ANDR
ROID (OPE TING SYSTEM)
ERAT
T )
From W
Wikipedia, th free ency
he
yclopaedia

And
droid

Android 4.4 home screen
A
n
...
OS family

Unix-like

Working state

Current

Source model

Open source with proprietary
components

Initial release

Sept...
Official website

www.android.com

Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel, and designed
primarily for to...
lightweight operating system for high tech devices. Despite being primarily
designed for phones and tablets, it also has b...
•

11 Notes

•

12 References

•

13 External links

History
See also: Android version history
Android, Inc. was founded i...
reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile
telephony.
Eric Schmidt, Andy Rubin and ...
designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the
vibration capabilities of the device to pro...
compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to
those that are compatible with the user'...
memory management has resulted in third-party task killers becoming popular
on the Google Play store; these third-party ta...
OEMs to run on their hardware. Android's source code does not contain the
often proprietary devices that are needed for ce...
manufacturers, further customize and brand Android to their needs and conduct
extensive testing on their networks before s...
team was getting fed up with the process," because they were a small team and
had more urgent work to do on Android.
In Au...
Android architectur diagram
d's
re
Thi section
is
requ
uires expans
sion.(Decemb
ber
201
13)

On top of the Li
p
inux kern...
Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use
the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) source code t...
Secu
urity an priva
nd
acy
See als Mob
so:
bile

secu
urity

Permissi
ions are used to control a particular a
d
applicatio...
parties. Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially;
however, Google engineers have argued that the ...
able to read almost all Smartphone information, including SMS, location,
emails, and notes.

Licensing
The source code for...
Play Music. While these older apps remain in Android's source code, they have
no longer received any major updates. Additi...
Technical as "practically the default operating system for launching new
hardware" for companies without their own mobile ...
latest h
hardware o softwar features only ava
or
re
s
ailable on a smaller p
percentage of
device Howev Open S
es.
ver,
Si...
investment opportunity by placing a Smartphone-optimized Android OS (before
Android 3.0 Honeycomb for tablets was availabl...
As of N
November 2013, An
r
ndroid's sh of the Smartph
hare
e
hone mark is said to
ket
t
have re
eached 80 Indeed during A...
Version

Code name

2.3.3–2.3.7 Gingerbread
2.2

Froyo

Release date

API level

Distribution

February 9, 2011

10

24.1%...
class li
ibraries, a an inde
and
ependently develop virtual machine
y
ped
called Dalvik. In May 201 the jur in this case f...
Ouya, a video game console whi runs And
ich
droid, was on of the mos successful crowd
ne
st
funding campaigns o the websit...
•

Bada

Notes
References
1. "Android Code Analysis". Retrieved June 6, 2012.
2. "Philosophy and Goals". Android Open Sour...
14. "Industry Leaders Announce Open Platform for Mobile Devices" (Press
release). Open Handset Alliance. November 5, 2007....
33. Vogelstein, Fred (April 2011). "How the Android Ecosystem Threatens the
iPhone". Wired. Retrieved June 2, 2012.
34. Ch...
49. "Touch Devices | Android Open Source". Source.android.com. Retrieved 2012-0915.
50. "Sensors Overview (Android Develop...
70. Warman, Matt (7 June 2012). "Orange San Diego Intel Android mobile phone
review". www.telegraph.co.uk. Telegraph Media...
89. David Meyer (February 3, 2010). "Linux developer explains Android kernel code
removal". ZDNet. Retrieved 2012-02-20.
9...
107.

Turner, David (2009-02-07). "Questions about Bionic". "The name "Bionic"

comes from the fact that it is part-BSD an...
121.
"Android Security Overview". Android Open Source Project. Retrieved 201202-20.
122.
Felt, Adrienne Porte; Chin, Erika...
139.
^ "Android Device Manager now available for downloading on Google Play".
engadget.com. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 20...
157.
"Symbian, Nokia, Microsoft and Apple downplay Android relevance".
Engadget. Retrieved 2012-11-09.
158.
"On its fifth ...
174.
Kovach, Steve. "Android Now Ahead Of Apple's iOS In Tablet Market
Share". Business Insider.
175.
Prince McLean (Augus...
190.
Paul, Ryan (2010-08-25). "Android antipiracy cracked, Google says devs
used it wrong". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2012-0...
208.
Hollister, Sean (January 10, 2012). "Sony Smart Watch (aka Sony Ericsson
LiveView 2) hands-on". The Verge. Retrieved ...
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Android history

