Concept of health, mind and disease, a comparison of ayurveda with homoeopathy


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Concept of health, mind and disease, a comparison of ayurveda with homoeopathy

  1. 1. Concept of Health Mind & disease, a comparison of Ayurveda with Homoeopathy Dr. Subhash chand, Chief medical officer, NDMC Ex. Asst. Research officer , CCRH
  3. 3. ABOUT SUPREME TRUTH  Om Puurnnam-Adah Puurnnam-Idam Puurnnaat-PurnnamUdacyate Puurnnashya Puurnnam-Aadaaya Puurnnam-EvaAvashissyate || Om Shaantih Shaantih Shaantih || Meaning: 1: Om, That is Full, This also is Full, From Fullness comes that Fullness, 2: Taking Fullness from Fullness, Fullness Indeed Remains. 3: Om Peace, Peace, Peace.
  6. 6. AN EARNEST REQUEST The aim of this presentation is not to establish the superiority of one system over the other nor to suggest forcible introduction of any of these concepts into either of them. Hahnemann‘s concept of Totality of symptoms to acquire the knowledge of disease and drug proving to acquire the knowledge of medicines and the current different modes of application of law of similar are complete in themselves and if properly practiced do not need any short cut or explanation. Any attempt to short cut this process through any theory of knowledge of disease or drug is welcome but not a substitute to the basic principles of Homoeopathy. This paper is an attempt to highlight the importance of few principles of Ayurveda which if introduced in Homoeopathy can act as ideal short cut in the selection of appropriate remedy. Some of these are already practiced in Homoeopathy under different contexts.
  7. 7. Concept of health, Homoeopathy    a new therapeutic law, new meanings to the concept of health, disease and cure which were entirely new at that time period in Europe and Germany. The concept of Trinity of life i.e. Mind, body and vital force was something which was little or probably not known at that time.
  8. 8. Definition of health: aphorism 9 of Organon ―in the healthy condition of man, the spiritual vital force (autocracy), the dynamis that animates the material body (organism), rules with unbounded sway, and retains all the parts of the organism in admirable, harmonious, vital operation, as regards both sensations and functions, so that our indwelling, reason-gifted mind can freely employ this living, healthy instrument for the higher purposes of our existence”
  9. 9. Importance Of Reasoning Faculty, Higher Purpose Of Life “our indwelling, reason-gifted mind can freely employ this living, healthy instrument for the higher purposes of our existence‖ speaks about meaning and purpose of life after attainment of perfect health through medication and also stresses upon the importance of reasoning faculty of the mind to attain the same.  Both of these concepts have yet to be explored in their detail in Homoeopathy but these have been amply explored in completeness in Vedas and Upanishads in India. 
  10. 10. Purpose Of Life, As In Ayurveda According to the Vedas, the purpose of human life is to strive for the following four Purushartha (Great Goals) — Dharma (pursuing one‘s religion), Artha (attaining economic development), Kama (accomplishing regulated sensegratification) and Moksha (attaining liberation). The basic requisite for attaining all the four Purushartha is Arogya (health). The greatest enemy of Arogya is Roga (diseases) that are the main obstacles for the human beings in their path to the Great Goals
  11. 11. Value of Arogya ( health), As In Ayurveda Charaka, one of the founding-fathers of Ayurveda wrote in his magnum opus, Charaka-Samhita, thus: Dharm artha- Kama Mokshanam arogyam Moolamuttamam Rogaastasya paharttaraha- Shreyaso- Jeevitasya Cha
  12. 12. Vital Force Versus Physical World    Hahnemann during his life time could not further explore the dynamic concept of vital force with respect to mind and physical body how this dynamic force interacts and produces changes in our mind and physical body brought on by food and changes in atmosphere in the form of climate and how changes in the physical body brought on by accidental happenings influence the workings of dynamic vital force. the dynamic concept of Vital force forced Hahnemann to accept dynamic causes i.e. miasms as the cause of disease and accordingly use of medicines shifted from crude to dynamic one to set the dynamic disturbance of vital force.
  13. 13. Vital Force Versus Physical World    Hahnemann recognizes animal magnetism i.e. Mesmerism as a therapeutic system acting on lines similar to Homoeopathy in aphorism 293 of Organon also recognizes use of magnets on similar lines in aphorism 283. But several questions related to this new approach still remain unanswered in Homoeopathy as to how apart from dynamic influences, the material things like food, crude medicines, mother tinctures, physical changes in the environment in the form of day, night, temperature, humidity and climate etc. influence our body in a negative or positive way.
