A Presentation on QUALITY CIRCLESubmitted to: Submitted by:Dr. A. Bhardwaj Subhash Patel (2011pme5264)
Quality Circle -A way to Quality Improvement INTRODUCTION People are the greatest assets of an organization, because, through people all other resources are converted into utilities. However, management of ‘People Resources’ has always been a vexed problem ever since the beginning of organized human activities. A number of managerial responses have been developed to answer this question.
DEFINITIONQuality Circle is a small group of 6 to 12 employeesdoing similar work who voluntarily meet together on aregular basis to identify improvements in theirrespective work areas using various techniques foranalyzing and solving work related problems coming inthe way of achieving and sustaining excellence leadingto mutual upliftment of employees as well as theorganization. It is "a way of capturing the creative andinnovative power that lies within the work force―
GENESIS OF QUALITY CIRCLESAfter the Second World War Japanese economy was in thedoldrums. Seeing this disastrous effect of war, Americans decidedto help Japan in improving the quality standards of their products.General Douglas Mac Arthur who, at that time, was thecommander of the occupational forces in Japan took up the taskof imparting quality awareness among Japanese to help themimprove their products and the reliability of manufacturingsystems including men, machine and materials. Thus, by1975, they were topping the world in quality and productivity.This astonishing and unique achievement in modern historybecame an eye – opener to the world. Industrialists andpoliticians from all over the world started visiting Japan to knowhow they have achieved such magical results in such a short span.The answer to this was painstaking and persevering efforts of theJapanese leaders and workers and the development and growth ofthe philosophy of small working groups.
Characteristics of Quality Circle• Quality circle are small primary groups of employee whose lower limit is three and upper limit twelve.• The membership of quality circle is most voluntary .• Each circle is lead by area supervisor .• The member meet regularly every week or according to an agreed schedule.• The circle members are specially trained in techniques of analysis and problem solving.• The basic role of circles to identify and solve work related problems for improving quality and productivity.• Quality circle enable their member to exercise their hidden talents for tackling challenging tasks.
CONCEPTThe concept of Quality Circle is primarily based uponrecognition of the value of the worker as a humanbeing, as someone who willingly activates on hisjob, intelligence, experience, attitude and feelings. It isbased upon the human resource management consideredas one of the key factors in the improvement of productquality & productivity. Quality Circle concept has threemajor attributes: •Quality Circle is a form of participation management. •Quality Circle is a human resource development technique. •Quality Circle is a problem solving technique.
OBJECTIVEThe objectives of Quality Circles are multi-faced.a) Change in Attitude.From "I don’t care" to "I do care"Continuous improvement in quality of work life throughhumanization of work.b) Self DevelopmentBring out ‘Hidden Potential’ of peoplePeople get to learn additional skills.c) Development of Team SpiritEliminate inter departmental conflicts.d) Improved Organizational CulturePositive working environment.Higher motivational level.
How Do Quality Circles Work?• All members of a Circle need to receive training• Members need to be empowered• Members need to have the support of Senior Management• Characteristics – Volunteers – Set Rules and Priorities – Decisions made by Consensus – Use of organized approaches to Problem-Solving
The Japanese description of the effectiveness of a quality circle is expressed as:• It is better for one hundred people to take one step than for one person to take a hundred
Who works for Quality Circles?A steering committee: This is at the top of thestructure. It is headed by a senior executive andincludes representatives from the top managementpersonnel and human resources development people. Itestablishes policy, plans and directs the program andmeets usually once in a month.Co-ordinator: He may be a Personnel or Administrativeofficer who co-ordinates and supervises the work ofthe facilitators and administers the program.
.Circle leader : Circle leader may be from lowestlevel supervisors. A circle leader organise andconduct circle activities.Circle members : They may be staff workers.Without circle members the program cannotexist. They are the lifeblood of quality circles.They should attend all meetings as far aspossible, offer suggestions and ideas, participateactively in group process.The roles of SteeringCommittee and Circle members are welldefined.
Limitations:• The overall productivity may decrease initially.• A large investment and time is required for a concept that is essentially new .• The chances of error increase initially .• After circle implementation a period of confusion may arise. This is because people experiment with new ideas , new skill and new roll.
PROCESS OF OPERATION1 Problem identification: Identify a number of problems.2 Problem selection : Decide the priority and select the problem to be taken up first.3 Problem Analysis : Problem is clarified and analyzed by basic problem solvingmethods.4 Generate alternative solutions : Identify and evaluate causes and generate numberof possible alternative solutions.5 Select the most appropriate solution : Discuss and evaluate the alternative solutionsby comparisons. This enables to select the most appropriate solution.6 Prepare plan of action : Prepare plan of action for converting the solution intoreality which includes the considerations "who, what, when, where, why and how" ofsolving problems.7 Present solution to management circle: Members present solution to managementfore approval.8. Implementation of solution : The management evaluates the recommendedsolution. Then it is tested and if successful, implemented on a full scale .