  1. 1. ANDR ROID (OPE TING SYSTEM) ERAT T ) From W Wikipedia, th free ency he yclopaedia And droid Android 4.4 home screen A n gle Company / devel loper Goog Open Handset Al n lliance Andr roid Open So ource Project t (AOS SP) Programmed in C (co ore), C++,Jav (UI)[1] va Subhanka ar   1
  2. 2. OS family Unix-like Working state Current Source model Open source with proprietary components Initial release September 23, 2008 Latest stable release 4.4.2 Kit Kat / December 9, 2013; 16 days ago Marketing target Smart phones Tablet computers Available language(s) Multi-lingual (46 languages) Package manager Google Play, APK Supported platforms 32-bit ARM, MIPS,[6]x86[7] Kernel type Monolithic (modified Linux kernel) User land Bionic libc,[8] shellfrom NetBSD,[9] native core utilities with a few from NetBSD[10] Default user Graphical (Multi-touch) interface License Apache License 2.0 Linux kernel patches under GNU GPL v2[11] Subhankar   2
  3. 3. Official website www.android.com Android is an operating system based on the Linux kernel, and designed primarily for touch screen mobile devices such as smart phones and tablet computers. Initially developed by Android, Inc., which Google backed financially and later bought in 2005, Android was unveiled in 2007 along with the founding of the Open Handset Alliance: a consortium of hardware, software, and telecommunication companies devoted to advancing open standards for mobile devices. The first Android phone (HTC Dream) was sold in October 2008. The user interface of Android is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented. Android allows users to customize their home screens with shortcuts to applications and widgets, which allow users to display live content, such as emails and weather information, directly on the home screen. Applications can further send notifications to the user to inform them of relevant information, such as new emails and text messages. Android is open source and Google releases the source code under the Apache License. This open-source code and permissive licensing allows the software to be freely modified and distributed by device manufacturers, wireless carriers and enthusiast developers. However, most Android devices ship with additional proprietary software. Additionally, Android has a large community of developers writing applications ("apps") that extend the functionality of devices, written primarily in the Java programming language. In October 2012, there were approximately 700,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from Google Play, Android's primary app store, was 25 billion. A developer survey conducted in April–May 2013 found that Android is the most popular platform for developers, used by 71% of the mobile developer population. Android is the world's most widely used Smartphone platform, overtaking Symbian in the fourth quarter of 2010. Android is popular with technology companies who require a ready-made, low-cost, customizable and Subhankar   3
  4. 4. lightweight operating system for high tech devices. Despite being primarily designed for phones and tablets, it also has been used in televisions, games consoles, digital cameras and other electronics. Android's open nature has encouraged a large community of developers and enthusiasts to use the opensource code as a foundation for community-driven projects, which add new features for advanced users or bring Android to devices which were officially released running other operating systems. As of November 2013, Android's share of the global Smartphone market, led by Samsung products, has reached 80%. The operating system's success has made it a target for patent litigation as part of the so-called "Smartphone" between technology companies. As of May 2013, 48 billion apps have been installed from the Google Play store, and as of September 3, 2013, 1 billion Android devices have been activated. Contents • 1 History • 2 Features o 2.1 Interface o 2.2 Applications o 2.3 Memory management • 3 Hardware • 4 Development o 4.1 Update schedule o 4.2 Linux kernel o 4.3 Software stack o 4.4 Open-source community • 5 Security and privacy • 6 Licensing • 7 Reception o 7.1 Tablets o 7.2 Market share o 7.3 Platform usage o 7.4 Application piracy • 8 Legal issues • 9 Usage on other devices • 10 See also Subhankar   4
  5. 5. • 11 Notes • 12 References • 13 External links History See also: Android version history Android, Inc. was founded in Palo Alto, California in October 2003 by Andy Rubin (co-founder of Danger), Rich Miner (co-founder of Wildfire Communications, Inc.), Nick Sears (once VP at T-Mobile), and Chris White (headed design and interface development at WebTV) to develop, in Rubin's words "smarter mobile devices that are more aware of its owner's location and preferences". The early intentions of the company were to develop an advanced operating system for digital cameras, when it was realised that the market for the devices was not large enough, and diverted their efforts to producing a Smartphone operating system to rival those of Symbian and Windows Mobile. Despite the past accomplishments of the founders and early employees, Android Inc. operated secretly, revealing only that it was working on software for mobile phones. That same year, Rubin ran out of money. Steve Perlman, a close friend of Rubin, brought him $10,000 in cash in an envelope and refused a stake in the company. Google acquired Android Inc. on August 17, 2005; key employees of Android Inc., including Rubin, Miner and White, stayed at the company after the acquisition. Not much was known about Android Inc. at the time, but many assumed that Google was planning to enter the mobile phone market with this move. At Google, the team led by Rubin developed a mobile device platform powered by the Linux kernel. Google marketed the platform to handset makers and carriers on the promise of providing a flexible, upgradable system. Google had lined up a series of hardware component and software partners and signaled to carriers that it was open to various degrees of cooperation on their part. Speculation about Google's intention to enter the mobile communications market continued to build through December 2006. The unveiling of the iPhone, a touch screen-based phone by Apple, on January 9, 2007 had a disruptive effect on the development of Android. At the time, a prototype device codenamed "Sooner" had a closer resemblance to a BlackBerry phone, with no touch screen, and a physical, QWERTY keyboard. Work immediately began on re-engineering the OS and its prototypes to better compete against Apple. In September 2007, InformationWeek covered an Evalueserve study Subhankar   5