  14. 14. Vital Force Versus Physical World This problem of linking vital force with mind and physical body finds suitable explanation in Ayurveda which is based on Tridosha theory ( at body level) and Triguna theory (at mind level) of health, disease and preservation of healthy state.  The three doshas at physical level and three gunas at mental level can be considered as the biological and psychological forces of our vital force through which it operates on the body and maintains an equilibrium and health 
  15. 15. BASICS OF AYURVEDA the universe evolved out of the ‗un-manifested‘ (Avyakta), which implies Prakriti (primordial matter) and Purusa (primordial consciousness).  Mahan (intellect) then evolves from Avyakta, and Ahamkara (ego) follows.  Ego has three different qualities (Gunas): Sattva (the pure), Rajass (the dynamic), and Tamass (the inert). Sattva and Rajass together then produce eleven Indriyas (sense and motor organs known as Jnanendriyas and Karmendriyas) and Manas. 
  16. 16. BASICS OF AYURVEDA The Gunas, Tamass and Rajass combine to produce five Tanmatras (energy quanta), which in their turn produce the five Mahabhutas (elements in the ancient sense, sometimes also called proto-elements). From these Mahabhutas the entire material world is made up. Living beings consist of the Mahabhutas as well as the Indriyas. In the human body these five Mahabhutas are explained in terms of Doshas, Dhatus and Mala etc.‖
  17. 17. BASICS OF AYURVEDA Man is a microcosm of the very world that he inhabits. This implies explicitly that whatever man is made up of, the world too is made up of those same things or elements, but of different combinations and degrees.  Here, by elements is meant the five Mahabhutas—that is, Akasa, Vayu, Tejas, Ap and Prithvi. The earth and man are made up of these five elements.  All living beings on the earth, including the nonliving too, are made up of these same five elements in varying degrees, specific to each form, matter and species, and according to a predetermined ratio that cannot be changed. 
  18. 18. BASICS OF AYURVEDA These five elements combine with each other to form the three humors of Vata, Pitta and Kapha (also called as the Tridoshas in unison) which is the cornerstone of Ayurvedic philosophy.  These can be considered as three dynamic attributes of the vital force at physical level through which it controls the functioning of the physical body. 
  19. 19. PHYSICAL DOSHAS: TYPES At physical level, the three doshas i.e. Vata, Pitta and Kapha alone or in combination produce seven basic types of prakriti‘s or constitution .e. Vataja, Pittaja, Kaphaj, Vataja kaphaja, Pittaja kaphaja, vataja pittaja and all three combined as vataja, kaphaja and pittaja. However the different combinations of different degrees of these doshas as defined in Ayurveda give rise to sixty three different types of combinations with specific symptoms and treatment for each of them
  20. 20. BASICS OF AYURVEDA   Health is defined as Samadoshah samagnishcha, samadhatu malakriyah, prasannatmendriya manah swastha iti abhidhiiyate.” (Shushruta Sutrasthanam 15, 41) ―The one whose ‗doshas‘ are balanced, whose metabolism is balanced, whose tissues and eliminations are normal, and whose senses and mind are centered in the self, is considered healthy and remains full of bliss.‖ This important quotation reveals the natural condition of the mind as a state of happiness. The first half of quotation elaborates about physical fitness while second half defines state of healthy mind which is also an inevitable part of healthy individual.
  21. 21. BASICS OF AYURVEDA    In Ayurveda, human being is a combination of mind, senses, body and soul. The body is only an instrument and not the end to be achieved therefore a body free from disease is of root value to attain pursharths like dharma, artha, kama and moksha during life time as explained earlier. This physical body is the house of Jeevatma or the individual soul. The complicated combination of mind, body, senses and atma is meant to achieve these purshartha in life, Basically senses are developed to maintain functional coordination between the body and external world. The mind and intelligence in association with the special senses get knowledge of the external world and accordingly changes take place in the body which indicates existence of life.
  22. 22. BASICS OF MIND    Mind is also considered as a sense organ which has the qualities of both knowledge as well as action indria ( Gyanendriya as well as karmendriya). Manas is without any rupa. It is nirvikara. As it is Ateendirya swaroopa i.e. it cannot be understood through senses, it can be understood only through lakshanas or manifestations. Man is exposed to vednas or sufferings like sukha( happiness), dukha, vichara, krodha, kama etc. only through manas. Under the influence of sukha and dukhas, the ragas and dweshas, or through improper association of mind with sense organs, diseases are bound to occur not only in the functioning of mind but also of body
  23. 23. CONTENTS OF MIND OR MANO VISHYAS Chintyam ( thinking),  Vicharam (prolongation and expansion of thoughts),  Ooham (Imagination of past, present and future),  Dhyeyam (Deep thinking and concentration on a thought of object),  Sankalpam (planning), and  Yatkinchit (All the other things which man can perceive). 
