2. COFFEE HISTORY An Old African Legend Coffee plant has been discovered much earlier than the civilized world got to know it. This memorable event occurred approximately in the 800 A.D. According to an African legend, Kaldi, the goat shepherd, had been grazing his flock when suddenly he noticed that the goats began dancing around coffee bushes growing nearby. This seemed strange to their herdsman who decided to taste these magic berries that agitated his cattle so much. Soon he was also been caught in the general hilarity
3. Background Coffee is the second-most traded commodity in the world after crude oil, and is cultivated across 80 nations spanning Central and South America, Africa, and Asia. The key coffee producing and exporting nations are Brazil, Vietnam, Columbia, Indonesia, Ethiopia, an d India, among others. Brazil is the world‘s largest producer, exporter and consumer of coffee, while USA and European nations constitute key importing markets for coffee.
4. Background On account of coffee being traded widely, any alteration in the demand-supply dynamics of above mentioned producing and exporting nations largely impacts international coffee prices that have recorded continuous uptrend from CY2006 to CY2011, with Arabica prices peaking at record highs of approximately 300 cents/lb during mid-2011. The trend in international prices also impacts domestic prices to a large extent as India exports more than two-thirds of its coffee output.
5. HISTORY The Arabic Coffee Empire After just a couple of centuries (circa 1000 and till 1600 A.D.), coffee moved to Arabic countries. Namely there it took its modern shape - the beans were first roasted and brewed for drinking but before this popular method came into life, the beans were pressed with animal fat and milk and rolled into balls. The Arabs took these beads with them while traveling as some kind of energetic remedy. Only after a couple of centuries the Muslims discovered that the beans could be drank and prepared but this beverage is still far from the modern drink.
6. COFFEE HISTORY Coffee and a Piece of Smuggling According to an old legend, a half wanderer and the other half contrabandist of an Indian origin named Baba Budan left Mecca – the cradle of Islamic religion, a shrine for pilgrimage- with the fruitful coffee seeds under his clothes. Thus coffee reached India.
7. COFFEE HISTORY Europe: The Thirst for Money At the beginning of the 17th century (in 1615) an Italian trader showed the world the coffee beverage brought from Turkey. But the product in its final shape wasn‘t worth a brass farthing in the judgment of the merchants who were eager for profit. Thus, the rush for the coffee seeds started.
8. COFFEE HISTORY The Way the Coffee Plant reached Martinique In circa 1714 Louis XIV received a coffee tree as a gift from the Dutch – for the Royal Botanical Garden in Paris. Some time later a naval officer Gabriel Mathieu de Clieu turned out to visit Paris on his voyage to Martinique. He was so eager to get some coffee tree clippings (but was not allowed) that even took the liberty to sneak into the Garden and steal a coffee branch. While on officer‘s travel to Martinique, a passenger impatient for capturing the coffee seedling broke down a stick from the cherished plant; the French ship was grappled by pirates, then the storm came down to them. All in all, the young mariner gave up a half of his fortune because of this magic tree. However, the shoot took its root deep into the Martinique soil and brought forth over 18 millions of trees in circa 50 years. Its offspring later will contribute to its popularization into Latin America‘s mass market.
9. COFFEE HISTORY All Roads Lead to…Brazil This event might never happen if it were not for the desire of the Brazilian government in the 1727 to enter the coffee market. Naturally there was no legal way to do that and Lt. Col. Francisco de Melo Palheta enters the scene. His mission was to obtain coffee seedlings by any means and he did it but not without the help of a woman. Being dispatched to French Guiana, the brave colonel starts his coffee mission and goes easy choosing the least resistance – the governor‘s spouse. The officer‘s sweetheart falls into net of the charming Brazilian and convinced by him that several coffee branches will remind Pahleta of her, gives the artful man the coffee seedlings hidden in a bouquet of flowers. From this moment rises the glorious Brazilian coffee empire – the absolute coffee leader that introduces coffee to the mass market. The curtain falls, the auditorium burst into ovations.
10. Growing Coffee beans or more correct would be to say coffee berries of red color grow on a tree that reaches circa 13 feet and looks like an evergreen bush. In fact a coffee plant can reach up to 16 and even 40 feet tall if left untouched but it is usually kept up to 10-13 feet for an easier cropping and a richer harvest. A coffee tree is considered to be a long-liver as it produces coffee beans for over a period of 60 years and can live even longer up to 100 years. In its first two years of life the coffee plant blossoms with white jasmine-like flowers that emit an unforgettable sweet-scented odor. But the tree gives its first harvest only after 3-6 years of living – red berries much like cherries that need almost 9 months to mature. One tree gives only sufficient harvest of berries to make a half a kilogram of roasted coffee. Thus the farmers need to grow thousands of trees on their plantation to earn real money.
12. Growing As it has been mentioned before, the coffee plant has the tendency to grow tall. If let it grow wild, the tree will not only be difficult for picking up the berries but will also give a slender harvest. It should be noted that there are hundreds of various coffee plants in the universe and only two species – Arabica andRobusta – can be used for coffee producing. The tree naturally grows in the shadow but it is intentionally planted under the direct sunshine to provide more fruit.It needs constant pruning as well – to be strong in order not to bend under the strain of the fruit; to be in range of the pickers. The excess branches suck the lifeblood out of the coffee plant not allowing it to give good yield. Fertilization is another important factor when growing coffee. The soil constantly drains and is no longer beneficial for the coffee, thus the farmers are constantly applying different fertilizers so that their trees don‘t become impoverished and are able to provide enough strength for their fruitage.
13. Growing And of course the watering and the temperature are not the least important factors when cultivating coffee.It is grown in the warm climate that Africa, some Arabic countries and Latin America can provide, therefore it‘s not surprising at all that the coffee plant is cultivated namely on the territory of the mentioned above countries. The ideal temperature is 65 to 75 degrees Fahrenheit all year round. The water amount should also be abundant. In the areas when coffee grows naturally, there are a lot of rains, such as blossom showers and monsoons which stimulate the coffee tree blossom. But besides this, there is some artificial flooding that supplements the natural watering: Sprinkler irrigation systems are used together with blossom showers; drip irrigation systems help yielding coffee crops as well as other intercrops. Thus if a farmer puts his trust in the forces of nature only, he will never have a good harvest and won‘t be able to export his coffee worldwide and thus be a good trader.