  6. 6. reporting that Google had filed several patent applications in the area of mobile telephony. Eric Schmidt, Andy Rubin and Hugo Barra at a press conference for the Google's Nexus 7 tablet. On November 5, 2007, the Open Handset Alliance, a consortium of technology companies including Google, device manufacturers such as HTC, Sony and  Samsung, wireless carriers such as Sprint Nextel and T-Mobile, and chipset makers such as Qualcomm and Texas Instruments, unveiled itself, with a goal to develop open standards for mobile devices. That day, Android was unveiled as its first product, a mobile device platform built on the Linux kernel version 2.6. The first commercially available phone to run Android was the HTC Dream, released on October 22, 2008. In 2010, Google launched its Nexus series of devices — a line of smart phones and tablets running the Android operating system, and built by a manufacturer partner. HTC collaborated with Google to release the first Nexus Smartphone, the Nexus One. The series has since been updated with newer devices, such as the Nexus 4 phone and Nexus 10 tablet, made by LG and Samsung respectively. Google releases the Nexus phones and tablets to act as their flagship Android devices, demonstrating Android's latest software and hardware features. On March 13, 2013, it was announced by Larry Page in a blog post that Andy Rubin had moved from the Android division to take on new projects at Google. He was replaced by Sundar Pichai, who also continues his role as the head of Google's Chrome division, which develops Chrome OS. Since 2008, Android has seen numerous updates which have incrementally improved the operating system, adding new features and fixing bugs in previous releases. Each major release is named in alphabetical order after a dessert or sugary treat; for example, version 1.5 Cupcake was followed by 1.6 Donut. The latest released version is 4.4.2 KitKat, which was released on 9 December 2013. Features See also: List of features in Android Interface Android's user interface is based on direct manipulation, using touch inputs that loosely correspond to real-world actions, like swiping, tapping, pinching and reverse pinching to manipulate on-screen objects. The response to user input is Subhankar   6
  7. 7. designed to be immediate and provides a fluid touch interface, often using the vibration capabilities of the device to provide haptic feedback to the user. Internal hardware such as accelerometers, gyroscopes and proximity sensors are used by some applications to respond to additional user actions, for example adjusting the screen from portrait to landscape depending on how the device is oriented, or allowing the user to steer a vehicle in a racing game by rotating the device, simulating control of a steering wheel. Android devices boot to the home screen, the primary navigation and information point on the device, which is similar to the desktop found on PCs. Android home screens are typically made up of app icons and widgets; app icons launch the associated app, whereas widgets display live, auto-updating content such as the weather forecast, the user's email inbox, or a news ticker directly on the home screen. A home screen may be made up of several pages that the user can swipe back and forth between, though Android's home screen interface is heavily customisable, allowing the user to adjust the look and feel of the device to their tastes. Third-party apps available on Google Play and other app stores can extensively re-theme the home screen, and even mimic the look of other operating systems, such as Windows Phone. Most manufacturers, and some wireless carriers, customise the look and feel of their Android devices to differentiate themselves from their competitors. Present along the top of the screen is a status bar, showing information about the device and its connectivity. This status bar can be "pulled" down to reveal a notification screen where apps display important information or updates, such as a newly received email or SMS text, in a way that does not immediately interrupt or inconvenience the user. In early versions of Android these notifications could be tapped to open the relevant app, but recent updates have provided enhanced functionality, such as the ability to call a number back directly from the missed call notification without having to open the dialer app first.[57] Notifications are persistent until read or dismissed by the user. Applications See also: Android software development and Google Play Android has a growing selection of third party applications, which can be acquired by users either through an app store such as Google Play or the Amazon Appstore, or by downloading and installing the application's APK file from a third-party site. The Play Store application allows users to browse, download and update apps published by Google and third-party developers, and is pre-installed on devices that comply with Google's Subhankar   7
  8. 8. compatibility requirements. The app filters the list of available applications to those that are compatible with the user's device, and developers may restrict their applications to particular carriers or countries for business reasons. Purchases of unwanted applications can be refunded within 15 minutes of the time of download, and some carriers offer direct carrier billing for Google Play application purchases, where the cost of the application is added to the user's monthly bill. As of September 2012, there were more than 675,000 apps available for Android, and the estimated number of applications downloaded from the Play Store was 25 billion. Applications are developed in the Java language using the Android software development kit (SDK). The SDK includes a comprehensive set of development tools,[64] including a debugger, software libraries, a handset emulator based on QEMU, documentation, sample code, and tutorials. The officially supported integrated development environment (IDE) is Eclipse using the Android Development Tools (ADT) plug-in. Other development tools are available, including a Native Development Kit for applications or extensions in C or C++, Google App Inventor, a visual environment for novice programmers, and various cross platform mobile web applications frameworks. In order to work around limitations on reaching Google services due to Internet censorship in the People's Republic of China, Android devices sold in the PRC are generally customized to use state approved services instead. Memory management Since Android devices are usually battery-powered, Android is designed to manage memory (RAM) to keep power consumption at a minimum, in contrast to desktop operating systems which generally assume they are connected to unlimited mains electricity. When an Android app is no longer in use, the system will automatically suspend it in memory – while the app is still technically "open," suspended apps consume no resources (e.g. battery power or processing power) and sit idly in the background until needed again. This has the dual benefit of increasing the general responsiveness of Android devices, since apps don't need to be closed and reopened from scratch each time, but also ensuring background apps don't consume power needlessly.[66] Android manages the apps stored in memory automatically: when memory is low, the system will begin killing apps and processes that have been inactive for a while, in reverse order since they were last used (i.e. oldest first). This process is designed to be invisible to the user, such that users do not need to manage memory or the killing of apps themselves. However, confusion over Android Subhankar   8