  24. 24. MIND: ITS GUNAS Satwa, Rajas and Tamas are three gunas of mind.  Satwa is the condition of balance of mind.  Rajas and Tamas gunas vitiate the mind and therefore are called mind doshas.  The balanced condition of these doshas is the basis of mental health and their imbalance is the cause of mental diseases.  Lightess, light, awareness, happiness, good intelligence are properties of Satwa. Satwa guna is responsible for perceiving senses. 
  25. 25. MIND: ITS GUNAS Rajass is more active and also activates other functions of mind. Activity and excitement are properties of Rajas guna. All sorts of desires are due to Rajas guna. Rajas guna is responsible for all sorts of activities and variation in different desires which produces different types of mental diseases.  Tamas is heavy and motionless. Unawareness, inactivity, inertia represent it. It also disturbs the perception of sense organs as well as mental processes. It is responsible for false knowledge, laziness and excessive sleep. 
  26. 26. RELATION OF PHYSICAL DOSHAS WITH GUNAS OF MIND There is a relation of Mano doshas with Sharira or the physical dosha.  Rajas and Tamas are the doshas of manas which have relation with tridoshas.  In Vata dosha, Rajo guna predominates,  In Pitta, Satwa guna,  In Kapha, Tamo guna predominates. 
  27. 27. CHITTA OF MIND OR CHITTA BHUMI: FIVE STATES     Kshipta, Moora, Vikshipta, Akagra and Nirudha. Kshipta has the dominance of rajoguna, so it is asthira and chanchala and it becomes pravrutta ( inclined) towards the dukhadivishaya. Moora has the dominance of tamoguna so it is vivekshunya and there is no vivechana of karyaakarya during this stage. It becomes pravrutta for the opposite bhavas of krodha. In this there is no conclusion or decision about what to do or what not to do, as it is atyanta tamasika. Vikshipta stage has dominance of Satva guna. In this state the chitta is devoid of dukhadi sadhana and gets pravrutta towards sukha sadhana such as sukhadadivishaya. The chitta has sthriata for some time.
  28. 28. CHITTA OF MIND OR CHITTA BHUMI: FIVE STATES In Ekagra state, chitta concentrates on only one vishaya.  In Nirudha avashta, the chitta is in nirodha avashha. There is nirodh of all the vruttis. In Ekagra, there is nirodha of bahya vruttis, but in Nirodha, there is laya of samasta vruttis and samskaras.  In First two states reflect excess of Rajas and Tamas and third stage reflects balance of the three and last two states are predominance of Satwa guna therefore last two states do not cause any disease in the body. All sorts of disease occur duing first two states of mind 
  29. 29. CLASSIFICATION ON BASIS OF DEGREES OF SATWA GUNA  Pravara Satwa,  Madhyam Satwa and  Avar Satwa. Persons with Avar Satwa (deficiency of Satwa guna) find difficulty in maintaining social and environmental balance and in stressful conditions are more prone to all sorts of mental and psychosomatic disorders.
  30. 30. CAUSES OF SUFFERINGS AS IN VEDAS/UPANISHADS  Vedas and Upanishads categorise all the problems faced in life in three basic types as Adi bhautik or physical , adi devik or divine or prakriti and adhyatmik or spiritual or related to mind  Adi bhautik (Physical)- Related mainly to body i.e. panch mahabhuta; e.g. hunger/thirst, snake bite, wars or fights with other living beings Adi Devik (Divine)- Generated by Prakriti, e.g. Extreme weather, earthquake, excessive rain or lack of it Adhyatmik (Spiritual)- Related to the Mental plane, e.g.anger, greed, infatuation, recurring doubts, infidelity etc. On similar lines for practical purpose, Ayurveda recognizes three factors i.e. Praygaapradha, Asatmendriarth sanjog and Prinama as the root cause for all sorts of diseases affecting the mankind. This is based on complicated combination of mind, body, senses and the environment in Ayurveda.   
  31. 31. AYURVEDA: CAUSES OF DISEASE     Praygaapradha, Asatmedriarth sanjog and Prinama are considered as the root cause for all sorts of diseases affecting the mankind. In Pragya (i.e. dhee, dhriti avum smriti) vibransha or disturbance of the three qualities of intellect ( to capture, to retain and to remember when needed), a person starts doing ayukta or nishedha karmas ( Non permitted actions) and the condition is known as Pragya apradha. In reality this is wrong comination of mind and medha or the intellect or the result of ayukta pragya. Parinama word is related to different conditions of kaala i.e. time and climate. Different climatic conditions and time intervals produce stressful condition and can disturb the doshas and produce diseases. Asatmendriarth sanjog i.e. wrong association of senses with the object-excess, less or wrong.