14. Harvesting The phase following growing is called harvesting, i.e. when the ripen coffee beans are selected by pickers or special mechanisms. As it has been mentioned before, the coffee tree needs approximately 9 months for its fruit to mellow. However the process of reaping carries a certain character - the coffee berries mature unevenly throughout the cluster, thus the pickers have to be constantly engaged in the process of harvesting. They gather the first batch of the yield, than comes the time for the second lot, and so and so forth (Except Brazil where all coffee beans ripen simultaneously and are picked in one step).
15. Selecting Coffee Berries The first one is the picking or the selective picking method. This way of collecting coffee is considered to be the most effective one as it allows a careful harvesting - only the fully ripen and the best fruit are selected by this way so that green beans can be selected later on.
16. Stripping Stripping is another picking technique that is widely used namely in Brazil as the coffee berries grow there evenly and don‘t need a thorough and repeated selecting as they do in other coffee growing countries. The method consists in picking the whole cluster when it is ripen for the most part, instead of waiting for each bean. Thus, the coffee harvesting here is much easier and usually finishes much more rapidly which allows Brazilian farmers be a little ahead their competitors.
17. Mechanical Coffee Harvesting The mechanical coffee harvesting is being considered as a very successful method. It functions very carefully and faster than the previous picking methods, is a modern way of selecting coffee and needs less people for controlling the process. However, as it has been said before the selective picking is still considered the best as each berry is given individual attention at a lesser damage.
18. Processing-Dry Milling Dry milling – is usually practiced in the countries where the conditions for coffee growing are not ideal and the coffee berries are of a poorer quality. The process occurs in the following manner: after the harvesting coffee beans are dried under the direct sunlight or by special drying machines until they gain the appropriate humidity level which is 10-12%. Thus they are already prepared for the roasting.
19. Processing-Wet Milling Wet milling – is a more complex method as in comparison with the previous one, still it is the preferred way of drying and provides the higher quality coffee beans. Harvest is still in process but the drying already begins. When the first crop is gathered, it is shifted to a special pulping machine that separates the peeling from the berry and after that the bean is allowed to dry out or is sent to a particular fermentation reservoir where it stays for a while for fermentation. The next step is to carefully wash the beans so that any unnecessary remnants are fully taken off. Only than the beans are dried under the sun or in the special drying machines. In result, we have the green coffee bean that is still not the final product – it still needs roasting to be grinded for the coffee beverage itself.Wrapped in vellum, the coffee beans are stored in special ventilated dry warehouses and waiting for their turn to be roasted and grinded for the people‘s beloved beverage – coffee drink, espresso and many others.
20. Roasting Some people who make coffee drink from the raw coffee beans would say that this phase is useless. They are right in some way – the beverage prepared from the green berries is very fragrant with specific taste and a lot of acidity that lessens with the subsequent roasting. It may seem that this process is very easy and directed towards the coffee roast only. But the whole operation isn‘t as simple as it looks like. While roasting coffee berries, such components as aroma, savor, taste, aftertaste, bitterness and body are created, equilibrated, eliminated or improved. The same is with the coffee bean itself- it is not simply roasted till a certain degree, it is subjected to various chemical processing and has many roasting levels
21. Grinding Coarse – granulated corpuscles that differ much from the instant or ground coffee grain. It‘s almost like brewing the whole beans that have been a little smashed into pieces. This kind of milling is better to be brewed in French press or a Percolator. Medium – this grind doesn‘t differ a lot from the previous one. However the coffee particles are smaller and look like coarse- grained sand or sugar. This grind should be brewed in Drip Filtration coffee machine. Fine – the third grade of the coffee grind, more delicate by touch, still not the powder that we get in Turkish milling. Fine grind can be used in almost each drip coffee maker, however not all filters work the same and it (the grind) will probably need a delicate one, such as Neapolitan flip-drip.
22. Grinding Extra Fine – almost ideal coffee grind with a gentle texture and very close to the fifth and the last Turkish grind. This milling is used while brewing espresso in an espresso coffee making machine, naturally. Turkish – the perfect powder comparable with the high-grade flour. The interesting thing about this kind of coffee grind is that it is milled with the help of mortar and pestle in order to get the finest consistence that is inappropriate for the other four types. Namely this antiquated method brings the beans to the stage they turn into powder or dust, with other words. The coffee brewed from this grind is extremely heavy with thick consistence that will not be appreciated at its true value by those who prefer more weak drink.
23. Coffee Grinders There are two principal coffee grinding devices – Blade and Burr grinder. The difference between them is their prices – the blade coffee grinder is cheaper than the blade one; their devices – the blade works in such a way that the roasted beans are chopped, thus you‘ll never get an extra fine coffee grind in such an appliance. The granules are of an uneven form that turns out in a different taste that may not be appreciated by the drinker. One more aspect while milling coffee beans in a blade grinder is that the type of the grind depends on the period of time the beans are grinded – the longer they stay in the blade device, the more burned taste you‘ll get in your coffee. The burr grinder is way much better and is highly appreciated throughout the coffee world. Let‘s begin with the fact that there are two types of it - wheel and conical burr:
24. Coffee Grinders Wheel burr is the cheapest device from these two. This type of burr can be very noisy because of its wheel that is rotating way too fast. And as a result of this fast rotation, the final mass is messy. Conical burr is the best grinding device ever. If you chose such type of milling, the high-quality coffee is guaranteed. The wheel in such a mechanism spins slower, thus resulting in less noise and better quality grind. No matter what kind of roasted bean you chose to be grinded, it will be carefully blended and will result in a fine aromatic coffee substance that will please even the most exacting drinker. The only lack of such a device is its expense, thus not everyone can afford it. However, no matter what coffee milling or grinder you choose, the taste of the final drink is the only thing that matters the most. Some like burnt coffee drink, the others prefer coffee from coarse grind, and so on. Thus, everything leads to the personal preference and taste.