  9. 9. memory management has resulted in third-party task killers becoming popular on the Google Play store; these third-party task killers are generally regarded as doing more harm than good. Hardware See also: Android version history: Hardware requirements The main hardware platform for Android is the 32-bit ARMv7 architecture. There is support for x86 from the Android-x86 project, and Google TV uses a special x86 version of Android. In 2013, free scale announced Android on its i.MX processor, i.MX5X and i.MX6X series. In 2012 Intel processors began to appear on more mainstream Android platforms, such as phones. As of November 2013, current versions of Android require at least 512 MB of RAM, and a 32-bit ARMv7, MIPS or x86 architecture processor, together with an OpenGL ES 2.0 compatible graphics processing unit (GPU). Android supports OpenGL ES 1.1, 2.0 and 3.0. Some applications explicitly require certain version of the OpenGL ES, thus suitable GPU hardware is required to run such applications. Android devices incorporate many optional hardware components, including still or video cameras, GPS, hardware orientation sensors, dedicated gaming controls, accelerometers, gyroscopes, barometers, magnetometers, proximity sensors, pressure sensors, thermometers and touch screens. Some hardware components are not required, but became standard in certain classes of devices, such as smart phones, and additional requirements apply if they are present. Some other hardware was initially required, but those requirements have been relaxed or eliminated altogether. For example, as Android was developed initially as a phone OS, hardware such as microphones were required, while over time the phone function became optional. Android used to require an autofocus camera, which was relaxed to a fixed-focus camera if it is even present at all, since the camera was dropped as a requirement entirely when Android started to be used on set-top boxes. Development Android is developed in private by Google until the latest changes and updates are ready to be released, at which point the source code is made available publicly. This source code will only run without modification on select devices, usually the Nexus series of devices. The source code is, in turn, adapted by Subhankar   9
  10. 10. OEMs to run on their hardware. Android's source code does not contain the often proprietary devices that are needed for certain hardware components. The green Android logo was designed for Google in 2007 by graphic designer Irina Blok. The design team was tasked with a project to create a universally identifiable icon with the specific inclusion of a robot in the final design. After numerous design developments based on science-fiction and space movies, the team eventually sought inspiration from the human symbol on restroom doors and modified the figure into a robot shape. As Android is open-sourced, it was agreed that the logo should be likewise, and since its launch the green logo has been reinterpreted into countless variations on the original design. Update schedule From left to right: HTC Dream (G1),Nexus One, Nexus S, Galaxy Nexus See also: Android version history Google provides major updates, incremental in nature, to Android every six to nine months, which most devices are capable of receiving over the air. The latest major update is Android 4.4 KitKat. Compared to its chief rival mobile operating system, namely iOS, Android updates are typically slow to reach actual devices. For devices not under the Nexus brand, updates often arrive months from the time the given version is officially released. This is caused partly due to the extensive variation in hardware of Android devices, to which each update must be specifically tailored, as the official Google source code only runs on their flagship Nexus devices. Porting Android to specific hardware is a time- and resource-consuming process for device manufacturers, who prioritize their newest devices and often leave older ones behind. Hence, older smart phones are frequently not updated if the manufacturer decides it is not worth their time, regardless of whether the phone is capable of running the update. This problem is compounded when manufacturers customize Android with their own interface and apps, which must be reapplied to each new release. Additional delays can be introduced by wireless carriers who, after receiving updates from Subhankar   10
  11. 11. manufacturers, further customize and brand Android to their needs and conduct extensive testing on their networks before sending the update out to users. The lack of after-sale support from manufacturers and carriers has been widely criticized by consumer groups and the technology media. Some commentators have noted that the industry has a financial incentive not to update their devices, as the lack of updates for existing devices fuels the purchase of newer ones, an attitude described as "insulting". The Guardian has complained that the complicated method of distribution for updates is only complicated because manufacturers and carriers have designed it that way. In 2011, Google partnered with a number of industry players to announce an "Android Update Alliance", pledging to deliver timely updates for every device for 18 months after its release; however, this alliance has never been mentioned since. In 2012, Google began decoupling certain aspects of the operating system (particularly core applications) so they could be updated through Google Play Store, independently of Android itself. One of these components, Google Play Services, is a system-level process providing APIs for Google services, installed automatically on nearly all devices running Android version 2.2 and higher. With these changes, Google can add new operating system functionality through Play Services and application updates without having to distribute an update to the operating system itself. As a result, Android 4.2 and 4.3 contained relatively fewer user-facing changes, focusing more on minor changes and platform improvements. Linux kernel As of November 2013, current Android versions consist of a kernel based on the Linux kernel version 3.4.10, while Android versions older than 4.0 Ice Cream Sandwich were based on the Linux kernel 2.6.x. Android's Linux kernel has further architecture changes by Google outside the typical Linux kernel development cycle. Certain features that Google contributed back to the Linux kernel, notably a power management feature called "wakelocks", were rejected by mainline kernel developers partly because they felt that Google did not show any intent to maintain its own code. Google announced in April 2010 that they would hire two employees to work with the Linux kernel community, but Greg Kroah-Hartman, the current Linux kernel maintainer for the stable branch, said in December 2010 that he was concerned that Google was no longer trying to get their code changes included in mainstream Linux. Some Google Android developers hinted that "the Android Subhankar   11
