Me6465 manufacturing technology manual
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ME 6465 manufacturing technology lab manual for BE automobile Engineering ii year iii sem, Regulation 2013

ME 6465 manufacturing technology lab manual for BE automobile Engineering ii year iii sem, Regulation 2013

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Me6465 manufacturing technology manual Me6465 manufacturing technology manual Document Transcript

  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 1 GGRRTT IINNSSTTIITTUUTTEE OOFF EENNGGIINNEEEERRIINNGG AANNDD TTEECCHHNNOOLLOOGGYY TTIIRRUUTTTTAANNII.. DEPARTMENT OF AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING SEMESTER – III ME6465 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY LAB MANUAL
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 2 ME6465 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY LABORATORY L T P C 0 0 3 2 OBJECTIVES: Demonstration and study of the various machines. The Main emphasis will be on a complete understanding of the machine capabilities and processes. LIST OF EXPERIMENTS UNIT I LATHE PRACTICE a. Plain Turning b. Taper Turning c. Thread Cutting Estimation of machining time for the above turning processes. UNIT II DRILLING PRACTICE a. Drilling b. Tapping c. Reaming. UNIT III MILLING a. Surface Milling. b. Gear Cutting. c. Contour Milling. UNIT IV PLANNING AND SHAPING a. Cutting Key Ways. b. Dove tail machining. TOTAL: 45 PERIODS
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 3 INDEX S.No Date Name of the Experiment Mark Signature 1 STUDY OF LATHE 2 FACING & PLAIN TURNING USING A LATHE 3 TAPER TURNING OPERATION (COMPOUND REST METHOD) USING A LATHE 4 EXTERNAL V- THREAD CUTTING USING A LATHE 5 INTERNAL THREAD CUTTING OPERATIONS USING A LATHE 6 STUDY OF RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE 7 DRILLING , REAMING AND TAPPING 8 STUDY OF MILLING MACHINE 9 SURFACE MILLING 10 GEAR CUTTING 11 STUDY OF SHAPER 12 STUDY OF PLANER 13 CUTTING KEY WAYS IN SHAPER/PLANER 14 DOVE TAIL MACHINING IN SHAPER/PLANER 15 ESTIMATION OF MACHINING TIME FOR THE LATHE OPERATIONS TOTAL
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 4 EXP NO: 01 STUDY OF LATHE DATE: AIM: To understand the working principle and operations done in lathe machine. To identify the various components of lathe machine and its function. MACHINING PROCESSES Machining is one of the processes of manufacturing in which the specified shape to the work piece is imparted by removing surplus material. Conventionally this surplus material from the work piece is removed in the form of chips by interacting the work piece with an appropriate tool. This mechanical generation of chips can be carried out by single point or multi point tools or by abrasive operations these are summarized below: Machining Processes Single point tool operations Multi-point tool operations Abrasive operations 1. Turning 1. Milling 1. Grinding 2. Boring 2. Drilling 2. Lapping 3. Shaping 3. Tapping 3. Honing 4. Planing 4. Reaming 4. Super-finishing 5. Hobbing 6. Broaching 7. Sawing
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 5 Multi-point tool operations The process of chip formation in metal cutting is affected by relative motion between the tool and the work piece achieved with the aid of a device called machine tool. This relative motion can be obtained by a combination of rotary and translatory movements of either the tool or the work piece or both. The kind of surface that is produced by the operation depends on the shape of the tool and the path it traverses through the materials. When the workpiece is rotated about an axis and the tool is traversed in a definite path relative to the axis, a surface of revolution is generated. When the tool path is parallel to the axis, the surface generated is a cylinder as in straight turning or boring operations. Similarly, planes may be generated by a series of straight cuts without rotating the workpiece as in shaping and planning operations (Fig.3). In shaping the tool is reciprocating and the work piece is moved crosswise at the end of each stroke. Planning is done by reciprocating the work piece and crosswise movement is provided to the tool. Surface may be machined by the tools having a number of cutting edges that can cut successively through the work piece materials. In plane milling, the cutter revolves and moves over the work piece as shown Fig. 4. The axis of the cutter is parallel to the surface generated. Similarly in drilling, the drill may turn and be fed into the work piece of the work piece may revolve while the drill is fed into it (Fig.5). The machine tools, in general, provide two kinds of relative motions. The primary motion is responsible for the cutting action and absorbs most of the power required to perform the machining action. The secondary motion of the feed motion may proceed in steps or continuously and absorbs only a fraction of the total power required for machining. When the secondary motion is added to the primary motion, machine surfaces of desired geometric characteristics are produced. .