25. Why coffee is blended ? 1. Signature blends – companies specializing both in online and coffee lounge services tend to keep their clients loyalty by offering them something unique and recognizable that is associated only with that specific enterprise. In such a way act such companies as Starbucks or Gloria Jean‘s – a coffee drinker knows that the coffee he/she drinks here never loses its quality and tasting notes. This also stimulates customers who decided to find some new place and try something different always return to them. 2. Consistency blends – such coffee blends are made of large quantity of different coffee beans. All those beans are components of a complex flavor and if a bean or a couple of them is missing, no one will notice the difference. 3. Inexpensive blends – Robusta beans mixed with Arabica beans in order to create a good qualitative coffee at a lesser price. 4. Single origin blends - coffee compounded from various beans of one origin. Such kind of blend is prepared from several beans harvested from different territories belonging to one geographical zone. The result of such a mixing is similar flavor and taste characteristics in the coffee drink finish. (Do not mix up with unblended coffees which are also called single origin coffee beans).
26. Brewing What temperature is ideal for brewing coffee? The perfect grade is considered to be between 195º to 202 ºF (~82º -85ºC), after the water in the coffee machine reached that level, pour the grinded coffee into it and brew. Brewing period - the time depends on the device you choose (that can automatically decide when to stop brewing), the type of your coffee grinding and your personal preference. So there are no strict intervals while brewing coffee, just make sure you pay careful attention to the process and keep it under total control.
27. Brewing Thus these are the three rules of thumb in order to make a good high-quality coffee. But do not forget some other, one would think, insignificant moments: • Grind the exact amount of coffee that you will be able to drink right now because the coffee aroma has the ability to quickly evaporate • The same is about brewing – boil only so much coffee you are capable or wish to drink at the moment. Don‘t reheat the rest because it wouldn‘t be fresh anymore, thus its beneficial features will turn into toxic ones; • Another moment is to never use the coffee grounds for twice. The pleasant taste along with flavors is already obtained; the only left is acid elements that don‘t give any pleasure to your palate.
28. Auto Drip Brewing Auto drip – one of the most widespread ways of brewing coffee in the US. The technique is pretty simple: pour the boiled water over the coffee grinding and let the brew flow out the coffee maker‘s bottom. This technique is very good and may give you a wonderful cup of coffee; the only concern about this is that the drip machine doesn‘t maintain the right temperature which is essential and the paper filters these coffee makers are supplied with are no good. As to the temperature, you should be very attentive while brewing coffee and as to the filter, get yourself a gold- plated (reusable one) that will serve you for a long time and provide you with a high quality coffee drink.
29. Concentrate Brewing The next technique is called Concentrate Brewing and is famous all over the world, especially in Latin America. It also begins to gain popularity in the United States as well. The principle consists in the following – a large quantity of coffee grounds is brewed with a little water amount that results in a thick bitter drink. Coffee boiled in such way can be served either hot or cold. If a person wishes a cold cup of concentrate coffee, the beverage should sit a day or two and only after that it can be served. Such coffee has a light consistence and loses some part of its aroma and taste; however it has its own adherents.
30. French Press Brewing French Press Brewing or Press Pot is certainly the most popular technique because of its numerous advantages. First of all, the person boiling coffee in such a device has total control upon it and the final beverage is the joint collaboration of the machine and the man. The coffee type brewed in such an appliance is coarse - when put in a water bottle, the water of a preferable temperature is poured down the grounds and the upper piece is put back to its place. After the brewing is done, the mesh wire filter or plunger is pressed into the coffee grounds extracting a kind of coffee liquor up. Thanks to the meshy filter system, this fluid along with all the coffee particles that have been disintegrated and not only will later be poured down into your cup to give you incomparable delight. Due to the close cooperation of water with grounds and a little prolonged period of brewing, the coffee concentrate results in smooth liquor with a full body, a lot of flavor and saturated palate. The only minus with using such a technique is that not all coarse grounds will be filtered by the cleaner which will end up in your cup. However the taste and aroma of such coffee drink are worth giving it a try.
31. Turkish Brewing Middle Eastern, "Turkish" or "Greek" – the name already implies the origin of this technique. For this brewing, the finest milling is used. The coffee is usually brewed with sugar but that is not the essential condition. Knowing the culture of Arabs, Greeks and Turks one will easily understand their adherence to various kinds of species – the East is famous for using them in all fields of life. This refers to coffee brewing as well. Cardamom is almost always present in all coffees prepared according to this Turkish or Greek technique. The coffee drink isn‘t subject to the filtration as in case with coffees prepared by other methods and is served with a savory dense opaque beverage. However this way of coffee brewing isn‘t very popular in the west and is seldom prepared as a kind of exotic drink.
32. Percolation Brewing The technique is a ceaseless brewage of coffee grind with boiling water which then turns into coffee liquor brewing the exhausted coffee grounds. One can say this is a non-waste production and helps save money. It‘s hard not to agree with this statement but just think about how much harm this technique brings to your health and the problem of economy will pale into insignificance. First of all, the fact that coffee is prepared with boiling water while the drink is ready at 195º - 205ºF (~82º -87ºC); then, repeatedly brewing the coffee liquor means that you‘ll receive a weak acid coal-black beverage that is far away from the original drink called coffee. In any case, this technique has right to existence as there are many people who like it and wouldn‘t stop drinking this kind of coffee beverage.
33. Vacuum Brewing The sixth and the least coffee brewing techniques is the most complicated one and unfortunately not the best way of preparing your coffee grounds; its name is Vacuum Brewing and you‘ll know why it is called like that in the short run. The device has a stylish look that consists in two glass spheres that are joined together with a leakproof seal. One of the balls (or even both) is fitted with a filter that serves as a mean of sorting the coffee grounds from the coffee liquor. The upper globe is intended for the coffee grind and the lower one is for boiling water in it. When the water begins to bubble, under the heat pressure it goes up a pipe joining the two glass balls to the coffee grounds. As soon as all water amount rose to the grounds, the device is taken off the fire and is giving time to chill; the pressure in the bottom part is decreased and the result is the coffee liquid sucked down into the lower globe. Your coffee is ready, it needs nothing more but to be poured into your cup. However, no ointment goes without a fly. The coffee grind turns into coffee drink at circa 212ºF (~90ºC) while the normal temperature for this is 195º-205ºF (~82º - 87ºC). And another concern is that the control over extraction period- this is the period when the water is in contact with the coffee ground – is very restricted. Thus the coffee fluid turns out to be not even and complete as it should be. However this technique is popular as well and the proof is the number of its adherents adoring the vacuum boiled coffee.
