• Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with
the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily. It is also
commonly used to refer to the variety of pasta dishes.
Typically pasta is made from an unleavened dough of
a durum wheat flour mixed with water and formed into
sheets or various shapes, then cooked and served in
any number of dishes. It can be made with flour from
other cereals orgrains, and eggs may be used instead of
water. Pastas may be divided into two broad
categories, dried (pasta secca) and fresh (pasta fresca).
Chicken eggs frequently dominate as the source of the
liquid component in fresh pasta
• In the 1st century BC writings of Horace, lagana (Sing.: laganum)
were fine sheets of fried dough and were an everyday foodstuff.
Writing in the 2nd century Athenaeus of Naucratis provides a recipe
for lagana which he attributes to the 1st century Chrysippus of
Tyana: sheets of dough made of wheat flour and the juice of
crushed lettuce, then flavoured with spices and deep-fried in oil. An
early 5th century cookbook describes a dish called lagana that
consisted of layers of dough with meat stuffing, a possible ancestor
of modern-daylasagna. However, the method of cooking these
sheets of dough does not correspond to our modern definition of
either a fresh or dry pasta product, which only had similar basic
ingredients and perhaps the shape. The first concrete information
concerning pasta products in Italy dates from the 13th or 14th
• Pasta products contain milled wheat, water, and occasionally eggs and/or optional
• Pasta manufacturers typically use milled durum wheat (semolina, durum granulars,
and durum flour) in pasta production, although farina and flour from common
wheat are occasionally used.
• Most pastamanufacturers prefer semolina, which consists of fine particles of
uniform size and produces thehighest quality pasta product. The water used in
pasta production should be pure, free from off-
• flavors, and suitable for drinking. Also, since pasta is produced below
• water should be used of low bacterial count. Eggs (fresh eggs, frozen eggs, dry
eggs, egg yolks, or dried egg solids) are added to pasta to make egg noodles or egg
spaghetti and to improve the nutritional quality and richness of the pasta.
• Small amounts of optional ingredients, such as salt,celery, garlic, and bay leafs,
may also be added to pasta to enhance flavor. Disodium phosphate maybe used to
shorten cooking time. Other ingredients, such as gum gluten, glyceryl
monostearate, andegg whites, may also be added. All optional ingredients must be
clearly labeled on the package.
Food Value in Pasta
• “Low carb” dieters shun pasta for it’s high carbohydrate
content, but for the rest of us, pasta is a nearly fat-free
food that provides valuable nutrients like iron,
riboflavin, thiamine and niacin, and six of the eight
essential amino acids.
• Pasta is also a vehicle for healthy sauces made
with vegetables, shellfish and lean meats. To make
pasta healthier, switch to a high-fiber whole wheat
pasta, such as Whole Foods 365 Organic Whole Wheat
Pasta or Barilla Pasta made with 51% whole grain. But
the real issue with pasta is the portions people eat: one
cup of cooked pasta provides 200 calories but people
commonly eat much more.
Types of Pasta
• Shape: Short tubes with a slight bend in the
• Recommended sauce pairings: meat, cream,
seafood, or vegetable based
• Adults and kids alike enjoy this shape in the
American favorite, Macaroni & Cheese.
Additionally, because this shape is hollow, it
pairs nicely with a variety of sauces.
• Shape: Broad, flat, rectangle
• Pronunciation: luh-ZAHN-yuh
• Italian for: "Cooking pot"
• Recommended sauce pairings: meat, cream, and
vegetable based sauces
• Put a creative culinary spin on your next meal.
This shape is popularly used in recipes that
require baking. Fillings might include: meat,
ricotta, seafood, chicken, or spinach.
• Shape: Hollow tubes. Ends are cut at a diagonal
so they are pointed.
• Pronunciation: PEN-nay
• Italian for: "Quills" or feather"
• Recommended sauce pairings: chunky meat,
chunky vegetable, cream, or oil based
• Penne compliments virtually every sauce and is
exceptional when paired with a chunky sauce.
Penne is ridged and ideal to lock-in flavor. This
shape is great for baking dishes, too.
• Shape: Short, tight, spiral pasta
• Pronunciation: roh-TEE-nee
• Italian for: "Twist"
• Recommended sauce pairings: meat, cream,
vegetable, and oil based
• Originating in Northern Italy, this shape pairs
nicely with sauces full of flavor. The tight spiral
locks-in the flavor allowing the shape to pair with
both simple and sophisticated sauces. Children
enjoy this fun shape. Also, these shapes are great
when used in pasta salads.
