Fashion: Any style that is accepted and purchased by successive groups of people over a long period of time.
Fashion-adoption process: Series of buying waves as a given style is popularly accepted by one group after another.
Three theories of fashion adoption:
Trickle-down—a given fashion flows down through several socioeconomic levels.
Trickle-across—the fashion moves horizontally and simultaneously within several socioeconomic levels.
Trickle-up—a style first becomes popular at lower levels and then flows upward.
11 – TRICKLE- UP Product adopted first by lower socio- economic group TRICKLE- DOWN Product offered first to upper socio- economic group Product introduced at same time in all three types of stores: TRICKLE-ACROSS Exclusive high-priced specialty stores (boutiques) TRICKLE-ACROSS Medium-priced department stores and specialty stores TRICKLE-ACROSS Discount stores
“ A framework for the tactical management of the customer relationship” (Jobber, 2000)
“ A blend of marketing tactics tailored to an organisation’s chosen competitive role and its strategic issues, which is aimed at increased customer satisfaction, repeat business, positive brand awareness, increased market share and sustainable competitive advantage and thus ultimately at continued business growth and enhanced profitability.”