34. Coffee definitions Cappuccino is a coffee-based drink prepared with espresso, hot milk, and steamed milk foam. A cappuccino differs from a caffè latte in that it is prepared with much less steamed or textured milk than the caffè latte with the total of espresso and milk/foam making up between approximately 150 ml and 180 ml (5 and 6 fluid ounces). A cappuccino is traditionally served in a porcelain cup, which has far better heat retention characteristics than glass or paper. The foam on top of the cappuccino acts as an insulator and helps retain the heat of the liquid, allowing it to stay hotter longer.
35. Caffè latte Similar to the Portuguese galao, a latte is a a portion of espresso and steamed milk. , generally in a 2:1 ratio of milk to espresso, with a little foam on top. It was popularized by large coffee chains such as Starbucks.
36. Frappuccino Frappuccino is the name and registered trademark of a Starbucks blended ice beverage and a bottled coffee beverage. Common Flavors:: Coffee, Espresso, Caramel, Mocha Coconut, Mocha, White Chocolate, Java Chip, Caffe Vanilla, Peppermint Mocha, Mint Mocha Chip, Strawberries & Crème, Green Tea
37. Chai Latte Numerous coffee houses use the term chai latte to indicate that the steamed milk of a normal cafè latte is being flavoured with a spiced tea concentrate instead of with espresso.Add espresso shots for a "Dirty Chai Latte".
38. Coffee by Name Coffee Calypso 1/2 oz (15g) white rum 1/2 oz (15g) dark crème de cacao 5 oz (140g) coffee 1 1/2 oz (45g) whipped cream 1 tsp amaretto almond liqueur 1 tsp sugar Directions Pour coffee, rum and cacao into an Irish coffee cup and sweeten to taste. Float the cream on top, add amaretto, and serve. Cafe Don Juan 3/4 oz (20g) dark rum 1 oz (30g) Kahlua coffee liqueur 5 oz (140g) hot black coffee 1 1/2 oz (45g) whipped cream 1 tsp sugar Directions Rim an Irish coffee cup with lemon juice and sugar. Pour coffee and liquors into the cup and sweeten to taste. Float the cream on top, sprinkle with grated chocolate, and serve.
39. Coffee by Name Cafe Henry The Third 1/3 oz (8g) Galliano® herbal liqueur 1/3 oz (8g) Kahlua® coffee liqueur 1/3 oz (8g) Grand Marnier® orange liqueur 1/3 oz (8g) brandy 5 oz (140g) hot black coffee 3 oz (85g) whipped cream 1 tsp sugar Directions Rim a cup with sugar syrup and cinnamon sugar. Pour coffee and liquors and sweeten to taste. Float cream on top, and serve. Cafe Lola 4 warmed heatproof glasses 6 oz (170g) Tia Maria 4 oz (110g) dark rum Strong hot coffee, as needed Whipped cream as needed Directions Mix 1 1/2 oz (45g) Tia Maria and 1 oz (30g) rum in Each Heated Glass. Add coffee to Fill. Stir. Top with whipped cream.
40. Coffee by Name Prince Charles Coffee 3/4 oz (20g) Drambuie Scotch whisky 5 oz (140g) hot black coffee 1 1/2 oz (45g) whipped cream 1 tsp sugar Directions Pour Drambuie and coffee into an Irish coffee cup and sweeten to taste. Gently float the cream on top, and sprinkle with chocolate. Iced Constantine Coffee 2/3 cup ground dark roast coffee 4 cinnamon sticks, crushed or broken into small pieces 6 cups water 1/2 tsp. ground cardamon 2/3 cup honey Ice cubes Half-and-half or milk Directions Mix together the coffee and cinnamon sticks. Using the coffee-cinnamon mixture and the water, brew coffee by your customary brewing method. Add the cardamon and honey to the hot coffee and stir until the honey dissolves. Cover and chill. To serve, fill tall glasses with ice cubes. Pour about 2/3 cup-chilled coffee into each glass. Pass the half-and-half or milk. Serves 8.
41. Coffee by Mood An Irish Kiss 3/4 oz (20g) Baileys® Irish cream 3/4 oz (20g) Kahlua® coffee liqueur Coffee 1 1/2 oz (40g) whipped cream Directions Pour Baileys and Kahlua into Irish coffee glass; fill glass with hot coffee and top with whipped cream. Coffee Break 1/2 oz (15g) brandy 1/2 oz (15g) Kahlua coffee liqueur 5 oz (140g) hot black coffee 1 1/2 oz (40g) whipped cream 1 tsp sugar Directions Pour coffee and liquors into an Irish coffee cup and sweeten to taste. Float the cream on top, add a maraschino cherry, and serve.
42. Coffee by Mood Cafe DAmour 1 1/4 oz (35g) cognac 5 oz (140g) hot black coffee 1/2 lemon 1 cinnamon stick Sugar Directions Rim a coffee cup with lemon juice and sugar. Simmer coffee, zest of half a lemon, cinnamon stick and sugar (to taste) in a small saucepan. Heat and ignite cognac in a soup ladle, add to coffee, and extinguish. Strain into the cup, and serve. Cafe Joy 1/2 oz (15g) Frangelico® hazelnut liqueur 1/2 oz (15g) Malibu® coconut rum 1/2 oz (15g) Baileys® Irish cream Coffee Directions Add the three liquors and then add the coffee. Top with whip cream and toasted coconut.