• Shape: Variety of sizes, shape of a sea shell
• Recommended sauce pairings: meat, cream,
vegetable, and oil based
• Put a creative culinary spin on your next meal by
adding shells to a variety of dishes. Fill large shells
with meat, cheese, seafood, chicken, or
vegetables. Large Shells are good for baking
dishes. Toss mid-sized Shells with chunky sauces.
Add Small Shells to soups, pasta salads, or
• Shape: Long, thin, round shape
• Pronunciation: spuh-GEHT-ee
• Italian for: "Little strings"
• Recommended sauce pairings: meat, seafood,
vegetable, or oil base.
• Spaghetti, originally from Naples, is one of the
most versatile and popular shapes. Spaghetti
shapes compliment a variety of sauces.
Classification based on End Use
• Baked -Winter Greens Lasagne or Baked Radicchio and Mozzarella
Type of Pasta - Spaghetti / Macaroni / Fusilli
• Butter/Oil -sage brown butter or aglio e olio:
• Type of pasta - Penne/Macaroni/ Fusilli
• Cream/Cheese -cacio e pepe or green garlic cream sauce
• Type of pasta -Spaghetti/Thin noodles
• Meat -Wild Boar Ragu or Ragu alla Bolognese:
• Type of pasta -Spaghetti/Fusill
• Pasta/salad - salad with zucchini and pine nuts-fine pasta
• Type of pasta - Pasta Salad with Spinach, Olives, and Mozzarella
• Pesto -arugula pesto, sun-dried tomatoes, and pine nuts
• -parsley, walnut, and black olive pesto
Classification based on End Use
• Type of pasta Fusilli
• Seafood -San Marzano red clam sauce or clams and
• Type of pasta Spaghetti/Capellinin/Calamani
• Soup -Minestrone, Pasta e Fagioli,
• Type of pasta - substitute for the rice in this chicken soup
• Tomato -Basic Tomato Sauce or raw tomato sauce
(marinate tomatoes and garlic in oil for a few minutes, then
toss with cooked pasta and torn basil)
• Type of pasta - Penne/Spaghetti/Capellini
• Vegetable -Eggplant-Pepper Tomato Sauce
• Type of pasta - Macaroni/Penne/Spaghetti
• Pasta manufacturing machines were made since
the 1600s across the coast of Sanremo. The
extrusion press produced large amounts of
uniform pastas. The consistency of shapes and
texture of the pasta manufactured by the
extrusion press is believed to be superior to hand
made pasta. This technology has spread to other
areas including Genoa, Apulia, Brindisi, Bari,
and Tuscany. By 1867, Buitoni Company in
Sansepolcro, Tuscany in the upper Tiber Valley
became one of the most successful and well-
known pasta manufacturers in the world
• Durum wheat is milled into semolina, durum
granular, or durum flour using roll mills.
• Semolina milling is unique in that the objective is
to prepare granular middlings with a minimum of
• flour production. Grain milling is discussed in AP-
42 Section 9.9.1, Grain Elevators and Processes.
• After the wheat is milled, it is mixed with water,
eggs, and any other optional ingredients.
• In the mixing operation, water is added to the
milled wheat in a mixing trough to produce
dough with a moisture content of approximately
31 percent. Eggs and any optional ingredients
may also be added. Most modern pasta presses
are equipped with a vacuum chamber to remove
air bubbles from the pasta before extruding. If
the air is not removed prior to extruding, small
bubbles will form in the pasta which diminish the
mechanical strength and give the finished
product a white, chalky appearance.
• After the dough is mixed, it is transferred to the extruder. The
extrusion auger not only forces the dough through the die, but it also
kneads the dough into a homogeneous mass, controls the rate of
production, and influences the overall quality of the finished product.
Although construction and dimension of extrusion augers vary by
equipment manufacturers, most modern presses have sharp-edged
augers that have a uniform pitch over their entire length.
• The auger fits into a grooved extrusion barrel, which helps the dough
move forward and reduces friction between the auger and the inside
of the barrel. Extrusion barrels are equipped with a water cooling
jacket to dissipate the heat generated during the extrusion process.
