Six Sigma Overview
4 Sigma Process Capability 99.38% Current Standard
6 Sigma Process Capability 99.99966% World-Class
Long-Term Yield
3 Sigm...
History of 6 Sigma
• 6 Sigma manufacturing philosophy came from Motorola
They recognised that sufficient process improveme...
6 sigma Process Capability
“What is it (CPK)”
• 3 Sigma ( Process capability of 1 CPK )
– if the process (lorry) slightly ...
 Variation exists in everything. Even the
best machine cannot make every unit
exactly the same.
 Improved capability, be...
Improvement methodology
On target,
minimum process variation
KPIV
Key
Process
Input
Variables
The Process
X1 X2 X3
Control...
D M A I CD M A I C
Define
Measure
Analyze
Improve
Control
Improvement methodology
Define
Improvement methodology
• Define terms of reference (Charter the
project)
– Team / customer / project charter
– Bra...
Define
• Define terms of reference (charting a project)
– What you can deliver to the customer and the support you need
fr...
Measure
Improvement methodology
• Voice of the process
– Data Collection - 7 quality tools
– Tally charts
– Bar charts
– P...
Measure
• Voice of the process (7 quality tools)
– Tally charts, Bar charts, Pareto, Run charts, Control charts, Cause
& e...
Analyze
Improvement methodology
• Investigate source of variation
(Special cause / Common causes)
– Stratification of data...
Lost
Shoe
Lost
Nail
Lost
Horse
Lost
Soldier
Lost
Battle
Why Battles are LostWhy Battles are Lost
Current Window of Conside...
factors which shift the average
factors which affect variation
factors which shift the average and affect
variation
factor...
DOE - (design of experiments)
Measure the Process
The Process
X1 X2 X3
Controllable Inputs
N1 N2 N3
Inputs:
Raw
Materials,...
DOE - (design of experiments) Analyse the
Process
The Process
X1 X2 X3
Controllable Inputs
N1 N2 N3
Inputs:
Raw
Materials,...
DOE - (design of experiments) Improve the
Process
Uncontrollable Inputs
The Process
X1 X2 X3
Controllable Inputs
N1 N2 N3
...
DOE - (design of experiments) Control the
Process
The Process
X1 X2 X3
Controllable Inputs
Inputs:
Raw
Materials,
componen...
Analyze
• Investigate source of variation (Special cause / Common causes)
– Special cause variation are the one off, occas...
Improve
Improvement methodology
• Prioritise improvements
– Impact Vs Effort
– Brainstorming
– Affinity diagrams
– Solutio...
Improve
• Prioritise improvements
– Tool commonly in uses are, Impact Vs Effort,
Brainstorming, Affinity diagrams, Solutio...
Control
Improvement methodology
• Control the process
– Recover
• Control plans
• Escalation process
– Prevent
• Poke yoke...
Control
• Control the process
– Recover, Control plans, Escalation process.
– Prevent by Poke yoke (fool proof the process...
Where does 6 Sigma fit with Lean
Lean
improvements
6 Sigma
improvements
• Lean and 6 Sigma both seek to
deliver business i...
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  • Extra Info Available Prepared Flip chart Photo Training Matl. Flip Chart Verbal Slide
  • Key point :- The customer is receiving defective product
  • Key point :- After the introduction of ^ sigma the customer is now not receiving defective product
  • Key point :- 3 sigma would mean if you where to drive your car on to your drive, then you would you would just squeeze past the gate posts and error and the wing minors would be off 6 sigma would mean that you car could easily get past the gate posts with out any risk of breaking the wing mirrors off.
  • Key point :- A stable process, repeatable process is the key i.e. the car it starts every time when you need it to start gets you to work and back in the same manor no variation, day in day out
  • Key point :- Every process has inputs, man, method, material, machine and uncontrolled inputs these combine to give an out put (what the customer wants) By control the key inputs the out put is more stable less variation and is what the customer want, every time when they want it
  • Key point :- 6 sigma 5 step improvement methodology
  • Key point :- ? What is important to you, when you buying cookies write them down in silence and rank out of ten put them up on the board and compare to other in the group Cookie test characteristics:- (QFD) chocolate colour taste crunchiness
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- 7 quality tool Key question is the capability of the measurement process (key process)
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- Talk about each point
  • Key point :- mutually supportive
  • Ssoverview

    1. 1. Six Sigma Overview
    2. 2. 4 Sigma Process Capability 99.38% Current Standard 6 Sigma Process Capability 99.99966% World-Class Long-Term Yield 3 Sigma Process Capability 93.32% Historical Standard The Classical View of Performance • Six-Sigma is a philosophy: • Why isn’t “99% acceptable” good enough...?? – 20,000 lost articles of mail every hour. – 15 minutes each day of unsafe drinking water. – 5,000 incorrect surgical procedures per week. – 4 or more accidents per day at major airports. – 200,000 wrong drug prescriptions each year. – 7 hours each month without electricity.