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY LATHE Lathe is the machine tool which is used to perform several operations on the work piece. Lathe is useful in making several parts which is further assembled to ma machine. Hence lathe is known as “mother of machines”. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Lathe is the machine tool which is used to perform several operations on the work piece. Lathe is useful in making several parts which is further assembled to ma machine. Hence lathe is known as “mother of machines”. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 6 Lathe is the machine tool which is used to perform several operations on the work piece. Lathe is useful in making several parts which is further assembled to make new
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 7 BASIC WORKING PRINCIPLE OF LATHE In lathe, the work piece is held in the chuck, a work holding device. The cutting tool is mounted in the tool post. The chuck is rotated by means of power. When the chuck rotates, the work piece also rotates. The tool is moved against the rotating work piece by giving small amount of depth of cut. The material is removed in the form of chips. Continuous feed and depth of cut is given until the required dimensions are obtained in the work piece. TYPES OF LATHE MACHINES There are different types of lathe machines, they are Centre lathe Tool room lathe Bench lathe Capstan lathe Turret lathe Automatic lathe DESCRIPTION OF LATHE Lathe is a machine which has several parts in it. They are Bed It is the base of the machine. On its left side, the head stock is mounted and on its right it has movable casting known as tailstock. Its legs have holes to bolt down on the ground. Head stock It consists of spindles, gears and speed changing levers. It is used to transmit the motion to the job. It has two types one is the headstock driven by belt and the other one is the gear driven.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Carriage Carriage is used to carry a tool to bring in contact with the rotating work draw from such a contact. It operates on bed ways between the headstock and tail stock. Saddle It is a ‘H’ shaped part fitted on the lathe bed. There is a hand wheel to move it on the bed way. Cross slide, compound rest, tool post are fit Cross slide It is on the upper slide of saddle in the form of dove tail. A hand wheel is provided to drive the cross slide. It permits the cross wise movement of the tool (i.e.) movement of tool towards or away from the operator Compound rest It is fitted over the cross slide on a turn table. It permits both parallel and angular movements to cutting tool. Tool post It is fitted on the top most part of the compound rest. Tool is mounted on this tool post. Cutting tool is fixed in it with the help of screws. Apron It is the hanging part in front of the carriage. It accommodates the mechanism of hand and power feed to the cutting tool for carrying out different operations P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Carriage is used to carry a tool to bring in contact with the rotating work draw from such a contact. It operates on bed ways between the headstock and tail It is a ‘H’ shaped part fitted on the lathe bed. There is a hand wheel to move it on the bed way. Cross slide, compound rest, tool post are fitted on this saddle. It is on the upper slide of saddle in the form of dove tail. A hand wheel is provided to drive the cross slide. It permits the cross wise movement of the tool (i.e.) movement of tool towards or away from the operator It is fitted over the cross slide on a turn table. It permits both parallel and angular It is fitted on the top most part of the compound rest. Tool is mounted on this tool post. ith the help of screws. It is the hanging part in front of the carriage. It accommodates the mechanism of hand and power feed to the cutting tool for carrying out different operations P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 8 Carriage is used to carry a tool to bring in contact with the rotating work piece or to with draw from such a contact. It operates on bed ways between the headstock and tail It is a ‘H’ shaped part fitted on the lathe bed. There is a hand wheel to move it on the It is on the upper slide of saddle in the form of dove tail. A hand wheel is provided to drive the cross slide. It permits the cross wise movement of the tool (i.e.) movement of It is fitted over the cross slide on a turn table. It permits both parallel and angular It is fitted on the top most part of the compound rest. Tool is mounted on this tool post. It is the hanging part in front of the carriage. It accommodates the mechanism of hand
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY . Lead screw It is a long screw with ACME threads. It i feed or feed for thread cutting operation. Tail stock It is located at the right end of the lathe bed and it bed. It is used for supporting lengthy jobs and also carries tool to such as tapping, WORK HOLDING DEVICES Lathe centers They are used to support work. It has two categories of centers. Live center is one which is fitted in the headstock spindle. Dead is another one which is fi stock. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY It is a long screw with ACME threads. It is used for transmitting power for automatic feed or feed for thread cutting operation. It is located at the right end of the lathe bed and it can be positioned anywhere in the bed. It is used for supporting lengthy jobs and also carries tool to carry out operations drilling, reaming. They are used to support work. It has two categories of centers. Live center is one which is fitted in the headstock spindle. Dead is another one which is fi P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 9 s used for transmitting power for automatic be positioned anywhere in the carry out operations drilling, reaming. They are used to support work. It has two categories of centers. Live center is one which is fitted in the headstock spindle. Dead is another one which is fitted in the tail