The cooling jacket also helps to maintain a constant extrusion
temperature, which should be approximately 51°C (124°F). If the
dough is too hot (above 74°C [165°F]), the pasta will be damaged.
• Drying is the most difficult and critical step to control in
the pasta production process. The objective of drying is
to lower the moisture content of the pasta from
approximately 31 percent to 12 to 13 percent so that
the finished product will be hard, retain its shape, and
store without spoiling.
• Most pasta drying operations use a preliminary drier
immediately after extrusion to prevent the pasta from
sticking together. Predrying hardens the outside
surface of the pasta while keeping the inside soft and
plastic. A final drier is then used to remove most of the
moisture from the product.
• Drying temperature and relative humidity increments are important
factors in drying. Since the outside surface of the pasta dries more
rapidly than the inside, moisture gradients develop across the
surface to the interior of the pasta. If dried too quickly, the pasta
will crack, giving the product a poor appearance and very low
mechanical strength. Cracking can occur during the drying process
or as long as several weeks after the product has left the drier. If the
pasta is dried too slowly, it tends to spoil or become moldy during
the drying process.
• Therefore, it is essential that the drying cycle be
tailored to meet the requirements of each type of product. If the
drying cycle has been successful, the pasta will be firm but also
flexible enough so that it can bend to a considerable degree before
• Packaging keeps the product free from contamination,
protects the pasta from damage during shipment and
storage, and displays the product favorably. The
principal packaging material for noodles is the
cellophane bag, which provides moisture-proof
protection for the product and is used easily on
automatic packaging machines, but is difficult to stack
on grocery shelves. Many manufacturers utilize boxes
instead of bags to package pasta because boxes are
easy to stack, provide good protection for fragile pasta
products, and offer the opportunity to print advertising
that is easier to read than on bags.
Pasta Quality Evaluation
• Physical tests based on hardness and elasticity
are conducted . Please check my site :
• As a category in Italian cuisine, both dried and
fresh pastas are classically used in one of three
kinds of prepared dishes. As pasta asciutta (or
pastasciutta) cooked pasta is plated and served
with a complementary sauce or condiment. A
second classification of pasta dishes is pasta in
brodo in which the pasta is part of a soup-type
dish. A third category is pasta al forno in which
the pasta incorporated into a dish that is
Pasta Equipment Suppliers
• Italy remains the node
• Please check for details on my site :
• Italy remains numero uno
Which are the popular international PASTA companies ?
• Da Vinci http://www.davincipasta.com/
• Ronzoni http://ronzoni.newworldpasta.com/
• De Cecco http://www.dececco.it/EN/The-
• Granoro http://www.granoro.it/
• Skinner http://skinner.newworldpasta.com/
• Hodgson Mill http://www.hodgsonmill.com/
• In 1881, a young boy emigrated from the small fishing village of San Fruttuoso, Italy, to the
United States. His name would become synonymous with a kitchen cupboard staple and one
of the most recognized brands in America: RONZONI. Emanuele Ronzoni was in his teens
when he got started in the macaroni trade in New York. Just eleven years after arriving in the
U.S., he launched his own small macaroni company with a partner and, later, joined forces
with two others to create the Atlantic Macaroni Company in Queens, NY. In 1915, he went
into business on his own, starting the company that still bears his name, the Ronzoni
Macaroni Company. By the time World War I ended, RONZONI and its famous Genoa-style, or
fancy-cut shaped noodles, had firmly established itself as one of the best-known brands in
the east. New production plants were built in Long Island City, NY. By employing the latest
manufacturing technologies of the day and committing to only quality ingredients,
RONZONI became the number one pasta in the largest pasta market in the U.S., New York.