BASIC PROBLEM SOLVING TECHNIQUESThe following techniques are most commonly used toanalyze and solve work related problems. l Brain storming l Pareto anaysis l Cause & Effect Analysis l Data Collection & Analysis
Problems with Quality CirclesInadequate TrainingUnsure of PurposeNot truly VoluntaryLack of Management InterestQuality Circles are not really empowered to makedecisions
Case Study• This study was conducted by selecting a problem concerning with the material loss in workshop of University Polytechnic, AMU by forming a quality circle.• The production involves manufacturing of crankshaft, spindle and metallic numerals in the machine and fitting shop.• The operation involves in producing the above products comprises of various methods of manufacturing such as facing, drilling, filling, cutting, shaping, threading etc. The operations of these quality circle as given below realize the impact of quality circle.
Case Studya) Name of the organization : Workshop, University Polytechnic, AMU,Aligarhb) Number of circle : 01 (one)c) Section where the circle is : Machine and fitting shop operatingd) Number of meetings held : 10 (ten)
Formation of Quality CircleThe quality circle under consideration has a leader, a facilitator, a coordinator and four members. The object of the present quality circle is ‘reduction of material wastage’. This problem was so chosen for solution because of following facts :a) Whether there was any reduction in material wastage.b) Whether there were any saving and financial losses that should be minimized.c) Whether it had any effect on the working of the workers and relationship between workman and management.
• There were differences in the actual and expected material consumption.• Table 1 gives the detail of material consumption for the year 1999 to 2000, before implementation of quality circle, and• Table 2 shows the detail of material consumption for the year 2000 to 2001 after implementing quality circle.• After various discussion and brain storming sessions following causes related to man, machine, material and methods were located.
Table 1 Details of material consumption for the year July 15,1999 to March 31, 2000 (before implementing quality circle)ITEAMS SPECIFICATIONS MATERIAL MATERIAL MATERIA CONSUMPTION PER LOSS IN L LOSS YEAR, Kg MACHINING EXPECTED ACTUAL Kg RsMild Steel Length, mm : 50 210 105 105 1785.00Rod Diameter, mm : 3 Carbon, % : 0.01 Harden cold rolledCast Iron Length, mm : 50 135 75 60 1920.00Block Width, mm : 50 Thickness, mm : 24 Carbon, % : 2-4Mild Steel Length , mm : 75 53 30 23 437.00Flat Width, mm : 48 Thickness, mm : 6Total 4142.00
Table 2: Details of material consumption for the year July 15, 2000 to March 31, 2001 (after implementing quality circle)ITEAMS SPECIFICATIONS MATERIAL MATERIAL MATERIA CONSUMPTION PER LOSS IN L LOSS YEAR, Kg MACHINING EXPECTED ACTUAL Kg RsMild Steel Length, mm : 50 210 150 60 1020.00Rod Diameter, mm : 31 Carbon, % : 0.01-1 Harden cold rolledCast Iron Length, mm : 50 135 105 30 960.00Block Width, mm : 50 Thickness, mm : 24 Carbon, % : 2-4Mild Steel Length , mm : 75 53 45 8 152.00Flat Width, mm : 48 Thickness, mm : 6Total 2132.00
Causes Related to Mana) Lack of knowledge about the materialsb) Proper instruction not given about the workc) The materials were cut more than the required amountd) Lack of knowledge about the operationse) Lack of knowledge about handling special tools
Causes Related to Machinesa) Machines not operating at optimum conditionb) Frictional wear of machine partsc) Problem arising due to misalignment of machine componentsd) Lack of implementation of new and automatic machines
Causes Related to Methodsa) No proper inspection in the machine shop after the material has been issued from the storeb) No proper care was taken in storing the materialsc) Lack of knowledge of improving the existing method of production
Causes Related to Materiala) No proper inspection of the material dimension before machining.b) Materials obtained not having the required composition.
Table 3:Saving in the material wastage for the year 2000-2001 Material Wastage Material Wastage after Savings before Implementing Implementing Amount Quality Circle, Rs Quality Circle, Rs Rs 1 year 4142.00 2132.00 2010.00
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONFollowing observation were achieved after implementation of quality circle.• Improvement of internal personal relationship• Self-confidence was developed in solving more complex problem related to production.• A good teamwork was achieved among the workman• Material wastage was minimized as a result heavy monetary gain was obtained.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION cont…• Table 4 shows a percentage of contribution of various factors that led to material loss in the given order.• The various reason or causes of each factor were determined and shown in Ishikawa diagram (Fishbone diagram).• The causes and effect were obtained by calling various quality circle meetings (ten) through brainstorming session and discussion. And hence these factors led to the result of the present study in the following order: Man, Machine, Method, Material
Table 4: percentage of contribution of various factorsReason / Cause Percentage, % Cumulative, %Man 35.5 35.5Machine 28.6 64.3Methods 21.4 85.7Materials 14.3 100
CONCLUSION• Further this quality circle approach for quality improvement in University Polytechnic workshop may bring new dimension, shifting dependence for decisions and actions towards existing system.• This change revealed that quest for quality service is in the hand of all employees.• The sustenance of success will lead to total quality improvement emerging as a centre of excellence of its own in any small enterprise.
References• Statistical Quality Control : M.Mahajan• Impact of Quality Circle—a Case Study :By F Talib , M Ali• Employer-Employee Based Quality Circles in Japan: Human Resource Policy Implications for American Firms Author(s): George Munchus, III• Quality Circle as an Effective Management Tool :A Case Study of Indira College of Engineering & Management Library