  12. 12. team was getting fed up with the process," because they were a small team and had more urgent work to do on Android. In August 2011, Linus Torvalds said that "eventually Android and Linux would come back to a common kernel, but it will probably not be for four to five years".[94] In December 2011, Greg Kroah-Hartman announced the start of the Android Mainlining Project, which aims to put some Android drivers, patches and features back into the Linux kernel, starting in Linux 3.3. Linux included the auto sleep and wake locks capabilities in the 3.5 kernel, after many previous attempts at merger. The interfaces are the same but the upstream Linux implementation allows for two different suspend modes: to memory (the traditional suspend that Android uses), and to disk (hibernate, as it is known on the desktop). Google maintains a public code repository that contains their experimental work to re-base Android off the latest stable Linux versions. The flash storage on Android devices is split into several partitions, such as /system for the operating system itself, and /data for user data and application installations. In contrast to desktop Linux distributions, Android device owners are not given root access to the operating system and sensitive partitions such as /system are read-only. However, root access can be obtained by exploiting security flaws in Android, which is used frequently by the opensource community to enhance the capabilities of their devices, but also by malicious parties to install viruses and malware. Android is a Linux distribution according to the Linux Foundation  and Google's open-source chief, Chris DiBona. Others, such as Google engineer Patrick Brady, disagree that it is a Linux distribution, noting the lack of support for many GNU tools in Android, including glibc. Software stack Subhankar   12
  13. 13. Android architectur diagram d's re Thi section is requ uires expans sion.(Decemb ber 201 13) On top of the Li p inux kerne there ar the mid el, re ddleware, l libraries an APIs written nd w in C, a applica and ation softw runn ware ning on an applicatio framew on work which h includes Java-co ompatible libraries b based on Apache Harmony. A A Android us ses alvik virtua machin with jus al ne st-in-time compilatio to run D on Dalvik "dexthe Da code" (Dalvik E Executable which i usually translated from the Java bytecode. e), is t d ionic in pl lace of a st tandard C library, o originally d developed by d Android uses Bi ally ndroid, as a derivati of the BSD's sta s ion andard C library l Google specifica for An Bionic has several m s major featu speci to the Linux ker ures ific rnel, and its code. B develo opment con ntinues in ndependen of othe Android source code base The ntly er d's es. main b benefits of using Bio instea of the GNU C Li f onic ad G ibrary (gli ibc) or uClibc are its different licensing model, sm s maller run ntime footp print, and ization for low-frequ r uency CPU Us. optimi Android does no have a n ot native X W Window System by default no does it or rt ndard GNU libraries and this makes it difficult to port U s, s suppor the full set of stan existin Linux a ng application or libraries to An ns ndroid. Sup pport for s simple C and SD applica DL ations is p possible by injection of a sma Java shi and usa of y n all im age the JN like, for example, in the Jag NI gged Allia ance 2 port for Andr t roid. Open n-sourc comm ce munity Subhanka ar   13
  14. 14. Android has an active community of developers and enthusiasts who use the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) source code to develop and distribute their own modified versions of the operating system. These communitydeveloped releases often bring new features and updates to devices faster than through the official manufacturer/carrier channels, albeit without as extensive testing or quality assurance;  provide continued support for older devices that no longer receive official updates; or bring Android to devices that were officially released running other operating systems, such as the HP Touchpad. Community releases often come pre-rooted and contain modifications unsuitable for non-technical users, such as the ability to over clock or over/under volt the device's processor. CyanogenMod is the most widely used community firmware, and acts as a foundation for numerous others. Historically, device manufacturers and mobile carriers have typically been unsupportive of third-party firmware development. Manufacturers express concern about improper functioning of devices running unofficial software and the support costs resulting from this. moreover, modified firmware’s such as CyanogenMod sometimes offer features, such as tethering, for which carriers would otherwise charge a premium. As a result, technical obstacles including locked boot loaders and restricted access to root permissions are common in many devices. However, as community-developed software has grown more popular, and following a statement by the Librarian of Congress in the United States that permits the "jailbreaking" of mobile devices,[115] manufacturers and carriers have softened their position regarding third party development, with some, Including HTC , Motorola, Samsung and Sony, providing support and encouraging development. As a result of this, over time the need to circumvent  hardware to install unofficial firmware has lessened as an increasing number of devices are shipped with unlocked or unlock able boot loaders, similar to the Nexus series of phones, although usually requiring that users waive their devices' warranties to do so. However, despite manufacturer acceptance, some carriers in the US still require that phones are locked down. The unlocking and "hack ability" of smart phones and tablets remains a source of tension between the community and industry, with the community arguing that unofficial development is increasingly important given the failure of industry to provide timely updates and/or continued support to their devices. Subhankar   14
  15. 15. Secu urity an priva nd acy See als Mob so: bile secu urity Permissi ions are used to control a particular a d application's access to sys stem function ns. Android applica ations run in a sandb box, an iso olated area of the sy a ystem that does ve t ystem's res sources, un nless acce permissions ess not hav access to the rest of the sy are exp plicitly gra anted by t user w the when the ap pplication is installe Before ed. e installi an app ing plication, t Play S the Store displays all req quired per rmissions: a game m need to enable vibration or save data to an S card, f exampl but may SD for le, should not need to read SM messa d MS ages or acc the ph cess honebook After k. review wing these permissio the us can cho ons, ser oose to ac ccept or refuse them m, installi the application o ing only if the accept. The sandb ey boxing an permiss nd sions system lessens t impact of vulner m the t rabilities and bugs in applicat a n tions, but develo oper confu usion and l limited do ocumentati has resulted in a ion application ns routine reques ely sting unnecessary pe ermissions reducing its s, g effectiveness. Se everal security firm such as Lookout Mobile Se ms, ecurity, AVG A ologies, an McAfe  have re nd ee, eleased antivirus sof ftware for Android Techno device This so es. oftware is i ineffective as sandb e boxing also applies t such to applica ations, lim miting thei ability to scan the deeper sy ir o ystem for t threats. Resear from s rch security co ompany Tr rend Micr lists pre ro emium ser rvice abuse as the mo commo type of Android malware, where tex messag are sen from ost on f xt ges nt infecte phones to premiu ed um-rate tel lephone numbers w n without the consent or even e o knowledge of th user. Ot he ther malw displa unwan and in ware ays nted ntrusive ad dverts r ersonal inf formation to unauthorised thir rd on the device, or sends pe Subhanka ar   15