  32. 32. STATE OF MIND AND DISPOSITION VERSUS GUNAS AND PERSONALITY TYPES OF AYURVEDA Hahnemann has used expression‘ State of mind and disposition‖ to explain the mental symptoms. The state of mind could be interpreted as conditions of the mind due to its three gunas i.e. Satwa, Rajas and Tamas and disposition could be interpreted in terms of sixteen different personalities or mode of response as per dominance of these gunas. These gunas or Prakriti is the basis of classification of human beings into three types of personality as per Sreemad Bhagwat Gita as Sattvika, Rajassika and Tamassika type of personality.
  33. 33. PERSONALITY TYPES IN AYURVEDA    Ayurvedic physicians have further subclassified these into sixteen categories according to degree of gunas as 7 types of Sattvika , 6 types of Rajassika and 3 types of Tamassika. ―These ideas are expressed in Caraka Samhita and Sushruta Samhita, the two well known Ayurvedic treatises In the early Indian society, the hopes and aspirations of the common people were largely based on religious dogmas, pantheons of gods and demons, concept of virtue and vice, right and wrong. etc. Keeping in mind the religious affinity of the common folk, the psychological pattern of the human have been categorised and named after Gods, demons, villains, celestial nymphs, plants etc.
  34. 34. CHARAKA : 16 TYPES OF PERSONALITIES Suddha Satwa ( 7) : Brahma Satwa ( Saint type), Arsha satwa ( Philosopher type), Indra Satwa ( Emperor type), Yamya Satwa ( Judge type) , Varuna satwa ( Executive type), Kubera satwa ( Connoisseur type), Gandharva satwa ( Artistic type)  Rajassa Satwa (6): Aasura satwa ( Aggressive type), Rakshasa satwa ( Ruthless type), Paisacha Satwa ( Evil type), Sarpa Satwa ( Serpent type), Pretha satwa ( Ghost type), Saakuna Satwa ( Fickle type)  Tamassa Satwa (3) : Matsya satwa ( Fish type), Pasu Satwa ( Animal type), Vanaspathi satvwa ( Vegetable type) 
  35. 35. BRAHMA SATWA ( SAINT TYPE; SHARING THE TRAITS OF BRAHMA)- S -1 Pure and neat, unflinching faith in truth, total self control, wise and discrete, power of discrimination, spiritual power of exposition, knowledgeable, communicative , can answer any questions, exceptional memory, never indulgent, emotionally stable and always pleasant, not affected by negative emotions, extreme magnanimity. freedom from passion, anger, greed, ego, ignorance, jealousy, dejection and intolerance; favorable disposition equally for all creatures.
  36. 36. ARSHA SATWA ( PHILOSOPHER TYPE; SHARING THE TRAITS OF RISHIS) - S -2 Works relentlessly to propagate values, teaches scriptures and philosophy, maintains religious practices, virtuous, humble and unpretentious, do not desire wealth, do not show meanness, do not show hatred to anybody, very wise and speaks accordingly. Devotion to sacred rituals, study, sacred vows, oblations and celibacy; hospitable disposition; freedom from pride, ego, attachment, ignorance, greed and anger, intellectual excellence and eloquence;
  37. 37. INDRA SATWA ( EMPEROR TYPE; SHARING THE TRAITS OF INDRA) - S -3 Wins obedience from everyone, courageous, charismatic, does only noble deeds, farsighted, interested in ethics, encourages good conduct from others, prosperous, enjoys pleasures. Lord like authoritative speech; performance of sacred rituals; bravery, strength and splendor; freedom from mean acts; and devotion to virtuous acts, earning of wealth and proper satisfaction of desires. One having supremacy and his words agreeable,
  39. 39. VARUNA SATWA ( EXECUTIVE TYPE) - S -5 Smart and energetic, undaunted and persevering, neat and orderly, Religious, enjoys water sports, does not like dirty games, expresses likes and dislikes openly Bravery, patience, purity and dislike for impurity; observance of religious rites; Aversion against mean acts; and exhibition of anger and pleasure in proper place. Patient, engaged in sacrifice, obstructed action, opportune anger and pacification. Such persons are placid, sober and conservative.
  40. 40. KUBERA SATWA ( CONNOISSEUR TYPE SHARING THE TRAITS OF WEALTH GOD KUVERA) - S -6 Rich and influential, expensively dressed, lots of friends and admirers, sophisticated, enjoys luxury, clear likes and dislikes. Possession of station, honor, luxuries and attendants; constant liking for virtuous acts, wealth and satisfaction of desires; purity and liking for pleasures of recreation. Endowed with position, conceit, enjoyment and regime; constantly engaged in virtue, wealth, and pleasure, clean easy movements, manifest anger and favor. Such persons are relaxed and assertive.