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Chuck It is a device used to hold a job. It is easily fitted on the thread cut on the end of head stock spindle. Various types of chuck are Two jaw chuck b) three jaw chuck Magnetic chuck Face plate elf- Four Jaw Independent chuck P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY It is a device used to hold a job. It is easily fitted on the thread cut on the end of head stock spindle. Various types of chuck are b) three jaw chuck c) four jaw chuck d) collet chuck Four Jaw Independent chuck P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 10 It is a device used to hold a job. It is easily fitted on the thread cut on the end of head d) collet chuck
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 11 Lathe carriers or dog’s Steady rest Clamped to the lathe ways, it uses adjustable fingers to contact the workpiece and align it. Can be used in place of tailstock or in the middle to support long or unstable parts being machined Mandrel Mandrel used to hold hollow jobs. Follower rest Bolted to the lathe carriage, it uses adjustable fingers to bear against the work piece opposite the cutting tool to prevent deflection. CUTTING TOOLS USED For making a finished job on lathe machine, various types of cutting tools are used. One of them is single point cutting tool which is used to perform several operations on the work piece. Various types of cutting tools are Facing Tool It is used for facing the longitudinal ends of the job. Its shape is like a knife.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 12 Rough Turning Tool It is used to remove excess material from the work piece in quick time. It can be used to give large depth of cut and work at coarse feed. Finishing Tool It is used for getting smooth finish on the work piece. Its point is a little more round. Radius Tool Jobs which need round cutting are done with this tool. Its type is Convex radius tool b) concave radius tool Parting Tools It is used to cut the jobs into two parts. It is also used for grooving. Form Turning Tool It is used for jobs which require both convex and concave turning. Thread Cutting Tool It is used for making internal or external threads on the work piece. The tool nose is designed with a definite profile for taking threads. Drill Tool It is used for making holes of various diameters on the job. Drill bit of various sizes of diameter are available.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Boring Tool It used for enlarging the drill hole. Knurling Tool Drawing slanting or square projecting lines on the surface o It is used for making better grip on the surface of a job. TOOL MATERIALS The single point cutting tools are made of high speed steel. (H. S. S) The main alloying elements in 18 chromium and 1 % Vanadium. 5 to 10 % cobalt is also added to improve the heat resisting properties of the tool. General purpose hand cutting tools are usually made from carbon steel or tool steel. Carbide tipped tools fixed in tool holders, are mostly used i P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY It used for enlarging the drill hole. Drawing slanting or square projecting lines on the surface of a job is known as knurling. It is used for making better grip on the surface of a job. The single point cutting tools are made of high speed steel. (H. S. S) The main alloying elements in 18 – 4 – 1 HSS tools are 18 % tungsten, 4% mium and 1 % Vanadium. 5 to 10 % cobalt is also added to improve the heat resisting properties of the tool. General purpose hand cutting tools are usually made from carbon steel or tool Carbide tipped tools fixed in tool holders, are mostly used in production shops. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 13 f a job is known as knurling. The single point cutting tools are made of high speed steel. (H. S. S) 1 HSS tools are 18 % tungsten, 4% mium and 1 % Vanadium. 5 to 10 % cobalt is also added to improve the heat General purpose hand cutting tools are usually made from carbon steel or tool n production shops.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY NOMENCLATURE OF SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL CUTTING TOOL ANGLES Top rake angle (back rake angle) If the slope is given to the face or surface of the tool and if this slope is along the tools length then it is called top rake ang Side rake angle If the slope is given to the face or top of the tool along the tools width then it is called side rake angle. It lies between 6 Clearance angle (relief angle) Types: 1. Side clearance angle They are provided to keep surface of the tool clear of the work piece. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY NOMENCLATURE OF SINGLE POINT CUTTING TOOL Top rake angle (back rake angle) If the slope is given to the face or surface of the tool and if this slope is along the tools op rake angle. It is usually 15 to 20. If the slope is given to the face or top of the tool along the tools width then it is called side rake angle. It lies between 6 and 15 . Clearance angle (relief angle) Types: 1. Side clearance angle 2. End clearance angle. They are provided to keep surface of the tool clear of the work piece. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 14 If the slope is given to the face or surface of the tool and if this slope is along the tools If the slope is given to the face or top of the tool along the tools width then it is called