  16. 16. parties. Security threats on Android are reportedly growing exponentially; however, Google engineers have argued that the malware and virus threat on Android is being exaggerated by security companies for commercial reasons, and have accused the security industry of playing on fears to sell virus protection software to users. Google maintains that dangerous malware is actually extremely rare, and a survey conducted by F-Secure showed that only 0.5% of Android malware reported had come from the Google Play store. Google currently uses their Google Bouncer malware scanner to watch over and scan the Google Play store apps. It is intended to flag up suspicious apps and warn users of any potential issues with an application before they download it. Android version 4.2 Jelly Bean was released in 2012 with enhanced security features, including a malware scanner built into the system, which works in combination with Google Play but can scan apps installed from third party sources as well, and an alert system which notifies the user when an app tries to send a premium-rate text message, blocking the message unless the user explicitly authorises it. Android smart phones have the ability to report the location of Wi-Fi access points, encountered as phone users move around, to build databases containing the physical locations of hundreds of millions of such access points. These databases form electronic maps to locate smart phones, allowing them to run apps like Foursquare, Google Latitude, and Face book Places, and to deliver location-based ads. Third party monitoring software such as Taint Droid, an academic research-funded project, can, in some cases, detect when personal information is being sent from applications to remote servers. In August 2013, Google released the Android Device Manager (ADM), a component that allows users to remotely track, locate, and wipe their Android device through a web interface. In December 2013, Google released ADM as an Android application on the Google Play store, where it is available to devices running Android version 2.2 and higher. The open-source nature of Android allows security contractors to take existing devices and adapt them for highly secure uses. For example Samsung has worked with General Dynamics through their Open Kernel Labs acquisition to rebuild Jelly Bean on top of their hardened micro visor for the "Knox" project. As part of the broader 2013 mass surveillance disclosures it was revealed in September 2013 that the American and British intelligence agencies, the NSA and Government Communications Headquarters(GCHQ) respectively, have access to the user data on iPhone, BlackBerry, and Android devices. They are Subhankar   16
  17. 17. able to read almost all Smartphone information, including SMS, location, emails, and notes. Licensing The source code for Android is available under free and open-source software licenses. Google publishes most of the code (including network and telephony stacks) under the Apache License version 2.0, and the rest, Linux kernel changes, under the GNU General Public License version 2. The Open Handset Alliance develops the changes to the Linux kernel, in public, with source code publicly available at all times. The rest of Android is developed in private by Google, with source code released publicly when a new version is released. Typically Google collaborates with a hardware manufacturer to produce a "flagship" device (part of the Nexus series) featuring the new version of Android, then makes the source code available after that device has been released. The only Android release which was not immediately made available as source code was the tablet-only 3.0 Honeycomb release. The reason, according to Andy Rubin in an official Android blog post, was because Honeycomb was rushed for production of the Motorola Xoom, and they did not want third parties creating a "really bad user experience" by attempting to put onto smart phones a version of Android intended for tablets. While much of Android itself is open source software, most Android devices ship with a large amount of proprietary software. Google licenses a suite of proprietary apps for Android, such as Play Store, Google Search, and Google Play Services—a software layer which provides APIs that integrate with Google-provided services, among others.[83] These apps, along with the Android trademarks, can only be licensed by hardware manufacturers for devices which meet Google's compatibility standards; as such, forks of Android which make major changes to the OS itself, such as Amazon's Fire OS and Alibaba Group's Aliyun OS, do not include any of Google's non-free components, and are incompatible with apps that require them. Custom, certified distributions of Android produced by manufacturers (such as Touch Wiz and HTC Sense) may also replace certain stock Android apps with their own proprietary variants and add additional software not included in the stock Android operating system. Several stock apps in Android's open source code used by previous versions (such as Search, Music, and Calendar) have also been effectively deprecated by Google, with development having shifted to newer but proprietary versions distributed and updated through Play Store, such as Google Search and Google Subhankar   17
  18. 18. Play Music. While these older apps remain in Android's source code, they have no longer received any major updates. Additionally, proprietary variants of the stock Camera and Gallery apps also include certain functions (such as Photosphere panoramas and Google+ album integration) that are excluded from the open source versions (however, they have yet to be completely abandoned), and the home screen itself on the Nexus 5 is replaced by one implemented as a component of the proprietary Google Search app. Although an update for Google Search containing the relevant components was released through Google Play for all Android devices, the new home screen was not enabled by the Android 4.4 updates for any other Nexus devices, which still use the previous AOSP home screen. Richard Stallman and the Free Software Foundation have been critical of Android and have recommended the usage of alternatives such as Replicant, because drivers and firmware vital for the proper functioning of Android devices are usually proprietary, and because Google Play allows nonfree software. Reception Android received a lukewarm reaction when it was unveiled in 2007. Although analysts were impressed with the respected technology companies that had partnered with Google to form the Open Handset Alliance, it was unclear whether mobile phone manufacturers would be willing to replace their existing operating systems with Android. The idea of an open-source, Linuxbased development platform sparked interest, but there were additional worries about Android facing strong competition from established players in the Smartphone market, such as Nokia and Microsoft, and rival Linux mobile operating systems that were in development. These established players were skeptical: Nokia was quoted as saying "we don't see this as a threat," and a member of Microsoft's Windows Mobile team stated "I don't understand the impact that they are going to have." Since then Android has grown to become the most widely used Smartphone operating system and "one of the fastest mobile experiences available." Reviewers have highlighted the open-source nature of the operating system as one of its defining strengths, allowing companies such as Amazon (Kindle Fire), Barnes & Noble (Nook), Ouya, Baidu, and others to fork the software and release hardware running their own customised version of Android. As a result, it has been described by technology website Ars Subhankar   18