  41. 41. GANDHARVA SATWA ( ARTISTIC TYPE, SHARING THE TRAITS OF CELESTIAL NYMPH GANDHARVA) - S -7 and  Proficient in Music and dance encourages flatters others, enjoys flattery, loves cosmetics, loves ornaments and dresses, fond of companion, not envious of others. interested and expertness in poetry, stories, historical narrations and epics; constant fondness for scents, garlands, dress, sporting and enjoyment lover.  Such persons are expedient, relaxed, happy – go –lucky, and outgoing. This is the only Sattvika type where liking of women‘s company is mentioned. So this type of Sattvika may be happy go lucky and outgoing.
  42. 42. AASURA SATWA ( AGGRESSIVE TYPE) RAJAS SATWA  Active, dare-devilish, does not mind to do atrocities, temperamental, persuasive, coercive, envious, enjoys flattery, boastful  Bravery, cruelty, lordship, and movement in disguise, terrifying appearance and ruthlessness and indulgence in self praise. Backbiter having supremacy, deceitful, fierce,
  43. 43. RAKSHASA SATWA ( RUTHLESS TYPE, SHARING THE TRAITS OF A RAKSASA OF DEMONIC DISPOSITION ) Impatient, intolerant, rude, cruel to others, sadistic, risk taking, envious, constant anger, violence at weak points, gluttonous habit and fondness of non vegetarian food; excessive sleep and indolence. Indulged in physical exertions. Food habits of Asura type have not been mentioned. But Raksasa type is very much fond of non vegetarian foods.
  44. 44. PAISACHA SATVA ( EVIL TYPE, SHARING THE TRAITS OF PISACA MALEVOLENT BEING OF DEVILISH CHARACTER) Voracious eater, Gluttonous habit, deceitful, disliking for cleanliness, dirty behavior. Disorderly eating, disorderly life, fondness for women; liking for staying with women in lonely place, sly with women; cowardice and terrifying disposition; and resorting to abnormal diets and regimens,
  45. 45. SARPA SATWA ( SERPENT TYPE), Impulsive, sharp reaction; indulges in demanding tasks, loves travel, very hasty and greedy while eating. Bravery when in wrathful disposition and cowardice when not in wrathful disposition; excessive indolence; taking food and resorting to other regimens with a fearful disposition. Exertive, terrorizing where he goes, indulged in food and pastimes.
  46. 46. PRETA SATWA ( GHOST TYPE SHARING THE TRAITS OF A PRETA , DEAD OR DEPARTED SOUL) Brooding over the past events, excessive desire for food, unmotivated to anything new, jealous, suspicious, envious, indiscrete and tardy, lethargic; Actions without discrimination, excessive greediness and troublesome conduct, behavior and management, back –biting, not distributing shares to others, undisciplined.
  47. 47. SAKUNA SATWA ( FICKLE TYPE, SHARING THE TRAITS OF A SAKUNI OR BIRD) Always sexually excited, gluttonous, hyperactive, inconsistent and unstable, do not save anything. Ruthlessness and un-acquisitiveness. Intolerant. Undisciplined and group dependent, 
  48. 48. THAMASA SATWA (3) : MALSYA SATWA ( FISH TYPE) Cowardly, dull headed, lack of intelligence, greed for food, gluttonous, unable to concentrate on any one thing, preoccupied with sexual fantasies, quick tempered, likes travel, likes water, Unsteadiness, constant passionate and wrathful disposition and fondness for constant movement and desire for water,
  49. 49. PASU SATWA ( ANIMAL TYPE) Not willing to agree with anything, Forbidding disposition, poor comprehension, unhealthy eating behavior, lack of intelligence; behavior irritating to others, hateful conduct and food habit; excessive sexual indulgence and sleep. Repudiating.