43. Coffee by Origin Bavarian Coffee 1/2 oz (15g) peppermint schnapps 1/2 oz (15g) Kahlua coffee liqueur 5 oz (150g) hot black coffee 1 1/2 oz (40g) whipped cream 1 tsp sugar Directions Add coffee and liquors to an Irish coffee cup and sweeten to taste. Gently float the cream on top, and sprinkle with grated chocolate. Belgian Coffee 3/4 oz (20g) Elixir dAnvers 5 oz (150g) hot black coffee 1 1/2 oz (40g) whipped cream Directions Pour coffee and liquor into an Irish coffee cup and sweeten to taste. Gently float the cream on top, and sprinkle with grated chocolate.
44. Coffee by Origin Cafe Caen 1 oz (30g) Calvados brandy 1/4 - 3/4 oz (7g -20g) Grand Marnier orange liqueur 1 cup hot coffee 1 oz (30g) lightly whipped cream 1 tsp sugar Directions Heat liquors in a heat-resistant glass. Pour in the hot coffee, stir, and top with cream. Add sugar, and serve. Cancun Coffee 1 lime sugar 1/2 oz (15g) Kahlua® coffee liqueur 1/2 oz (15g) anisette 1 oz (30g) Baileys® Irish cream 2 - 3 oz (55g - 85g) coffee 1 1/2 oz (40g) whipped cream Directions Moisten rim of coffee mug with lime and dip rim in sugar. Pour liqueurs into mug and fill with coffee. Top with whipped cream.
45. Coffee by Origin Greek Frappe Coffee 1-2 spoons of instant coffee Tall Glass of Cold Water 1-3 spoons of sugar (optional) 3-5 ice cubes (optional) Milk (optional; condensed/evaporated milk works best) Directions Put coffee and sugar in a shaker or tall glass and add cold water as high as it covers the mixture. Shake or stir with mixer until the mixture becomes foamy. Add cold water to fill the glass, ice cubes and as much milk (preferably evaporated or condensed milk) as you like. Drink with a straw. Gaelic Coffee 3/4 oz (20g) Irish whiskey 3/4 oz (20g) Irish cream 1 1/2 oz (40g) dark creme de cacao 2 oz (60g) milk 1 tsp instant coffee Green creme de menthe Directions Blend until smooth and pour into an Irish coffee cup. Top with whipped cream and sprinkle with green creme de menthe for color.
46. Coffee by origin Jamaican Coffee 1/6 glass rum 1/6 glass strong black coffee 1/2 glass cold water 1 1/2 oz (40g) whipped cream Directions Stir the rum, coffee and water together. Top with the whipped cream. Sprinkle with a pinch of well ground coffee and drink with a straw. Irish coffee 4cl (2 parts) (40ml) Irish Whiskey 8cl (4 parts) (80ml) Hot coffee 3cl (1 parts) (30ml) Fresh cream 1tsp brown sugar Directions Heat the coffee, whiskey and sugar; do not boil. Pour into glass and top with cream; serve hot.
47. Gourmet Coffee When we are talking about gourmet coffee, we mean that coffees are grown all over the world and of course they differ one from another because of different climate, soil, cultivation, the chemicals used to help it grow and being protected from insects. If so, we should call gourmet coffee every coffee grown on our planet. It is true, in a way, but lets take into consideration only coffee processed by people who love their work. The roasting process is important as well because of the kind of roasting, the device the bean is roasted in and the roaster which, too, may seriously influence this process. This second explanation why gourmet coffee is what it is has more to do with the term ―specialty coffee‖. Every coffee is special because of the reasons I gave you above and thus it should bear ―specialty‖ name rather than ―gourmet‖.
48. World‘s Top Coffees Ethiopian Yirgacheffe Coffee Grown in the mountainous regions of Ethiopia, Yirgacheffe is a deep, earthy, spicy coffee that presents one of the most complex flavor profiles of any coffee in the world and deserves a place on any world‘s best coffee list. Yirgacheffe grows in the heart of African coffee country, and once you taste it, you‘ll understand why Ethiopia is the birthplace of coffee. One of Yirgacheffe‘s most endearing qualities is its versatility. A dark or medium-dark roast enhances its sweet earthiness, bringing out the chocolatey notes and makes it an ideal after dinner coffee. Toasted to a medium roast, the citrus and berry notes shine, and its bright acidity makes Yirgacheffe a great coffee to wake up to in the morning. It has a thick, velvety mouthfeel and a heavy body that lingers on the tongue. If you enjoy complex flavors, think milk chocolate is bland and over- sweetened and savor the complex, fruity notes of both Liebfraumilch and Bordeaux, then Ethiopian Yirgacheffe might be perfect for your tastebuds.
49. Tanzania Peaberry Coffee Most coffee cherries offer up two half-beans. Peaberry coffee has one whole bean instead of the two halves, and most coffee cuppers note a distinct difference in flavor between peaberry coffee beans and regular coffee beans. Because peaberries are rarer than the standard — only about 7 percent of a coffee crop is peaberry — coffee made with peaberry is typically more expensive, but when it‘s Tanzanian peaberry, the premium is well worth paying and would be on any world‘s best coffee list. Tanzanian peaberry is both bright and deep at the same time, and has a light to medium body. Each sip of Tanzanian peaberry coffee is a journey in flavor, starting with a complex floral aroma that often carries tropical hints of pineapple or coconut. The first taste is bright and citrusy, but the flavors deepen as you savor it, revealing hints of berry-like black currant and softening to a chocolatey smooth finish. If your idea of the perfect breakfast is fresh strawberries and crème fraiche, and you think shortbread is the ideal accompaniment for a cup of coffee, Tanzanian peaberry coffee is worth more than a second taste
50. Sumatra Lintong Coffee Sumatra Lintong coffee encapsulates all the romance and intrigue of the Indonesian islands in a cup of coffee. The largest of the Indonesian islands, Sumatra has two mountainous coffee-growing regions, Lintong and Mandheeling, with Lintong producing consistently better coffee than the rest of the island. This is, in part, because the small coffee holders have become more conscious of their coffee processing methods and take better care to dry the pulped beans on clean coffee terraces. When Sumatra Lintong coffee is processed properly, the sweet earthiness elevates it into competition with the best coffees in the world. Aromatic and rich, Sumatran coffees have the distinction of being velvety without feeling heavy, just a touch syrupy and rich on the tongue. The flavors feature a heady mix of smokiness, honey and butterscotch, with spicy notes of cardamom, cinnamon, sarsaparilla and clove. Sumatran Lintong is also naturally low in acid, which makes it a good choice for coffee lovers with sensitive stomachs. If you love the flavors of Indian sweets, laced with cardamom, ginger, honey and rosewater, and sweeten your tea or coffee with honey rather than sugar, Sumatra Lintong coffee could be your perfect bean.