  19. 19. Technical as "practically the default operating system for launching new hardware" for companies without their own mobile platforms. This openness and flexibility is also present at the level of the end user: Android allows extensive customisation of devices by their owners and apps are freely available from non-Google app stores and third party websites. These have been cited as among the main advantages of Android phones over others. Despite Android's popularity, including an activation rate three times that of iOS, there have been reports that Google has not been able to leverage their other products and web services successfully to turn Android into the money maker that analysts had expected. The Verge suggested that Google is losing control of Android due to the extensive customization and proliferation of nonGoogle apps and services—Amazon's Kindle Fire line uses Fire OS, a heavily modified fork of Android which does not include or support any of Google's proprietary components, and requires that users obtain software from its competing Amazon Appstore instead of Play Store. Google SVP Andy Rubin, who was replaced as head of the Android division in March 2013, has been blamed for failing to establish a lucrative partnership with cell phone makers. The chief beneficiary of Android has been Samsung, whose Galaxy brand has surpassed that of Android in terms of brand recognition since 2011. Mean while other Android manufacturers have struggled since 2011, such as LG, HTC, and Google's own Motorola Mobility (whose partnership with Verizon Wireless to push the "DROID" brand has faded since 2010). Ironically, while Google directly earns nothing from the sale of each Android device, Microsoft and Apple have successfully sued to extract patent royalty payments from Android handset manufacturers. Android has suffered from "fragmentation", a situation where the variety of Android devices, in terms of both hardware variations and differences in the software running on them, makes the task of developing applications that work consistently across the ecosystem harder than rival platforms such as iOS where hardware and software varies less. For example, according to data from Open Signal in July 2013, there were 11,868 models of Android device, numerous different screen sizes and eight Android OS versions simultaneously in use, while the large majority of iOS users have upgraded to the latest iteration of that OS. Critics such as Apple Insider have asserted that fragmentation via hardware and software pushed Android's growth through large volumes of low end, budget-priced devices running older versions of Android. They maintain these forces Android developers to write for the "lowest common denominator" to reach as many users as possible, who have too little incentive to make use of the Subhankar   19
  20. 20. latest h hardware o softwar features only ava or re s ailable on a smaller p percentage of device Howev Open S es. ver, Signal, wh develop both An ho ps ndroid and iOS app d ps, conclu uded that a although fr fragmentat tion can make devel m lopment tr rickier, Android's wider global reach also in r ncreases the potenti reward ial d. Tabl lets The first t-generation Nexus 7 tablet Despit its succe on sma phones initially Android tablet ado te ess art s, y option was slow. s One o the main causes w the chicken or th egg situ of n was he uation wh consu here umers were h hesitant to buy an A Android tab due to a lack of high qual tablet apps, blet o f lity but dev velopers w hesitant to spen time an resourc develo were nd nd ces oping table apps et until th was a significa market for them. The con here ant t . ntent and a "ecosy app ystem" proved more im d mportant th hardwa specs as the sell han are a ling point for tablets Due s. to the l lack of An ndroid tab blet-specifi apps in 2011, ear Androi tablets had to fic rly id h make d with ex do xisting Sm martphone apps that were ill-s suited to la arger scree en sizes, w whereas th domina he ance of Ap pple's iPad was rein d nforced by the large y numbe of tablet er t-specific iOS apps. . Despit app support in its infancy, a consider te rable numb of Android tablets ber (along gside those using oth operati system such as the HP T e her ing ms, Touch Pad and d blackb berry) were rushed o to mar in an attempt to capitalize on the su out rket a o e uccess of the iPad. Info oWorld has suggeste that som Androi manufa s ed me id acturers initially d ken e ", term lowtreated their first tablets as a "Frank phone business" a short-t Subhanka ar   20
  21. 21. investment opportunity by placing a Smartphone-optimized Android OS (before Android 3.0 Honeycomb for tablets was available) on a device while neglecting user interface. This approach, such as with the Dell Streak, failed to gain market traction with consumers as well as damaging the early reputation of Android tablets. Furthermore, several Android tablets such as the Motorola Xoom were priced the same or higher than the iPad, which hurt sales. An exception was the Amazon Kindle Fire, which relied upon lower pricing as well as access to Amazon's ecosystem of apps and content. This began to change in 2012 with the release of the affordable Nexus 7 and a push by Google for developers to write better tablet apps.[173] Android tablet market share surpassed the iPad's in Q3 2012. Market share Research Company Canalise estimated in the second quarter of 2009 that Android had a 2.8% share of worldwide Smartphone shipments. By the fourth quarter of 2010 this had grown to 33% of the market, becoming the top-selling Smartphone platform. By the third quarter of 2011 Gartner estimated that more than half (52.5%) of the Smartphone market belongs to Android. By the third quarter of 2012 Android had a 75% share of the global Smartphone market according to the research firm IDC. In July 2011, Google said that 550,000 new Android devices were being activated every day, up from 400,000 per day in May, and more than 100 million devices had been activated with 4.4% growth per week. In September 2012, 500 million devices had been activated with 1.3 million activations per day. In May 2013, at Google I/O, Sundar Pichai announced that 900 million Android devices had been activated. Android market share varies by location. In July 2012, Android's market share in the United States was 52%, and rose to 90% in China. During the third quarter of 2012, Android's worldwide Smartphone market share was 75%,[177] with 750 million devices activated in total and 1.5 million activations per day. As of March 2013, Android's share of the global Smartphone market, led by Samsung products, was 64%. The Kantar market research company reported that Google’s platform accounted for over 70% of all Smartphone device sales in China during this period and that Samsung's loyalty rate in Britain (59%) is second to that of Apple (79%). Subhankar   21
  22. 22. As of N November 2013, An r ndroid's sh of the Smartph hare e hone mark is said to ket t have re eached 80 Indeed during A 0%. d, August, Se eptember, and Octo , ober 2013, no , less than 261.1 m million sm phone were so overall with abo 211 mi mart es old l, out illion [24] phones ru unning Goo ogle's ope erating sys stem. smart p Platf form us sage Breakdo of the A own Android versio usage ons These charts pro ovide data about the relative number of devices a a e n f accessing the ntly unning a g given versi of the Android p ion platform, as of 2 a Play Store recen and ru mber 2013. Decem Versio on 4.4 4 Code nam C me 4.3.x API level l Distrib bution October 31, 2013 O 19 1.1% Ju 24, 20 uly 013 KitK Kat Release date 18 4.2% November 13, 2012 17 N 12.9% % Ju 9, 2012 uly 16 37.4% % December 16, 2011 15 andwich D 4.0.3–4 4.0.4 Ice Cream Sa 18.6% % 4.2.x Jelly Bean y 4.1.x 3.2 2 Hon neycomb Ju 15, 20 uly 011 13 Subhanka ar   0.1% 22