  50. 50. VANASPATHI SATVWA ( VEGETABLE TYPE) Very lazy, do not like to do anything other than eating, idiotic. Indolence, indulgence in food and deficiency of all the intellectual faculties. Such persons are less intelligent and group dependent. This type resembles to imbecile type of personality
  51. 51. MODES OF TREATMENT IN AYURVEDA Based on causation of disease as mentioned in Vedas and Ayurveda, Ayurveda recognizes three modes of healing for all sorts of diseases affecting the mankind i.e.  Daiva vyaprashraya ( chanting of mantras etc. )  Yukti vyaprashraya medicines ( Shodhana and Shamana) and  Satwaavajaya ( Pschotherapy)
  52. 52. DAIVA VYAPRASHRAYA Mantra- Chanting of Hymns  Aushadhi dharana: Putting Sacred herbs  Gems: wearing auspicious stones  Mangala karma: Auspicious offerings  Homa: yajna  Niyama: Regulations shoucha, santosha, tapa, swadhyay, ishwar pranidhan etc.  Prayaschita: Atonement  Upavasa: Fasting etc.  Swastayayan ( karma according to Vedas)  Pranipat ( respecting elders and respectable)  Teerath gaman ( visiting teerath places) 
  53. 53. YUKTI VYAPRASHRAYA I] Antah Parimarjana:  A] Shodhana : Cleansing ( Panchkarma as per the predominance of Doshas like Ghrita pana and mild purgation in Vataja type, Therapeutic Emesis and Purgation in Pitta and Kaphaja type)  B] Shamana : Palliative ( Medhya Rasayans, Diet etc.) II] Bahir Parimajnana: Murdha Taila, Abhyanga, Shirodhara etc.  III] Shastra Pranidhana: use of Instruments and Surgical intervention
  54. 54. MODES OF TREATMENT AYURVEDA (CONT.) Naisthikchikitsa: Niasthiki ya vinopadham. This term refers to absolute eradication of miseries obtained by elimination of desires which are the root cause of all miseries. Elimination of desire leads to eradication of all miseries.  Yoga therapy: Yoga moksho pravartaka i.e. by practice of Yoga, one can attain state of Moksha. Process of increasing Sattwa and decreasing Raja and Tama leading to Karmakshaya ( loss of deeds) is way of attaining moksha. 
  55. 55. SATWAAVAJAYA ( PSCHOTHERAPY)      Jnana: Spiritual knowledge Vignana: Educating the patient Dhairya: Moral boosting Smruti: Reviving the knowledge Samadhi: Abstaining from Over indulgence in materialistic world. The aim of Satwavajaya mode is to augment the Sattva guna in order to correct the imbalanced state of Rajass and Tamass gunas . This is achieved by regulating the thought process ( Chintya), replacing the ideas ( Vicharya), channeling the presumption (Uhya), polishing the objectives ( Dhyeya), proper guidance and Advice for taking right decision ( Sankalpa )… Asthanga Hridaya
  56. 56. BHAGWAT GITA : PATHOGENESIS OF PSCHYSOMATIC AILMENTS      The importance of pragya or intelligence or buddhi in the genesis of psychological diseases is well delineated in the classical Hindu Religious textBhagavad Gita in 62 sloka of chapter 2 which reads Dhyayato Vishayaat Punsaha,Sangasteshu upajaayate; Sangaat sanjaayate kaamaha kaamaat Krodhobhihi jaayate Krodhaat bhavati sammoha Sammohaat smrutivibhramaha Smrutibhranshaat buddhinaasho, buddhinaashat pranashyati || Gita 2/62
  57. 57. RASAYAN CHIKITSA IN AYURVEDA There is one more concept of preventive health in Ayurveda known as Rasayan Chikitsa. It is aimed at improving nutrition i.e. poshan and dhatu formation through Ahar ( diet), Vihar (Climate) and Achara ( conduct) which leads to long life, capacity to tolerate diseases, medha shakti ( intelligence), prabha, varna and swara ( appearance, complexion and voice) etc.
  58. 58. ACHAR RASAYAN ( RIGHT CONDUCT) The exclusive use of it is sufficient to protect a person from diseases during life time. Its components are: One who speaks the sweet truth; is free from anger, is not addicted to alcohol and sex; refrains from violence; peaceful stable and steady, practices charity, regularly perform penance; speaking softly; eager to do japa and pious acts; calm; regularly donating; tapasvi; always in the service of cow, brahamans, teachers, guru and gyanvridha and vayovridha and respectful to teachers and elders; away from violence; compassionate, who does not sleep or awake too much, regularly takes milk and ghee and other saatvik foods; is aware of the country, time and quantity, knows yukti; free from ego, sadachar yukta, udar, has control over his senses, ; Keeps the company of the wise i.e old, god fearing and contented persons; who regularly studies scriptures and gains knowledge
  59. 59. DHARNEEYA AND ADHARNEEYA VEGAS OR URGES IN AYURVEDA     Accepting ( Dharana) the non suppressible urges ( Adharneeya vegas) and Non accepting ( Adharna ) the acceptable urges ( Dharneeya vega) is considered as an important factor in the genesis of certain types of diseases. To remain healthy, one should learn to control these urges in a proper way otherwise these give rise to mental stress and various pschycosomatic diseases. Non Suppressible urges include -Urge to pass urine, to eliminate feces, eliminate semen, to pass out flatus, to vomit, to sneeze, for eructation, to yawn, to eat (hunger), to drink water (thirst), to shed tears or cry, to sleep and for heavy or fast breathing caused by over exertion. Suppressible urges include mental urges such as greediness, excess ambition, hatred, fear, anger, jealous, attachment and desire like sex, money etc. These should be controlled to avoid the diseases.