51. Hawaii Kona Coffee Hawaiian Kona coffee grows about 2,000 feet above sea level on the volcanoes of the Big Island of Hawaii. Kona is a Western favorite, with a clean, bright acidity and rich spicy notes in the finish. Hawaii‘s growers aggressively protect their brand and work hard to ensure that only the best coffee beans make their way into coffee sold as Kona. Of all the so-called ―best coffees‖, Kona is the most balanced, which accounts for its popularity with such a wide segment of coffee lovers. A sip of Kona is both rich and light, and has a buttery mouthfeel that lingers on the tongue. Be aware that many coffees labeled as Kona on the mainland are actually blends that contain other Arabica beans, or even robusta beans, which adulterate the flavor. Look for coffee that is labeled 100% Kona Coffee to enjoy Kona coffee as it should taste. Kona is less an exotic coffee than it is the penultimate example of Western-style coffee at its best. If you love coffee but wish it were coffee-er, Kona is your bean.
52. Jamaica Blue Mountain Coffee Vibrant, bright and smooth as silk, Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee takes its place alongside Hawaiian Kona as one of the two best-known gourmet coffees in the world. The complex, well-balanced taste includes floral and nut overtones and a hint of chocolate in the creamy finish. Blue Mountain coffee is slightly sweet, with no bitterness or earthiness in the overall taste. Like Kona farmers, growers of Jamaica Blue Mountain are fiercely protective of the brand, and only those coffees grown between elevations of 3,000 and 5,500 feet in the region south of Port Maria and north of Kingston may be labeled Blue Mountain coffee. Like Kona, Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee is a quintessential representative of all the flavors and qualities that coffee lovers value most in coffee. If you enjoy coffee flavor and believe that it complements just about any experience, Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee won‘t let you down.
53. Coffee shops, Coffee houses and Cafes Everyone (almost) likes seeing friends, drinking coffee and eating a cake or something else instead at the same time. Whereas home is not always an appropriate place for such meetings – your fridge is empty, you ran out of coffee just yesterday, your house is a big mess or you simply wish to go out so bad that nothing else matters, you make an appointment at... So where do you go in such case? Is it a coffee shop, a coffee house (coffeehouse) or a cafe? I doubt you have ever focused your mind on that topic but do these notions are that different as they seem (leaving aside the word "coffee")? Lets sort it out. Cafe is an informal restaurant in the United States providing a customer with a great variety of hot meals and various sandwiches. In other countries, especially, Europe, cafe is a place where people are served mostly with coffee and dessert. Cafes are also referred to as places where a group of people gather together to talk, discuss, read and/or write something.
54. Coffee shops, Coffee houses and Cafes Coffee house or coffeehouse is similar to cafe where people are served with hot non-alcoholic beverages (including coffee and tea, of course) and light snacks. Many coffeehouses situated in the Middle East also offer shisha (nargile in Turkish and Greek), flavored tobacco smoked through a hookah. From the cultural point of view, this is a place where people gather, discuss and interact, thus helping the society to socialize. Coffee shop is the same as coffee house and is primarily intended to provide people with hot meals and usually coffee and other related products. Its other meaning is a place where people go to in order to buy coffee and other related products. So what do you choose first? I think, the name is just a sound and everyone likes going to the place where a hot flavorful coffee is served along with a dessert (or a hot meal) and a friendly atmosphere predominates.
55. Instant Coffee Instant coffee was invented back in 1906 by George C. Washington. He was an Englishman living in Guatemala and a chemist by trade. An avid coffee- drinker, he noticed a powdery buildup on the spout of his favorite silver coffee pot. That prompted his curiosity and further experimentation followed. He eventually produced a dried coffee crystal much like we still have today. His brand was called Red E Coffee.Bascially, instant coffee is just regularly brewed coffee with nearly all the water removed. Its not that mysterious a process at all. There is no strange chemical adulteration that goes on. Instant coffee is still pure coffee.
56. Manufacturing Steps There are two methods for producing instant coffee crystals: freeze-drying and spray-drying. The freeze-drying method preserved the most coffee flavour but its a more involved procedure. First, the coffee is allowed to sit so the water evaporates naturally, leaving a concentrated coffee solution. This concentrate is then frozen to around -40 Celsius. The remaining water freezes into ice crystals. Sublimation (a natural process similar to evaporation) is used to remove the ice. Whats left is dry grains of coffee.
57. Manufacturing Steps The second method is spray-drying. The water is again allowed to evaporate, forming a concentrate. The concentrated coffee is sprayed from a high tower in a large hot-air chamber. As the droplets fall, the remaining water evaporates. Dry crystals of coffee fall to the bottom of the chamber. The high temperatures involved in this method do tend to effect the oils of the coffee and more flavour is lost. Even if you dont care for a whole cup of instant brew, you can still use instant coffee to add a tasty touch to other drinks, or even cooking and baking.
58. Top 10 coffee brands Flogers: It is a major coffee producer in California. Flogers coffee is by far the largest selling coffee brand with a market share of 21.60 percent. It is the best part of waking up for many people. Maxwell house: It is the brands of coffee manufacture by a like name Kraft foods and it is produced at two US locations. Star bucks: Although Starbucks is the largest coffeehouse company in the world; it‘s the third overall coffee brand. Folgers cafe House : From instant to gourmet, whole bean to ground, and mild to dark-roasted blends, all Folgers coffee varieties are flavourful and fill your house with an enticing aroma. Boss coffee : It is brand name of canned and plastic bottled coffee and coffee-flavored beverages sold by Suntory in Japan
59. Top 10 coffee brands Millstone It is a division of the J M Smucker company, it was a private coffee brand until Proctor and Gamble purchase it. Nescafe : It is a brand of instant coffee made by Nestlé. It comes in the form of many different products. Seattle’s Best: This coffee brand, part of Kraft Foods, promotes itself as being environmentally friendly by helping protect the environment and wildlife in coffee growing regions. Eight 0’clock : It is the brand name of the light roast of coffee introduced by the American supermarket chain A&P in 1859. In 1919, the roast was renamed and given its current trade mark. Their coffee is available in 11 flavors. Moccona : It is a Dutch brand distributed in Australia and New Zealand.