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Cutting edge angle Types: 1. Side cutting edge angle makes with the axis of the tool 2. End cutting edge angle angle, the end cutting edge makes with the width of the tool. Lip angle (cutting angle) It is the angle between the face and the end surface of the tool. Nose angle It is the angle between the side cutting edge and end cutting e LATHE OPERATIONS Facing It is done for getting fine finish (good surface finish) on the face of the job. Facing tool is set at an angle to the work piece. The tool is fed from the centre of work piece towards the outer surface against the rotating work piece. Depth of cut is low for the facing operation. Plain Turning It is done for reducing the diameter of the work piece. A cutting tool with 70 setting angle is used for roughing operation. More feed is given for rough turning while less f Work piece is held in chuck and tool is set to center height of the work piece. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Types: 1. Side cutting edge angle – (generally 15 ) it is an angle, the sid makes with the axis of the tool 2. End cutting edge angle – (from 7 t angle, the end cutting edge makes with the width of the tool. Lip angle (cutting angle) It is the angle between the face and the end surface of the tool. It is the angle between the side cutting edge and end cutting edge. It is done for getting fine finish (good surface finish) on the face of the job. Facing tool is set at an angle to the work piece. The tool is fed from the centre of work piece towards the outer surface against Depth of cut is low for the facing operation. It is done for reducing the diameter of the work piece. setting angle is used for roughing operation. More feed is given for rough turning while less feed is given for finishing. Work piece is held in chuck and tool is set to center height of the work piece. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 15 side cutting edge to 15 ) it is an It is done for getting fine finish (good surface finish) on the face of the job. The tool is fed from the centre of work piece towards the outer surface against eed is given for finishing. Work piece is held in chuck and tool is set to center height of the work piece.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Step Turning It is similar to the process of turning but in this case different diameter in step of various sizes is taken on the work piece. Taper Turning It is different from the turning operation. Taper is defined as uniform change in the diameter of a work piece measured along its length. Where D – d – l – P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY It is similar to the process of turning but in this case different diameter in step of various sizes is taken on the work piece. It is different from the turning operation. Taper is defined as uniform change in the diameter of a work piece measured large Diameter Small diameter Length of taper P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 16 It is similar to the process of turning but in this case different diameter in step of Taper is defined as uniform change in the diameter of a work piece measured
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 17 Knurling It is process of making serrations on the work piece. Knurling tools of different shape and size are used to make grip on the work piece. It has two hardened steel rollers. The tool is held in tool post and pressed against the rotating work piece. Work piece is rotated at lower speed and small amount of feed is given. Drilling It is a process of making a hole on the work piece Job is held in chuck while the drill is held in the tail stock sleeve. Feed is given by rotating the hand wheel in the tail stock which pushes the tailstock sleeve. Cutting Speed It is the peripheral speed of the work past the cutting tool. It is the speed at which metal is removed by the tool from the work piece. It is expressed in meter / minute. Cutting speed= (π ×diameter ×R.P.M)/1000 = πDN/1000 in m/min D – Diameter in mm N – Spindle speed in rpm Feed It is defined as the rate of tool travel across a surface cutting it. It is the distance of the tool advances for each revolution of the work piece. It is expressed in mm/revolution.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 18 Depth of Cut It is the perpendicular distance measured from the machined surface to the uncut surface of work. It is expressed in mm. Depth of cut= (d1- d2)/2 d1 = diameter of work before machining d2 = diameter of work after machining SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Job should be tightly held in the chuck. If the job is held in between the centers, then apply grease on the nose of dead center, otherwise it will burnt out due to excess heat. Do not measure the job while it is rotating. Do not leave the chuck key in the chuck. Do not try to stop the lathe chuck or job with hands Do not handle metal chips by hand. Do not give more depth of cut while the job is rotating at high speed. Tighten the tool I n the tool post. Do not stand close to the rotating job or bring your face to it. Do not reduce or increase the speed during the lathe operations. RESULT: Thus the working principle and operations done in lathe have been studied.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 19 EX.NO:2 MACHINING A WORK PIECE BY FACING, PLAIN TURNING USING A LATHE DATE: AIM: To machine a work piece by facing, plain turning operations using a lathe. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Mild steel polished round rod - 32 X 100 mm TOOLS REQUIRED: 1. Lathe machine 2. Cutting tool 3. outside Caliper 4. Steel Rule 5. Vernier Caliper SKETCH:
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 20 PROCEDURE: 1. The given work piece is held firmly in a lathe chuck. 2. The cutting tool is set in a tool post such that the point of the cutting tool coincides with the lathe axis. 3. The machine is switched on to revolve the work piece at the selected speed. 4. By giving Cross feed and longitudinal feed to the cutting tool, the facing and turning operations are done respectively. 5. The machine is switched off. 6. The work piece is removed from the chuck and all the dimensions are measured and checked. RESULT: The given work piece is subjected to facing and plain turning operations to become a finished work piece as shown in figure.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 21 EX.NO: 3 MACHINING A WORK PIECE BY TAPER TURNING OPERATION (COMPOUND REST METHOD) USING A LATHE DATE: AIM: To machine a work piece by facing, plain turning and taper turning operation (compound rest method) using a lathe. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Mild steel polished round rod - 32 X 83 mm TOOLS REQUIRED: 1. Lathe machine 4.Steel Rule 2. Cutting tool 5.Vernier Caliper 3. Outside Caliper 6.Spanner CALCULATION: The taper angle is calculated using the following formula: Taper angle (α) = (D-d/2l) Where D = large diameter of taper in mm d = small diameter of taper in mm l = length of tapered part in mm α = angle of taper
