC. </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 pumped into underground. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioremediation </li></ul><ul><li>Sulphate aerosols </li></ul>
    23. 23. THANK YOU