Emanuele Ronzoni was eventually succeeded by his son. The 1950s and 1960s marked
periods of significant growth. RONZONI macaroni became available in most states along the
eastern and western seaboards and Puerto Rico. Today, RONZONI is part of the New World
Pasta family of brands, a leading dry pasta manufacturer in the United States. New World
Pasta brands include Ronzoni® Healthy Harvest®, Ronzoni® Smart Taste® and Ronzoni Garden
Delight®. - See more at:
• Granoro is synonymous with quality and genuineness. This 100% Italian pasta
producer is one of the most important companies in Puglia, land of sun and
tradition. On May 10, 2013 it celebrated the 100th birthday of its founder who has
dedicated his life to the production of high quality pasta. Attilio Mastromauro is
one of the Italian pasta industry’s pioneers, with a passionate story. He immigrated
to New York in 1921 when he was a child, but decided to return to Italy when he
had just become an adult. His decision to go back to the small town of Corato,
Puglia, was an important step and he immediately started work at the family
company. Under his management the factory grew and became Granoro, created
and led with the help of his two children, as well as an “enlarged family” of loyal
colleagues. Granoro pasta over the years has known how to find good positioning
from local country shops to immense hypermarkets. Today, under the leadership
of daughters Marina and Daniela, Granoro has become Italy’s fifth largest pasta
producer, bringing its products to tables in Canada, South America, Australia, China
and Japan. –
• See more at: http://www.greatitalianfoodtrade.com/italian-food-and-companies-
It Started With a Mill. And a Man Named Hodgson.
• Alva Hodgson, a pioneering Missouri millwright, and the sturdy
water-driven grain mill that came to bear his name: there begins
the Hodgson Mill legacy.
• Deep in the rugged heart of the Missouri Ozarks, the original mill
site came to life in 1837. A second mill, built in 1861, burned down
as Missouri endured the chaos of the Civil War. Finally, the sturdy
building you see in the picture was constructed in 1882. Sited
against a tree-covered limestone bluff, over an abundantly flowing
clear spring, it was this fine paddle wheel mill that Alva Hodgson
made his own.
• A master millwright, Alva Hodgson was an expert in grinding grain.
As the mill's business grew, Alva later partnered in the operation
with his brother, George. After operating successfully for thirteen
years, Alva imported traditional French buhrstones and drew up
plans for a more modern turbine-drive mill, and hired an engineer
to develop and implement the needed machinery.
It Started With a Mill. And a Man Named Hodgson.
• The business thrived, and the old Hodgson Mill continued to grind grains
through the early decades of the 1900’s, long after founder Alva Hodgson
had passed. Alva’s name had become synonymous with the mill itself, and
true to his nature, the mill kept working while most traditional stone
gristmills across America were shuttered. In 1969, the still-producing mill
company became officially known as Hodgson Mill, Inc.
• Over the years, as the popularity of naturally milled grains grew, Hodgson
Mill enhanced its line of milled flours to begin producing a variety of
wholesome, whole-grain products. By the 1970s, interest in natural, non-
processed foods was heating up across the country, and the old mill was
straining to keep up with orders. Hodgson Mill expanded and modernized
its milling facilities in 1976 to keep pace.
• Hodgson Mill has come of age in the 21st century, but our roots still lie
with the tradition and quality that master millwright Alva Hodgson
established so many years ago. We're still stone-grinding grains, taking
away nothing, adding nothing, and keeping a tradition of natural
Trends & Developments
• Pasta From Turkey
• Turkey is currently one of the most important producers of pasta in the
world. Turkish brands that are engaged in exporting their products to
numerous countries throughout the world are steadily increasing the
volume of goods exported with each year that passes. Turkey is currently
ranked as the second largest exporter of pasta in the world after Italy.
When the quota imposed by the European Union is lifted, Turkey’s
chances of being ranked first seems highly probable.
Turkish pasta is preferred throughout the world for the numerous
advantages it offers. Turkish pasta which is produced from the highest
quality of durum wheat is differentiated from the many types of pasta
produced throughout the world in terms of taste and nutritional values.
Turkish pasta, with the unforgettable taste that it leaves on palates, is
among the indispensable ingredients of world cuisine.
Pasta from Turkey
• Various pasta producers throughout the world import the
semolina that is used in pasta production. Unlike these
countries, Turkey produces its own semolina. This causes
the cost of durum wheat used in production to decrease
and paves the way for producing higher quality products at
more affordable prices.
• Another advantage that Turkey offers is undoubtedly
logistics and the country’s suitable geopolitical location that
speeds up transportation. Turkey, as a country that
connects the continents of Europe, Asia and Africa together
with the shortest route, has the advantage of being able to
export to every region in the world at relatively low costs.
• De Rica tomatoes are a historic Italian brand. They have been in Italy’s kitchens
and families since 1912, and have always been associated with the values of
freshness, flavor and wholesomeness across the entire product line. The same
characteristics are as present today as they have ever been, with a new series of
tomato-based products that are both simple and natural, faithful to quality with a
new brand image and packaging.