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 22 SKETCH: PROCEDURE: 1. The given work piece is held firmly in a lathe chuck. 2. The cutting tool is set in a tool post such that the point of the Cutting tool coincides with the lathe axis. 3. The machine is switched on to revolve the work piece at the selected speed. 4. By giving Cross feed and longitudinal feed to the cutting tool, the facing and turning operations are done respectively. 5. The compound rest is swiveled for the calculated taper angle. 6. By giving angular feed to the cutting tool through the compound slide the taper turning operation is done. 7. The machine is switched off. 8. The work piece is removed from the chuck and all the dimensions are measured and checked. RESULT: The given work piece is subjected to facing, plain turning and taper turning operation (compound rest method) to become a finished work piece as shown in figure.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 23 EX.NO: 4 MACHINING A WORK PIECE BY V- THREAD CUTTING OPERATIONS USING A LATHE DATE: AIM: To machine a work piece by facing, plain turning and external thread cutting operations using a lathe. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Mild steel polished round rod - 32 X 100 mm TOOLS REQUIRED: 1. Lathe machine 4.Parting Tool 2. Turning tool 5.Steel Rule 3. Vernier Caliper 6. External V – thread cutting tool SKETCH:
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 24 CALCULATION: The number of teeth on change gears is calculated using the following formula: Driver teeth/ Driven teeth = Pitch of the work / pitch of the lead screw PROCEDURE: 1. The given work piece is held firmly in a lathe chuck. 2. The cutting tool is set in a tool post such that the point of the Cutting tool coincides with the lathe axis. 3. The machine is switched on to revolve the work piece at the selected speed. 4. By giving Cross feed and longitudinal feed to the cutting tool, the facing and turning operations are done respectively. 5. The speed of the work piece is reduced. 6. The machine is switched off and the change gears of calculated teeth (as per calculation) are connected. 7. Again the machine is switched on. 8. The external thread cutting operation is done using external V–thread cutting tool by engaging thread cutting mechanism. 9. The machine is switched off. 10. The work piece is removed from the chuck and all the dimensions are measured and checked. RESULT: The given work piece is subjected to facing, plain turning and external thread cutting operations to become a finished work piece as shown in figure.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 25 EX.NO: 5 MACHINING A WORK PIECE BY BORING AND INTERNAL THREAD CUTTING OPERATIONS USING A LATHE AIM: To machine a work piece by facing, plain turning, boring and internal thread cutting operations using a lathe. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Mild steel polished round rod - 32 X 100 mm TOOLS REQUIRED: 1. Lathe machine 5.Outside Caliper 2. Turning tool 6.Steel Rule 3. Boring tool 7.Vernier Caliper 4. Internal V – thread cutting tool SKETCH:
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 26 CALCULATION: The number of teeth on change gears is calculated using the following formula: Driver teeth/ Driven teeth = Pitch of the work / pitch of the lead screw. PROCEDURE: 1. The given work piece is held firmly in a lathe chuck. 2. The cutting tool is set in a tool post such that the point of the Cutting tool coincides with the lathe axis. 3. The machine is switched on to revolve the work piece at the selected speed. 4. By giving Cross feed and longitudinal feed to the cutting tool, the facing and turning operations are done respectively. 5. The speed of the work piece is reduced. 6. The boring operation is done using boring tool. 7. The machine is switched off and the change gears of calculated teeth (as per calculation) are connected. 8. Again the machine is switched on. 9. The internal thread cutting operation is done using internal V–thread cutting tool by engaging thread cutting mechanism. 10. The machine is switched off. 11. The work piece is removed from the chuck and all the Dimensions are measured and checked. RESULT: The given work piece is subjected to facing, plain turning, boring and internal thread cutting operations to become a finished work piece.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 27 EX.NO: 6 STUDY OF RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE DATE: AIM: To understand the working principle and operations done in drilling machine. To identify the various components of drilling machine and its function. DESCRIBTION: In Radial Drilling Machine (RDM), Medium to large & heavy work piece can be drilled. Radial Drilling Machine consists of heavy, round, vertical column mounted on a large base. The Column supports a radial arm which can be raised & lowered. The Arm can be swung around any position over the work bed. In Radial Drilling Machine the arm can be locked at any desired position as per job size.