    3. 3. History of 6 Sigma • 6 Sigma manufacturing philosophy came from Motorola They recognised that sufficient process improvement would not occur using a conventional approach to quality. It was developed to help them reduce variation within a process by focusing effort on improving inputs to a process rather than reacting to outputs. • The process was failing the customer expectations – Traditionally, processes aimed for process capability of 3 to 4 sigma (Cpk=1.0 to 1.33 or 93% to 99.3% acceptable) – The customer received 6200 defective product per million at best – Processes now aim for 6 sigma (Cpk=2) – The customer would receive 3.4 defective product per million On target, minimum process variation
    4. 4. 6 sigma Process Capability “What is it (CPK)” • 3 Sigma ( Process capability of 1 CPK ) – if the process (lorry) slightly varies then the scrap or damage will occur • 6 Sigma ( Process capability of 2 CPK ) – if the process (lorry) varies, there will be no scrap or damage Curbs = required process tolerances CPK of 2 (6 sigma) CPK of 1 (3 sigma)
    5. 5.  Variation exists in everything. Even the best machine cannot make every unit exactly the same.  Improved capability, becomes a necessity, due to the need of : • improved designs • lower costs • better performance  All of this leads to the need of tighter tolerances  This means that the ability to operate to a tight tolerance, without producing defects becomes a major advantage Understanding Variability
    6. 6. Improvement methodology On target, minimum process variation KPIV Key Process Input Variables The Process X1 X2 X3 Controllable Inputs N1 N2 N3 Inputs: Raw materials, components, etc. Uncontrollable Inputs Y1, Y2, etc. Quality Characteristics: Outputs
    7. 7. D M A I CD M A I C Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Improvement methodology
    8. 8. Define Improvement methodology • Define terms of reference (Charter the project) – Team / customer / project charter – Brain storming – Mind maps – Affinity diagrams – High level Process Maps – Systematic diagrams / Fault tree – Business Process Mapping • Define customer requirements (Voice of the customer) – QFD Quality Function Deployment •To develop a team charter. •To define the customers and their requirements (CTQ Critical to Quality). •To map the business process to be improved Characteristics Importance out of 10 Product / customers
    9. 9. Define • Define terms of reference (charting a project) – What you can deliver to the customer and the support you need from the customer to facilitate a successful improvement (contract of engagement) • Brain storming, Mind maps, Affinity diagrams, High level Process Maps, Systematic diagrams / Fault tree, Business Process Mapping – Tools to explore a problem, project or current thinking. – Tools to group those ideas logically. – Then define a route map to improvement, the risk involved and how to mitigate that risk. • Define customer requirements (Voice of the customer) – QFD Quality Function Deployment, is a method of defining what the customer needs, what is critical to there business success & prioritise objectives to meet the customer need.
    10. 10. Measure Improvement methodology • Voice of the process – Data Collection - 7 quality tools – Tally charts – Bar charts – Pareto – Run charts – Control charts – Cause & effect – Check sheets – Evaluate measurement systems • Gauge R&R • Select measures of performance – Quality Function Deployment •To measure and understand baseline performance for the current process
    11. 11. Measure • Voice of the process (7 quality tools) – Tally charts, Bar charts, Pareto, Run charts, Control charts, Cause & effect, Check sheets. • Evaluate measurement systems Gauge R&R – Every process has variation and measurement system, tools & cmm are no exception. – Typical your measurement process needs to be ACCURATE, REPEATABLE & REPRODUCIBLE to less than 10% of the tolerance you are trying to measure to & proven to be so. • Select measures of performance – QFD Quality Function Deployment is a method of defining what the customer needs and what is critical to there business success and prioritising performance measures to support the customers need.
    12. 12. Analyze Improvement methodology • Investigate source of variation (Special cause / Common causes) – Stratification of data to get information – Cause & effect – CP & CPK – Fault tree – Contingence analysis – FMEA (Failure Mode Effect Analysis) – Design of experiments (DOE) – Detailed process maps Seek to:- Prioritise Understand Clues Causes Monitor improvements Look for signals
    13. 13. Lost Shoe Lost Nail Lost Horse Lost Soldier Lost Battle Why Battles are LostWhy Battles are Lost Current Window of Consideration Cause Failure Mode Effect FMEA •Identifies the ways in which a product or process can fail •Estimates the risk of specific causes with regard to these failures •Prioritizes the actions that should be taken to reduce the chance of failure FMEA (failure mode effect analysis)
    14. 14. factors which shift the average factors which affect variation factors which shift the average and affect variation factors which have no effect A1 A2 D1=D2 B1 B2 C1 C2 DOE - (design of experiments) will help us identify...