60. India – Pure Instant Coffee NESCAFÉ Classic – a 100% natural coffee 100% pure and natural coffee beans go into making every granule of NESCAFÉ Classic. With the new world class ERA technique, you get richer aroma and a great coffee experience every time you have your favourite NESCAFÉ. So grab your favourite NESCAFÉ Classic for an unmatched Coffee experience
61. Coffee Chicory NESCAFE SUNRISE PREMIUM Celebrate your mornings together with a great cup of new NESCAFÉ Sunrise. It is made with handpicked Arabica and Robusta beans that are expertly roasted and granulated to give you richer aroma and a captivating coffee experience that would leave you asking for more New NESCAFÉ Sunrise Premium is an Instant Coffee-Chicory based beverage mix (Coffee 70%).
62. Bru – Coffee + Chicory
63. Coffee Chicory NESCAFÉ Sunrise Special is an Instant Coffee-Chicory mixture (Coffee:Chicory = 60%:40%) A special blend of select Robusta coffee beans are specially roasted to give you great, stimulating coffee taste and aroma.
64. Coffee & Glucose Don‘t drink coffee? Feel that coffee is too bitter? NESCAFÉ- India‘s favorite coffee brand introduces NESCAFÉ MFC. A unique blend of 100% natural Coffee and Liquid Glucose, NESCAFÉ MFC or My First Cup offers a smooth coffee taste, which will leave you asking for more. So, reach out and have your first cup of coffee with NESCAFÉ My First Cup. Its time you started
65. Speciality Coffees NESCAFÉ – the world‘s favorite instant coffee brand brings to you a range of delicious foaming mixes. Available in three delightful variants– Cappuccino, Vanilla Latte and Choco Mocha, this new range offers consumers rich coffee taste & delicious froth. So grab this product to treat yourself and enjoy a true café style experience at home!
66. Roast & Ground
67. Bru Ice Cappuccino
68. Bru Cold Cappuccino
69. Estimated Market Sizes Instant coffee approx Rs 1500 cr Nestle approx Rs 900 cr (Rs 300cr Sunrise ; Rs 600cr Pure Instant ) …mainly computed through chicory purchase data in balance sheet HUL sells approx Rs 1000 cr of coffee (approx Rs 500 cr Bru Roast & Ground and Rs 500 cr Bru chicory ) The Roast & Ground segment would be approximately Rs 2000 cr
70. Filter Coffee in India The competition is brewing up in Indias packet filter- coffee market which has been dominated by HLLs Deluxe Green Label for years with regional blends and Tata Coffee occupying the remaining shelf-space in the countrys retail outlets. A new packet filter-coffee brand will be launched by the Bangalore-based Amalgamated Bean Coffee Trading Company (ABCL) which owns the Cafe Coffee Day chain. To ensure comprehensive distribution, ABCL has just inked an agreement with GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) India. The new product will be launched under the umbrella brand of Coffee Day. (The above data needs to be updated and validated )
71. Filter Coffee Indias filter-coffee market has been estimated at over 50,000 tonnes with 40 to 50% of that being packet filter-coffee where HLLs Deluxe Green Label has been the market leader for years with around 7,000 tonnes of a chicory-mix filter-coffee blend. ABCL would, Mr Siddhartha said, be differentiating its brand not so much on the basis of price as on a higher coffee and lower chicory mix. ABCLs target, he said, was to do around 3,000 tonnes of packet filter-coffee powder within the next three to four years (further validation required)
72. ABCL ABCL has been present for a few years in the non-packet filter- coffee market where its 350 outlets serve up Fresh & Ground coffee powder by roasting and grinding in front of the consumer. "We already do some 2,300 tonnes through our Fresh & Ground outlets. We expect our packet filter-coffee powder sales to add to this and take us beyond the 5,000- tonne mark within the next three to four years", Mr Siddhartha said
73. ABCL on filter coffee Asked whether higher margins was the rationale for the move into packet filter-coffee, Mr Siddhartha said, "We wanted to fill up the vacuum since we are present in all other sections of the coffee market. We grow some of the countrys finest coffees on 5,000 acres in the Chikmagalur district of Karnataka. We are one of the countrys leading coffee exporters. We were the first to get into the fine coffee-cafe segment through our Cafe Coffee Day where we have 113 cafes all over the country at present. We are also selling coffee through 6,000 vending machines. In fact, we have estimated that some 250,000 consumers are trying our coffee every day in one form or the other. The move into packet filter- coffee is, therefore, a logical extension of our business where we are present everywhere else from the cultivation of coffee to the final cup sampled by the consumer."