  60. 60. TRIDOSHA, TRIGUNAS VERSUS CONSTITUTIONS AND TEMPERAMENTS    Hahnemann himself could not ignore the importance of constitution or prakriti and temperament in proving, disease individualization as well as totality of symptoms. He borrowed the idea of contemporary physicians like Hippocrates and Galen and Homoeopathic literature finds enormous references for such classification. The importance of constitution is highlighted in the sixth aphorism as an important factor to ascertain the fundamental cause of disease and the terms related to constitution and temperament are an important aspect of totality mentioned even in repertories.
  61. 61. TRIDOSHA, TRIGUNAS VERSUS CONSTITUTIONS AND TEMPERAMENTS  The Complete Repertory by Roger van Zandvoort includes the rubric ―Temperaments‖ under the Mind section. It gives the sub rubrics for 7 distinct temperaments, including those mentioned in ancient literatures along with their medicines. It includes the subrubrics Bilious - 27 drugs, Choleric - 24 drugs, Melancholic (hypochondriasis) - 136 drugs, Mild (mildness) 85 drugs, Nervous (restlessness), Phlegmatic (with leucophlegmatic as sub-subrubric) - 72 drugs and Sanguine-20 drugs
  62. 62. TRIDOSHA, TRIGUNAS VERSUS CONSTITUTIONS AND TEMPERAMENTS  Ayurveda recognizes separate classification of both physical and mental types i.e. seven physical constitutional types based on different combinations of tridoshas and seven mental types based on different combinations of three gunas of mind. Moreover the seven physical types are further sub classified into sixty three different subtypes depending upon different permutations and combinations of degrees of three doshas. These physical doshas are more elaborate than constitutional temperaments proposed by Western physicians and are described in more detail. The separate classification of human beings on the basis of gunas of mind was unknown in Western literature
  63. 63. MIND AND DISPOSITION, FURTHER EXPOSITION IN HOMOEOPATHY  Late Dr. J T Kent. He further classified mental symptoms into three categories as per their evaluation in the totality of symptoms in the following order i.e. Will, Understanding and intellect and Memory  top priority is given to the symptoms of will i.e. emotions and intellect is given secondary value.  This understanding of mind and classification of symptoms of mind is somewhat contrary to Vedic concept of interpretation of Mind.
  64. 64. MIND AND DISPOSITION, FURTHER EXPOSITION IN HOMOEOPATHY Even an attempt was made to extend the theory of miasm at physical level to that of mental level as  Psora : bad thinking  Sycosis: Bad willing  Syphilis: Bad action  The same concept has been extended by later physicians to application of miasmatic concept to different shades of mental symptoms of the same type: as Irritable, anger and rage etc. as psoric, sycotic and syphilitic. This looks attractive but of doubtful practical utility. 
  65. 65. MIND AND DISPOSITION: AYURVEDA In Ayurveda, Amongst the different components of mind, Pragya or the intelligence i.e. the sense of right and wrong is given the top priory in contrast to emotions as is done in Homoeopathy which are the extensions of impaired Pragya.  In fact in causation of many diseases i.e. mental and physical as discussed earlier, pragya apradha or the improper utilization of intellect is considered as the prime factor in the genesis of many diseases. And treatment is aimed at improving the pragya or medha by giving medha vardhak medicines. This is one of the important modality of treatment of all sorts of mental diseases in Ayurveda 
  66. 66. MEDHA VARDHAK MEDICINES IN HOMOEOPATHY Certain medha vardhak drugs or intelligence promoting drugs which are used in ayurveda are also used in Homoeopathy. Intelligence is an important aspect of Satwa guna and therefore these medicines directly improve this guna and thereby keep the body healthy. In fact if they are used more frequently in day to day practice then all sorts of ailments could be more easily handled and in a better way. Some of the commonly used medha vardhak medicines in Homoeopathy are: Bacopa monerri ( brahmi) Hydrocotyle, Anacardium, Asparagus, Gold preparations, Silver preparations, Acorus calamus, Aswagandha, Crocus sativus, Glycirrhyza glabra, Mica, Tinospora cordifolia, Moschus, Embelia ribes, terminalia chebula, and Achyranthes aspera etc.