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 28 Drill head-mechanism for rotating & feeding the drill (mounted on radial arm) and can be moved horizontally on the guide ways & clamped at any desired position. The 3 movements in RDM permit the drill to be located at desired position. Radial Drilling Machine can be used for drilling several holes on the same work piece. Radial Drilling Machine is versatile and work on large WP. In Radial Drilling Machine the Base have t-slots for mounting large work piece. The Column has radial arm, drill head and motor. The elevating screw is rotated by motor. The radial arm can be swiveled around the column. The Radial arm has drill head, Drill head has separate motor, spindle, drill and drill bit. The Spindle head and feed mechanism can be manual or automatic. TYPES: Plain RDM: The provisions are made for vertical adjustment of the arm, horizontal movement of drill head along the arm & Circular movement of the arm in horizontal plane about the vertical column. Semi universal Machine: In addition to the 3 movements, drill head can be swung about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the arm. It can drill hole at an angle to horizontal plane. Universal Machine: In addition to the 4 movements, the arm holding the drill head can be rotated on a horizontal axis .These 5 movements enable to drill. DRILLING MACHINE SPECIFICATION Portable Drilling machine –Max Dia of the drill that it can hold. Upright & Sensitive Drilling machine-diameter of the largest piece that can be centered under the spindle. Max size of drill that the M/c can operate, table dia, maximum spindle travel, numbers of spindle speeds and feeds available. Morse Taper No of the drill spindle, power input, floor space required, net wt of the M/c, etc.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 29 DRILLING OPERATIONS
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 30 RESULT: Thus the working principle and operations done in radial drilling machine have been studied.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 31 EX.NO: 7 DRILLING, REAMING AND TAPPING DATE: AIM: To make drilling, Reaming and Tapping in the given work piece for the required dimensions. MATERIALS REQUIRED: MS Square Work piece (50X 50) TOOLS REQUIRED: Steel rule, Flat file (rough and smooth), Drill bit (8 mm, 10 mm, 10.5 mm), Reaming tool, Try square SKETCH:
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 32 PROCEDURE: 1. The work piece was fitted in the vice and filed to the required dimensions. 2. The squareness of the work piece was checked. 3. Drawing punches were made for various drills. 4. The job was fitted on the radial drilling machine. 5. The 20 mm ,10.5 mm,8 mm, 6.5 mm-drill bit were used for drilling in the required place and drilling operation were made on the work piece. 6. Reaming was done on the 8 mm hole using the Reaming tool size of 8 mm diameter. And tapping was done on the 6.5 mm drill and 10.5 mm drill. The work piece was removed from the radial drilling machine. RESULT: Thus the given job was drilled, reamed and tapped to the required dimensions.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 33 EX.NO: 8 STUDY OF MILLING MACHINE DATE: AIM: To understand the working principle and operations done in milling machine. To identify the various components of milling machine and its function. DESCRIBTION: In milling machine work is feed against rotating multipoint cutter. The metal is removed in form of small chips. The material removal rate is high .The tool is rotating at high speed and it has many cutting edges. The multipoint cutting tool used here gives better surface finish. It can machine flat & irregular surface. The cutter is mounted on rotating spindle or arbor. The feed can be given in longitudinal, crosswise, vertical and angular direction. In milling operation one cutting edge will do cutting and other cutting edge will be idle and cooled. The stress on cutting edge is not continuous thus giving more life to cutting edge.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 34 SPECIFICATION • Table Length and Width • Maximum Longitudinal Cross table • Number of Spindle speeds • Power of driving motor • Floor space and net weight • Spindle nose taper size • Type of milling machine HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE The column and knee type milling machines suitable for floor work, maintenance work, tool room work. It has vertical column on its base .The column has machined guide ways on front face in which knee slides up and down on these ways. The column has housing for speed and feed mechanisms. The knee has saddle and work table. The horizontal type has axis of rotation of arbor in horizontal direction. The vertical type has axis of rotation of arbor in vertical direction. The plain or horizontal milling machine has base made of grey cast iron used as reservoir for storing cutting fluid. The column is main support for machine houses
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 35 motor and other driving mechanisms, guide ways. The knee projects from column, slides up and down. The knee support saddle and table. It can be moved up and down by elevating screw. The saddle supports and carries table and provide traversed movement. The table top surface is accurately machined and has t slots along the length for hold work piece. The table rests on guide ways of saddle. It travels longitudinally in horizontal plane to support work piece. The over arm is mounted on top of column and guided by it. It hold outer end of arbor to prevent it from bending. The arbor holds the cutter, tapered at one end to fit the spindle nose. There are2 slots to fit the nose keys for locating and driving it. BED TYPE MILLING MACHINE –FIXED BED TYPE SIMPLEX The bed type milling machine is large, heavy & rigid .The vertical motion is given to spindle head instead of table. The table is mounted on fixed bed instead of saddle and knee. The bed is fixed and it can’t move up, down or cross wise. The adjustable spindle head has spindle which can move up and down.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 36 MILLING CUTTERS TYPES