74. Fresh & Honest Fresh & Honest Cafe Ltd, a coffee vending company, has announced its foray into packaged filter coffee segment by unveiling its filter coffee powder ‗Alive‘. The company hopes to garner 10 per cent volume share of the organised packaged filter coffee market in the next one year. The company has set up a state-of-the-art roasting and grinding facility with a capacity to produce 200 tonnes of coffee powder per month, in Chennai at an investment of Rs 5 crore. At present, the packaged filter coffee market size in India is about 20,660 mt in terms of volume and Rs 300 crore in terms of value, per year. The market has been reporting a steady growth rate of 5.5 per cent every year. Addressing a press conference after launching ‗Alive‘, R Shivasankar, chief executive officer, Fresh & Honest, said that the unorganised segment was accounting for about 47 per cent of the packaged filter coffee market and F & H saw huge opportunity to expand its business in the segment. The value of 10 per cent volume share which the company targets in the organised segment by the first full year of operations, is estimated between Rs 12 crore and Rs 15 crore. He added that the market share of the organised sector in the country is expected to go to 70 per cent by 2010, driven by the emerging trends like branding of commodities and the spread of coffee culture to other parts of the country. South India accounts for over 90 per cent of the packaged filter coffee market. (source : Business Std ) …to be verfied
75. Fresh & Honest (contd) Though south is a key market for coffee, the consumption in the rest of the country is also growing, he added. The company has launched ‗Alive‘ in Tamil Nadu, and would launch it in Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh in March, and in Kerala by April. It is planning its national foray in the next six months. The company is planning to reach about 40,000 retail outlets in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala in the next couple of months. It has already appointed about 100 distributors, covering about a million population in Tamil Nadu. Alive comes with a blend of 70 per cent coffee and 30 per cent chicory and will be available in 50gm (Rs 9), 100gm (Rs 17.50), 200gm (Rs 35) and 500gm (Rs 86) packs. In coffee vending business, the company has presence in 22 cities with 15 branches. It has installed over 2300 freshly brewed coffee vending machines across the country. The company hopes to end this fiscal with a turnover of Rs 100 crore. It targets to garner 10 per cent share of the organised packaged filter coffee market, which is valued between Rs 12 crore and Rs 15 crore, in the first full year of operation.
76. South Indian Filter coffee mfg Youll need a traditional percolator which is made of 4 parts. You can read the details about it here and buy it too if you wish! A large one costs $15! ~Coffee powder-Well, Im not the girl to buy coffee beans and grind it fresh. Store bought coffee powder is just fine. A fine grind is used with a small percentage of chicory mixed in. Mom-in-laws brand of choice is from Vimala Coffee works in Chennai. ~Use a clean filter. Remove the lid and umbrella. Put 2 heaped Tbsp of coffee powder per person and press it down with a spoon. Keep the umbella back and gently pour fresh water brought to a rolling boil over the umbrella in the top container. ~The water will percolate down slowly depending on the quantity of powder placed. 6-8 tbsp of coffee powder will take the decoction almost 6-8 hours to collect at the bottom. (So its better done at night, to have your morning cuppa). If youve put a lot of coffee powder, you wouldnt have a chance to put enough water to percolate resulting in very concentrated but less quantity of decoction at the bottom. In this case once the decoction collects below, you can add more boiling water at the top to collect the concentrate 2-3 times. ~Just remember that the consequent collections wont be as concentrated as the earlier ones. You might want to collect the entire lot and mix it together to get an even concentration of the whole lot of decoction in the end. To prepare coffee: In a tumbler (traditional steel glass) or a mug, take upto 3/4th level milk and add decoction with constant stirring to make a coffee to suit your liking, mild or strong. Add sugar if you wish. Enjoy the aroma as you take a sip of Madras culture.
78. Coffee Production in India In coffee season (October to September) of 2010-11, India produced 3.02 lakh tonnes of coffee, most of which was grown in southern states of Karnataka (71%), Kerala (22%), and Tamil Nadu (6%). Arabica production amounted to 31% of total output, the remaining 69% being contributed by Robusta production. Coffee is cultivated on nearly 4.05 lakh hectares in India, and 70% of output is grown on small farms owning area of less than 10 hectares. The domestic coffee consumption has been continuously growing at annual average rate of 6% and is largely on account of mushrooming presence of coffee retail outlets. With the domestic coffee outlets set to increase multi-fold by with next 3 years, in addition to foray of global players such Starbucks and Dunkin‘ Donuts in India, the coffee industry is likely to continue witnessing similar growth trend in future.
79. Coffee Production in India The post monsoon crop forecast for the year 2011-12 is placed at320,000 MT, which showed a marginal reduction of 2,250 MT (-0.70%) over the previous post blossom estimate of 322,250 MT. While it is shown an increase of 18,000 MT (5.96%) over the final estimate of previous year 2010- 11 (302,000 MT). § Of the total estimate, the Arabica and Robusta break up is 103,725 MT and 216,275 MT respectively. Arabica production has shown an increase of 10,385 MT (11%) over the final estimate of 2010-11, while that of robusta increased by 9,865 MT (4.75%). § When compared to Post-Blossom estimate of 2011-12, the Arabica production has shown a decline of 800 MT (-0.77%) while robusta declined by 1,450 MT (-0.67%). § In Karnataka, the post monsoon production decline is very marginal (-0.58%) over the post blossom estimate while it showed an increase of 12,575 MT (5.88%) over the final estimate of 2010-11. Hassan district experienced a decline (of 700 MT or -2.26%) both in Arabica (400 MT or -2.14%) and robusta (300 MT or -2.45%) followed by Kodagu (475 MT or -0.40%) and Chikmagalur (145 MT or -0.18%) over the post blossom forecast. The maximum reduction is seen in Yeslur (-7.7%), Aldur (-5%), Royarkoppal (-2.47%) and Belur (-2.15%) zones attributed to the normal berry drop during the monsoon period. Overall, the crop estimate for Karnataka is placed at 226,355 MT with a break up of81,505 MT of arabica and 144,750 MT of robusta.
80. Contd … § Kerala was reported a marginal decline in Wynad (-1.50%), while Travancore showed an increase of 1.20% over the post blossom estimate. Therefore the post monsoon forecast is placed at 68,350 MTwhich is a marginal decline of 775 MT (-1.12%) from the post blossom estimate of 69,125 MT, but a 4.11% increase on the final estimate of 2010-11. § Tamil Nadu production is forecast at 18,390 MT as against the estimate of 18,450 MT of post blossom which is a marginal decline of 150 MT mainly from Shevroys region. § In Non-Traditional areas of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa and North Eastern Region, the post-monsoon forecast is placed at 6,905 MT against post-blossom estimate of 6,910 MT.
81. References: Wikipedia , coffeefordummies , business std , eco times , various coffee blogs , field research , balance sheets of coffee cos from moneycontrol.com
82. Request to send in your feedback/comments as well as for areas not covered and information from your end to further update the study Subhashis_d_g@yahoo.co.in http://executive-musings.blogspot.com