  67. 67. TRIDOSHA, TRIGUNAS VERSUS CONSTITUTIONS AND TEMPERAMENTS The importance of satwa guna in the maintenance of health and well being , its maintenance through following good conduct or Achar Rasayan and the causation of diseases by pragya aparadh are practically unknown in western literature. Accordingly the mode of treatment aimed at increasing the Satwa guna is least discussed or practiced by other system of medicine. Since the Homoeopathy prescription does not solely depend upon this concept and these constitute only a part of huge totality and therefore the individual strength of constitution and temperament alone has never been discerned with the current approach in Homoeopathic practice.
  68. 68. HAHNEMANN AS A SEEKER OF TRUTH: BRAHMA SATTVA OR ARSHA OR RISHI SATTVA PERSON On the title-page of the first edition we read: Organon of the Rational System of Medicine, by Samuel Hahnemann.' Then follows a motto from the poet Gellert which may be thus translated: The Truth we mortals need Us blest to make and keep, The All-wise slightly covered o'er, But did not bury deep."
  69. 69. HAHNEMANN ON ACHAR RASAYAN   We find a glimpse of importance of Brahmacharya with special reference to controlled sexual desire in qualities of persons who can practice mesmerism. The qualities of a good mesmeriser include in the true words of our master as―Especially of one of those persons, of whom there are not many, who, along with great kindness of disposition and perfect bodily powers, possesses but a very moderate desire for sexual intercourse, which it would give him very little trouble wholly to suppress, in whom, consequently, all the fine vital spirits that would otherwise be employed in the preparation of the semen, are ready to be communicated to others by touching them and powerfully exerting the will. Some powerful mesmerisers, with whom I have become acquainted, had all this peculiar character‖. These lines show Hahnemann‘s acceptance of Ayurvedic concept of Rasa, Rakta, Mass, Majja, shukra and Ojas in the order of their importance for maintenance of health.
  70. 70. HAHNEMANN ON ACHAR RASAYAN Few points are also covered under Diet and regimen in chronic diseases under section 261 of the Organon as : the person should avoid highly spiced dishes and sauces; spiced cakes and ices; avoid all excesses in food, a sedentary life in close apartments, uncleanliness, unnatural debauchery, enervation by reading obscene books, subjects of anger, grief, or vexation, over-exertion of mind or body etc. These are the things which reduce Satva guna or increase Rajas or Tamo guna and therefore need to be avoided not only in the maintenance of health but also during treatment of Chronic diseases.
  71. 71. ALLIUM CEPA: ALLENS ENCYCLOPEDIA To mandragora we may join the excessive use of garlic, onions, and leeks, because all physicians consider them very injurious, as occasioning deeply corrupted, malignant humidity, which inflame the blood, injure the eyes, the head, the brain, and stomach, predisposing to lethargy, sopor, somnolency, vertigo, epilepsy, and indeed insanity, [a10].  - Onions go to the head with their acridity, and injure the brain, and if one eats too much of them they can indeed cause insanity and madness, [a10]. 
  72. 72. ACHAR RASAYAN: IN CONTEXT OF INDIAN HOMOEOPATHY Indian homoeopathy is different from western in context of diet restrictions  The usual articles of food avoided during intake of Homoeopathic medicines are: tea, coffee, alcohol, tobacco chewing or smoking, gutka, supari, pan, onion, garlic , any strong smelling substance in food or as perfume  All of these substances are stimulants and either increase rajo or tamo guna and their use is prohibited under Achar rasayan in Ayurveda  Therefore healing through preservation/increase of satva guna starts the moment patient takes diet restrictions during homoeopathic treatment 
  73. 73. CONCLUSION   The concept of mind finds an elaborate discussion in Veda and Ayurveda and this concept needs to be integrated in Homoeopathic interpretation of mental symptoms for making better prescription in day to day practice especially in terms of medha vardhak or intellect promoting medicines. The concept of Tridosha at physical level and Triguna at mental level is important in the treatment and prevention of all sorts of physical and mental diseases afflicting the mankind and is much superior to the concept of constitution and temperaments hitherto practiced in Homoeopathy which is a mixture of mental and physical types.
  74. 74. CONCLUSION    The tridosha disorders can be prevented by following the dincharya ( daily routine) and ritucharya (climatic routine), proper ahar (diet) and vihara ( way of living) and the Satwa guna state of mind meant for higher purpose of existence can be maintained by practicing Achar rasayna. An attempt can be made to group the Homoeopathic remedies on the tridoshic theory of Ayurveda at physical level and triguna theory at Mental level. This would improve the concept of characteristic totality and prescriptions would become more easier and definite. Care should be taken to identify those drugs which improve the Satwa guna or reduce the rajas and Tamas guna and regular use of such satwa guna improving medicines can have a lasting impact on the health of an individual as well as nation which is meant to attain the higher purpose of existence during the lifetime of an individual.
  75. 75. The end