  23. 23. Version Code name 2.3.3–2.3.7 Gingerbread 2.2 Froyo Release date API level Distribution February 9, 2011 10 24.1% May 20, 2010 8 1.6% Application piracy There has been some concern about the ease with which paid Android apps can be pirated. In a May 2012 interview with Euro gamer, the developers of Football Manager stated that the ratio of pirated players vs. legitimate players was 9:1 for their game Football Manager Handheld. However, not every developer agreed that piracy rates were an issue; for example, in July 2012 the developers of the game Wind-up Knight said that piracy levels of their game were only 12%, and most of the piracy came from China, where people cannot purchase apps from Google Play. In 2010, Google released a tool for validating authorized purchases for use within apps, but developers complained that this was insufficient and trivial to crack. Google responded that the tool, especially its initial release, was intended as a sample framework for developers to modify and build upon depending on their needs, not as a finished piracy solution. In 2012 Google released a feature in Android 4.1 that encrypted paid applications so that they would only work on the device on which they were purchased, but this feature has been temporarily deactivated due to technical issues. Legal issues Further information: Oracle v. Google, Smartphone wars, and Patent troll Both Android and Android phone manufacturers have been involved in numerous patent lawsuits. On August 12, 2010, Oracle sued Google over claimed infringement of copyrights and patents related to the Java programming language. Oracle originally sought damages up to $6.1 billion, but this valuation was rejected by a United States federal judge who asked Oracle to revise the estimate. In response, Google submitted multiple lines of defense, counterclaiming that Android did not infringe on Oracle's patents or copyright, that Oracle's patents were invalid, and several other defenses. They said that Android is based on Apache Harmony, a clean room implementation of the Java Subhankar   23
  24. 24. class li ibraries, a an inde and ependently develop virtual machine y ped called Dalvik. In May 201 the jur in this case found that Google did no n 12, ry c d ot ge cle's paten and the trial judg ruled th the stru nts, e ge hat ucture of the t infring on Orac Java A APIs used b Google was not copyright by e table. In addition to law wsuits aga ainst Goog directl various proxy wa have been gle ly, s ars b d Android in ndirectly b targetin manufac by ng cturers of Android waged against A device with the effect of discourag es, e f ging manu ufacturers from ado opting the platfor by incr rm reasing the costs of bringing an Androi device t e a id to market Both Ap and M t. pple Microsoft have sued several m d manufacturers for pa atent infring gement, w Apple''s ongoing legal acti agains Samsun being a with g ion st ng particu ularly high h-profile c case. In Oc ctober 201 Micros said th had si 11, soft hey igned patent license ag greements with ten A s Android device man d nufacturer whose rs, cts nt % orldwide revenue fo Android devices. These r or d produc accoun for 55% of the wo include Samsung and HTC Samsun paten settleme with M C. ng's nt ent Microsoft eement tha Samsun will allo at ng ocate more resource to devel e es loping includes an agre arketing p phones run nning Microsoft's Windows P W Phone oper rating syst tem. and ma Google has publ licly expre essed its fr frustration for the cu urrent pate landsca in ent ape nited State accusin Apple, Oracle and Microso of tryin to take down es, ng oft ng the Un Android through patent lit h tigation, r rather than innovatin and com n ng mpeting with w better p products a servic In 201 and ces. 11–12, Go oogle purch hased Motorola Mobili for US ity S$12.5 bill lion, which was view in par as a def h wed rt fensive me easure to prot Andro since M tect oid, Motorola Mobility held more than 17,0 patent In e 000 ts. Decem mber 2011, Google b bought ov a thous ver sand paten from IB nts BM. In 2013, Fairs ar a lobb rch, bying orga anization supported by Micro s d osoft, Orac and cle , omplaint r regarding Android with the European C w Commissio on, others, filed a co allegin that it’s free of ch ng s harge distr ribution model cons m stituted an nticompe etitive pred datory pric cing. The Free Software Foun ndation Eu urope, wh hose donors include G s Google, di isputed the Fairs arc allegati ch ions. Usag on o ge other de evices Subhanka ar   24
  25. 25. Ouya, a video game console whi runs And ich droid, was on of the mos successful crowd ne st funding campaigns o the websit Kick starte on te er. The op and cu pen ustomizable nature o Android allows i to be use on othe of it ed er electro onics aside from sm phones and table includ e mart s ets, ding laptop and net books ps t , smart books , s t smart TVs (Google T and cameras (N TV) c Nikon Coo olpix S800c and Galax Camer In add xy ra). dition, the Android o A operating s system ha seen as ations on smart glas (Goog Glass) smart wa sses gle ), atches, he eadphones, car applica CD an DVD pl nd layers, mir rrors, port table medi players, landline and Voice over ia , e IP pho ones. Ouya a video game con a, nsole runni Andro becam one of the ing oid, me t most s successful Kick-star campa rter aigns, crow wdfunding gUS$8.5m for its m develo opment, an was late followe by othe Android nd er ed er d-based co onsoles, su uch as Nvi idia's Proje Shield — an An ect d ndroid dev in a vi vice ideo game controlle form e er [217] factor. e rated "Android Hom a hom automa me", me ation techn nology In 2011, Google demonstr droid to control a ran of hou nge usehold de evices incl luding ligh ht which uses And hes, r and ostats. Pro ototype lig bulbs w anno ght were ounced switch power sockets a thermo that co ould be con ntrolled fr rom an An ndroid pho or tabl but An one let, ndroid hea ad Andy R Rubin was cautious to note th "turnin a light b s hat ng bulb on an off is nothing nd n new," pointing t numerous failed h to home auto omation se ervices. Google, he said, hinking mo ambiti ore iously and the intent d tion was to use their position as r was th a cloud services provider to bring G d Google pro oducts into custome homes. o ers' In Aug 2011, Parrot lau gust , unched the first car stereo sys stem powe ered by th he Android platform known as Astero and fea m, n oid aturing vo comm oice mands. In mber 2013 Clarion released m 3, more adva anced car s stereo syst tems powered Septem by the Android p platform, known as AX1 and Mirage, r d running A Android 2.3 and 3.7 Gingerbread respectively, and featuring GPS-bas naviga d), d g sed ation, 6.5-inch 2.2 (G screen and vario option for wireless data access. n ous ns a See a also Google portal G Free software portal F e • • • • • An ndroid root ting An ndroid vers sion histor ry Comparison of mobile operating systems e g Ind of And dex droid OS a articles Lis of GPS software f mobile phones st for e Subhanka ar   25
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