With its headquarters in Emilia Romagna, the company is one of the most
important tomato transformers in Italy. Only the most flavorful and best varieties
are chosen to become the authentic De Rica diced, pulped or sauced tomatoes.
The production process also ensures that the texture, color and aroma of the raw
ingredients is not lost.
The range of products make an ideal base for a variety of recipes, as well as a great
way to discover the bounty of the fresh Italian tomato.
• - See more at: http://www.greatitalianfoodtrade.com/italian-food-and-companies-
Import Duties on Pasta in India
• What are import duties on pasta – 45.19%
• Basic duty 30% ; CVD 6% ; Central Excise Duty
Cess 3% ; Customes Education Cess 3% ; Spl
CVD – Spl Duty 4%
What are the sauces used with pasta
• What are the sauces used with various kinds of pasta
• Easy pasta sauces
• Chunky Tomato Sauce: Peel, deseed and roughly dice
really ripe tomatoes. Heat some olive oil and sizzle
some garlic in it. Put the tomato in, add salt to taste stir
a minute, toss in torn basil leaves and serve over pasta
with some goat's cheese or feta crumbled on top.
• Herbed Cream Sauce : Heat a cup of thin cream gently.
Add salt and a handful of fresh, chopped herbs like dill.
Toss hot, freshly cooked pasta in the sauce.
What is the size of the Indian pasta market ?
• The market is 5200 tons per annum and
growing at 26% every year
Who is the target consumer ?
• Two profiles
• 1.Upper class who are already exposed to
• 2.Middle class who are already tasting the low
• 3.Creating new customers in the upper class
• 4.Creating new customers in the lower class
• 5.Identifying high and medium end restaurants
who could be stocking pasta and evaluating their
requirements and gaps
Made in India
Although initially mostly imported with brands such as Barilla, Agnesi dominating
retail stores, today you will see Bambino and Field Fresh Agro’s Del Monte taking
up prominent shelf space in the pasta section. Today there are more than 30 pasta
brands in India. The pasta craze also led to FMCG companies launching instant
pasta variants in the country like Nestle’s Pazzta, ITC’s Sunfeast Pasta Treat,
Bambino’s Passta and the likes.
But over 75 per cent of the market is dominated by dry pasta segment. Now,
jumping into the dry pasta fray is yet another Indian player – Victoria Foods, a
division of Rajdhani group, a pulses and wheat company. The company has
invested about Rs 40 crore in a pasta project and launched its brand
Banchetto. From a single machine producing 30 tonnes a day, it is looking at
tripling capacity in the next two years. Rakesh Jain, Managing Director, Rajdhani
Group says, “Pasta will soon be sold at street corners, in the same way noodles is
sold today”. - See more at: http://www.businessworld.in/news/after-
Imported brands still have a large demand in the market,
around 5,200 tonnes, according to VN Dalmia, Chairman,
Dalmia Continental. Leornado pasta, a Dalmia Continental
product imported from Italy, has been actively promoting
pasta for Indian food. For instance, it has come out with
‘Pasta Makhani’, ‘Pasta Do Pyaaza’ and‘Pasta Achaari’. It
has also distributed recipe books and conducted demos of
these recipes nationwide in an attempt to make pasta less
alien and easier to integrate into an Indian diet. “Indian
tastes are certainly changing rapidly. Italian food is now the
third most popular cuisine here, after Indian and Chinese,”
Spreading Into Tier 2 Towns
The popularity of pastas was initially only in the big towns and cities who had
access to the foreign food. But following the trail led by players like Domino’s Pizza,
which introduced its range of pastas in over 56 cities in 2009, the Italian stringy
delight is spreading fast into tier 2 towns now.
According to Jain, dried pasta is one of the fastest growing products in the
packaged foods category. And this popularity has given rise to a parallel market for
pasta sauces in the country.
In the last 2-3 years, the big cities have also seen a demand for whole wheat
pastas with the health conscious city dweller realizing that the maida that goes
into most pastas made in India isn’t the healthiest of options. And companies are
cashing in on this opportunity, with this healthy alternative being priced 70-80 per
cent higher than the regular pasta.
- See more at: http://www.businessworld.in/news/after-
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