    15. 15. DOE - (design of experiments) Measure the Process The Process X1 X2 X3 Controllable Inputs N1 N2 N3 Inputs: Raw Materials, components, etc. Uncontrollable Inputs Y1, Y2, etc. Quality Characteristics: Outputs LSL USL Establish the performance baseline Process Step/Input Potential Failure Mode Potential Failure Effects S E V Potential Causes O C C Current Controls D E T R P N Actions Recommended Load DMF/DMF Load Accuracy MischargeofDMF Viscosity out of spec 7 SOP not Followed 5 Operator Certification/ Process Audit 5 175 Fool proofthis process usinginput from TQL Team Steam to DICY/Scale Accuracy ScaleNot Zeroed MischargeDMF 3 Faulty Scale 2 None 9 54 Include Daily sign-off of Scale funtionin Shift set-up verification. Load DMF/DMF Load Accuracy MischargeofDMF Viscosity out of spec 7 EquipmentFailure 2 Maintenance Procedure (SOP 5821)/VisualCheck 3 42 Steam to DICY/Scale Accuracy Scale> 0 Low DMF Charge 3 Waterin Jacket 2 Visual Check ofJacket(SOP 5681) 4 24 Steam to DICY/Scale Accuracy Scale Inaccurate High DMFCharge 3 Tank Hanging Up 2 Visual Check (SOP 5681) 4 24
    16. 16. DOE - (design of experiments) Analyse the Process The Process X1 X2 X3 Controllable Inputs N1 N2 N3 Inputs: Raw Materials, components, etc. Uncontrollable Inputs Y1, Y2, etc. Quality Characteristics: Outputs LSL USL Key Outputs: Variable How Measured When Measured 1 2 3 Noise Variables: Variable How Measured When Measured 1 2 3 4 5 Controllable Inputs Variable How Measured When Measured 1 2 3 4 5 Overall Sampling Plan: Run Temperature Pressure 1 Hi Hi 2 Hi Hi 3 Lo Hi 4 Lo Hi 5 Hi Lo 6 Hi Lo 7 Lo Lo 8 Lo Lo 3 .52 .51.5 Capability Histogram 4321 3 .0 2 .5 2 .0 1.5 Xbar and R Chart S u b g r Means M U =2 .3 7 6 U C L =2 .5 6 8 L C L =2 .18 3 0 .9 0 .6 0 .3 0 .0 Ranges R =0 .5 16 2 U C L =0 .9 6 2 1 L C L =0 .0 7 0 2 7 4321 Last 4 Subgroups 3 .0 2 .5 2 .0 1.5 Subgroup N um ber Values 41 2 .9 19 5 81.8 3 17 5 Cp: 2.76 CP U: 2.99 CP L: 2.53 Cpk : 2.53 Capability Plot Proc ess Toleranc e Spec ific ations St D ev : 0.181306 III III 3 .52 .51.5 Norm al Prob P lot C ap ab ility us ing P o o le d S tand ard D e viatio n
    17. 17. DOE - (design of experiments) Improve the Process Uncontrollable Inputs The Process X1 X2 X3 Controllable Inputs N1 N2 N3 Inputs: Raw Materials, components, etc. Y1, Y2, etc. Quality Characteristics: OutputsX X X LSL USL LSL USL ScrewRPM PrimWdth Nip FPM Three Factor Design
    18. 18. DOE - (design of experiments) Control the Process The Process X1 X2 X3 Controllable Inputs Inputs: Raw Materials, components, etc. N1 N2 N3 Uncontrollable Inputs Y1, Y2, etc. Quality Characteristics: Outputs LSL USL Check Lists Error Proofing Work Instructions 5 C’s
    19. 19. Analyze • Investigate source of variation (Special cause / Common causes) – Special cause variation are the one off, occasional and obvious cause of a process / quality problems. – Common cause variation are the day in day out causes of process problems, because the process is not stable enough, they are hidden (these form 80% of process problems) – Conventional non-conformance management systems seek to solve special cause variation (e.g. concessions) - but these only represent 15 - 20% of the total variation. – 6 Sigma addresses all variation.
    20. 20. Improve Improvement methodology • Prioritise improvements – Impact Vs Effort – Brainstorming – Affinity diagrams – Solution selection matrix • Tactical implementation plans – Deliver improvements (reduce variation systematically) Customer protection Get control Improve process
    21. 21. Improve • Prioritise improvements – Tool commonly in uses are, Impact Vs Effort, Brainstorming, Affinity diagrams, Solution selection matrix. – These tools help define the best method to meet the customer need (as defined in the QFD) • Tactical implementation plans – Deliver improvements to reduce variation systematically i.e. make a change, note the improvement and make the next improvement. – Critical we need to establish that any change is a change for the good.
    22. 22. Control Improvement methodology • Control the process – Recover • Control plans • Escalation process – Prevent • Poke yoke (mistake/ error proof) – Monitor • Control charts • Checksheets • Documentation and Standardisation
    23. 23. Control • Control the process – Recover, Control plans, Escalation process. – Prevent by Poke yoke (fool proof the process) to fundamentally remove the rood causes of process variation. – Monitor, Control charts, Checksheets, Documentation and Standardisation, to ensure that stable process is maintained and that the process does not degrade. • The objective is to remove the root causes of process variation, management are only left with a few critical input variables in the process that need controlling and not all inputs as before.
    24. 24. Where does 6 Sigma fit with Lean Lean improvements 6 Sigma improvements • Lean and 6 Sigma both seek to deliver business improvement • They are different in the methods used and tools employed – Lean typically address the total manufacturing environment – 6 sigma typical address the root cause of process variation • There is significant benefit from using the most appropriate tools and improvement methodology to meet the customer requirements
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