Female reproductive anatomy

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MSC NURSING

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Female reproductive anatomy

  1. 1. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY This information is important because it will raise your level of awareness and understanding about your physical body. It is imperative that you learn the changes you can expect to experience from menarche to menopause as you live with your female reproductive system UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 1
  2. 2. EXTERNAL GENTILIA • The vulva refers to those parts that are outwardly visible • The vulva includes: • Mons pubis • Labia majora • Labia minora • Clitoris • Urethral opening • Vaginal opening • Perineum • Individual differences in: • Size • Coloration • Shape • Of external gentalia are common UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 2
  3. 3. UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 3
  4. 4. MONS PUBIS • The triangular mound of fatty tissue that covers the pubic bone • It protects the pubic symphysis • During adolescence sex hormones trigger the growth of pubic hair on the mons pubis • Hair varies in coarseness curliness, amount, color and thickness UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 4
  5. 5. LABIA MAJORA • • • • • • • Referred to as the outer lips They have a darker pigmentation The Labia Majora: Protect the introitus and urethral openings Are covered with hair and sebaceous glands Tend to be smooth, moist, and hairless Become flaccid with age and after childbirth UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 5
  6. 6. LABIA MINORA • Referred to as the “inner lips” • Made up of erectile, connective tissue that darkens and swells during sexual arousal • Located inside the labia majora • They are more sensitive and responsive to touch than the labia majora • The labia minora tightens during intercourse UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 6
  7. 7. CLITORIS • Highly sensitive organ composed of nerves, blood vessels, and erectile tissue • Located under the prepuce • It is made up of a shaft and a glans • Becomes engorged with blood during sexual stimulation • Key to sexual pleasure for most women • Urethral opening is located directly below clitoris UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 7
  8. 8. FEMALE UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 8
  9. 9. VAGINAL OPENING INTROITUS • Opening may be covered by a thin sheath called the hymen • Using the presence of an intact hymen for determining virginity is erroneous • Some women are born without hymens • The hymen can be perforated by many different events UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 9
  10. 10. PERINEUM • The muscle and tissue located between the vaginal opening and anal canal • It supports and surrounds the lower parts of the urinary and digestive tracts • The perinium contains an abundance of nerve endings that make it sensitive to touch • An episiotomy is an incision of the perinium used during childbirth for widening the vaginal opening UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 10
  11. 11. INTERNAL GENITALIA • • • • • • The internal genitalia consists of the: Vagina Cervix Uterus Fallopian Tubes Ovaries UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 11
  12. 12. UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 12
  13. 13. VAGINA • • • • • • • The vagina connects the cervix to the external genitals It is located between the bladder and rectum It functions : As a passageway for the menstrual flow For uterine secretions to pass down through the introitus As the birth canal during labor With the help of two Bartholin’s glands becomes lubricated during SI UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 13
  14. 14. CERVIX • The cervix connects the uterus to the vagina • The cervical opening to the vagina is small • This acts as a safety precaution against foreign bodies entering the uterus • During childbirth, the cervix dilates to accommodate the passage of the fetus • This dilation is a sign that labor has begun UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 14
  15. 15. PERINEUM UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 15
  16. 16. UTERUS • Commonly referred to as the womb • A pear shaped organ about the size of a clenched fist • It is made up of the endometrium, myometrium and perimetrium • Consists of blood-enriched tissue that sloughs off each month during menstrual cycle • The powerful muscles of the uterus expand to accommodate a growing fetus and push it through the birth canal UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 16
  17. 17. OVIDUCTS UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 17
  18. 18. FALLOPIAN TUBES • • • • Serve as a pathway for the ovum to the uterus Are the site of fertilization by the male sperm Often referred to as the oviducts or uterine tubes Fertilized egg takes approximately 6 to 10 days to travel through the fallopian tube to implant in the uterine lining UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 18
  19. 19. UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 19
  20. 20. OVARIES • The female gonads or sex glands • They develop and expel an ovum each month • A woman is born with approximately 400,000 immature eggs called follicles • During a lifetime a woman release @ 400 to 500 fully matured eggs for fertilization • The follicles in the ovaries produce the female sex hormones, progesterone and estrogen • These hormones prepare the uterus for implantation of the fertilized egg UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 20
  21. 21. BREASTS • Organs of sexual arousal • Contain mammary glands • Consist of connective tissue that serves as support • Each breast contain 15-25 clusters called lobes • Each lobule is connected by ducts that open into the nipples • The nipples are made up of erectile tissue • The pigmented around the nipples are called the areola • • • Breast size is determined primarily by heredity Size also depends on the existing fat and glandular tissue Breasts may exhibit cyclical changes, including increased swelling and tenderness prior to menstruation • • Benign breast changes refer to fibrocystic disease Lumps or masses that are noncancerous UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 21
  22. 22. UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 22
  23. 23. BREAST SELFEXAMINATION • Women need to examine their breasts monthly BSE • This is a proactive approach to detect possible breast cancer • A supplement to clinical exams and mammography • Best time for a BSE is a week after menstruation UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 23
  24. 24. BREAST SELF EXAM UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 24
  25. 25. MENSTRUATION • Menarch, the onset of menstruation signals the bodily changes that transform a female body • Average age is 12.8 • Amount of bleeding varies from woman to woman • Expulsion of blood clots • • • Blood color can vary from bright red to dark maroon Usually occurs every 25 to 32 days Women can experience fluid retention, cramping, mood swings, weight gain, breast tenderness, diarrhea, and constipation UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 25
  26. 26. UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 26
  27. 27. PITUITARY HORMONES UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 27
  28. 28. FOLLICLE DEVELOPMENT UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 28
  29. 29. OVULATION UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 29
  30. 30. OVARIAN HORMONES UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 30
  31. 31. SEX HORMONES • Follicle stimulating hormone FHS• Luteinizing hormone LHsignals ovulation • Estrogen- produced throughout the menstrual cycle • Progesterone-produced during second half of cycle • Contributes to thickening of the endometrium which is shed during menstrual phase if fertilization does not take place • Both FHS and LH are produced in the pituitary gland • Both estrogen and progesterone are produced by the follicles in the ovaries UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 31
  32. 32. DYSMENORRHEA • Painful menstrual cramps • Painful menses without evidence of a physical abnormality • Believed to be normal body response to uterine contractions • Other symptoms : • Nausea, vomiting, gastrointestinal disturbances, and fainting • Prostaglandins cause forceful, frequent uterine contractions called cramps • Fibroids, polyps, IUD, PID, or endometriosis UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 32
  33. 33. ENDOMETRIOSIS • Common cause of dysmennorrhea, dyspareunia, and infertility • Endometrium fragments and lodges in other parts of the pelvic cavity • Causes inflammation, bleeding, scarring,and adhesions • Causes are still being studied • Treated through hormonal therapy, laparoscopic surgery, or major surgical management UNIT 3: FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM 33

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