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 37 MILLING OPERATIONS RESULT: Thus the working principle and operations done in milling machine have been studied.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 38 EX.NO: 9 SURFACE MILLING DATE: AIM: To Machine a flat surface using milling machine (Conventional /Climb Method). MATERIALS REQUIRED: Work piece of required dimensions. TOOLS REQUIRED: Milling machine, Vernier caliper, SKETCH: In Peripheral Milling, Milled Surface is parallel To Cutter Axis. In Up milling or conventional milling cutter rotates opposite to direction of feed of work piece. In down milling or climb milling cutter rotates in same direction of travel of work piece.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 39 PROCEDURE: 1. Before setting up a job, be sure that the work piece, table, the taper in the spindle, and the arbor or cutter shank are free from chips, nicks, or burrs. Do not select a milling cutter of larger diameter than is necessary. 2. Check the machine to see if it is in good running order and properly lubricated, and that it moves freely, but not too freely in all directions. 3. Consider direction of rotation. Many cutters can be reversed on the arbor, so be sure you know whether the spindle is to rotate clockwise or counterclockwise. 4. Feed the work piece in a direction opposite the rotation of the milling cutter (conventional milling).Do not change feeds or speeds while the milling machine is in operation. When using clamps to secure a workpiece, be sure that they are tight and that the piece is held so it will not spring or vibrate under cut. 5. Use recommended cutting oil liberally. Use good judgment and common sense in planning every job. 6. Set up every job as close to the milling machine spindle as circumstances will permit. RESULT: Thus a flat surface is machined to required dimensions using milling machine.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 40 EX.NO: 10 GEAR CUTTING DATE: AIM: To machine a spur gear to the given module and number of teeth in the given work piece. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Blank of Dia 50 mm and length 50 mm TOOLS REQUIRED: Milling machine, Vernier caliper, Mandrel. SKETCH:
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 41 PROCEDURE: 1. Calculate the gear tooth proportions. Blank diameter = ( Z + 2) m Tooth depth = 2.25 m Tooth width = 1.5708 m where, Z = Number of teeth required, m = module 2. Indexing calculation Index crank movement = 40 / Z 3. The dividing head and the tail stock are bolted on the machine table. Their axis must be set parallel to the machine table. 4. The gear blank is held between the dividing head and tailstock using a mandrel. The mandrel is connected with the spindle of dividing head by a carrier and catch plate. 5. The cutter is mounted on the arbor. The cutter is centered accurately with the gear blank. 6. Set the speed and feed for machining. 7. For giving depth of cut, the table is raised till the periphery of the gear blank just touches the cutter. 8. The micrometer dial of vertical feed screw is set to zero in this position. 9. Then the table is raised further to give the required depth of cut. 10. The machine is started and feed is given to the table to cut the first groove of the blank. 11. After the cut, the table is brought back to the starting position. 12. Then the gear blank is indexed for the next tooth space. 13. This is continued till all the gear teeth are cut.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 42 CALCULATION : Z = No. of teeth = 23 m = module = 2 mm Blank Diameter = (Z + 2) m= (23 + 2) 2 = 50 mm Tooth Depth = 2.25 m= 2.25 * 2 = 4.5 mm Indexing Calculation = 40 / Z = 40 / 23 = 1 17/23 RESULT: Thus the required gear is machined using the milling machine to the required number of teeth.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 43 EX.NO: 11 STUDY OF SHAPER DATE: AIM: To understand the working principle and operations done in shaping machine. To identify the various components of shaper and its function. DESCRIBTION: The shaper is a relatively simple machine used for machining flat surfaces which may be horizontal, vertical or inclined with single point cutting tool. Here the tool reciprocates and the work is stationery. Tooling is simple, and shapers do not always require operator attention while cutting. The tool is fitted on the tool post on the front end of the ram. The ram reciprocates along with the tool to remove the metal in the forward stroke called as cutting stroke. The tool does not cut the metal in the return stroke called as idle stroke. Therefore one pass is nothing but the combination of one cutting stroke and one idle stroke.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 44 SHAPER PARTS: BASE: The base is a heavy and robust in construction which is made of cast iron by casting process. It should absorb vibration due to load and cutting forces while machining. RAM: The ram slides back and forth in dovetail or square ways to transmit power to the cutter. The starting point and the length of the stroke can be adjusted. CLAPPER BOX: The clapper box is needed because the cutter drags over the work on the return stroke. The clapper box is hinged so that the cutting tool will not dig in. Often this clapper box is automatically raised by mechanical, air, or hydraulic action.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY TABLE: The table is moved left and right, usually by hand, to position the work under the cutter when setting up. Then, either by hand or more often automatically, the table is moved sideways to feed the work under the cutter at the end or beginning of each stroke. SADDLE: The saddle moves up and down (Y axis), usually manually, to set the rough position of the depth of cut. Final depth can be set by the hand crank on the tool h COLUMN: The column supports the ram and the rails for the saddle. The mechanism for moving the ram and table is housed inside the column. TOOLHEAD: The tool head is fastened to the ram on a circular plate so that it can be rotated for making angular cuts. The tool for precise depth adjustments. • Holds the tool rigidly • Allows the tool to have an • The vertical slide of th work at any desired angle. • Apron consisting of a upon the vertical slide by a screw. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY The table is moved left and right, usually by hand, to position the work under the cutter when setting up. Then, either by hand or more often automatically, the table is oved sideways to feed the work under the cutter at the end or beginning of each The saddle moves up and down (Y axis), usually manually, to set the rough position of the depth of cut. Final depth can be set by the hand crank on the tool h The column supports the ram and the rails for the saddle. The mechanism for moving the ram and table is housed inside the column. head is fastened to the ram on a circular plate so that it can be rotated ular cuts. The tool head can also be moved up or down by its hand crank for precise depth adjustments. rigidly, provides vertical & angular movement. Allows the tool to have an automatic relief during return stroke. The vertical slide of the tool head is graduated in degrees so that we can any desired angle. consisting of a clapper box, clapper block and tool post upon the vertical slide by a screw. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 45 The table is moved left and right, usually by hand, to position the work under the cutter when setting up. Then, either by hand or more often automatically, the table is oved sideways to feed the work under the cutter at the end or beginning of each The saddle moves up and down (Y axis), usually manually, to set the rough position of the depth of cut. Final depth can be set by the hand crank on the tool head. The column supports the ram and the rails for the saddle. The mechanism for head is fastened to the ram on a circular plate so that it can be rotated head can also be moved up or down by its hand crank return stroke. so that we can clapper block and tool post is clamped
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY • On the forward cutting stroke to make rigid tool support. • On the return stroke block out of the clapper box by a sufficient amount preventing the tool cutting edge from dragging and consequent wear. SHAPER - SPECIFICATIONS • Length and breadth of the bed • Maximum axial travel and vertical travel of the bed • Maximum stroke length (of the ram / tool) • Range of number of strokes per minute • Range of table feed • Power of the main drive • Space occupied by the mach SHAPING OPERATIONS The tool post has been turned at an angle so that side of the material can be machined Major Applications: Square edges, side machining of blocks, etc The tool post is not angled so that the tool can be used to level a surface. Major Applications: Surface cutting of metal work piece etc. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY forward cutting stroke the clapper block fits securely to the tool support. return stroke, a slight frictional drag of the tool on the work lifts the block out of the clapper box by a sufficient amount preventing the tool cutting edge from dragging and consequent wear. FICATIONS • Length and breadth of the bed • Maximum axial travel and vertical travel of the bed • Maximum stroke length (of the ram / tool) • Range of number of strokes per minute • Space occupied by the machine The tool post has been turned at an angle so that side of the material can be machined Major Applications: Square edges, side machining of blocks, etc The tool post is not angled so that the tool can be used to level a surface. or Applications: Surface cutting of metal work piece etc. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 46 the clapper block fits securely to the clapper box , a slight frictional drag of the tool on the work lifts the block out of the clapper box by a sufficient amount preventing the tool cutting The tool post has been turned at an angle so that side of the material can be machined The tool post is not angled so that the tool can be used to level a surface.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY The top slide is slowly feed into the material so that a ‘rack’ can be machined for a rack and pinion gear system Major Applications: Teeth cutting in gears and other applications where teeth like structures are required. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY The top slide is slowly feed into the material so that a ‘rack’ can be machined for a rack Major Applications: Teeth cutting in gears and other applications where teeth like P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 47 The top slide is slowly feed into the material so that a ‘rack’ can be machined for a rack Major Applications: Teeth cutting in gears and other applications where teeth like
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY JOB SURFACES GENERATED BY SHAPER RESULT: Thus the working principle and operations done in shaping machine have been studied. P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY JOB SURFACES GENERATED BY SHAPER Thus the working principle and operations done in shaping machine have been P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 48 Thus the working principle and operations done in shaping machine have been
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 49 EX.NO: 12 STUDY OF PLANER DATE: AIM: To understand the working principle and operations done in planning machine. To identify the various components of planer and its function. DESCRIBTION: The Planer is a very large reciprocating machine tool used for machining flat surfaces which may be horizontal, vertical or inclined with single point cutting tool. Here the work reciprocates and the tool is stationery. Planer is mainly used for machining large and heavy work pieces like lathe bed ways, machine guide ways etc. The work is mounted on the table by any one of the work holding devices. Two vertical columns connected by a cross rail mounts the tool head. The tool cuts the work piece when the table reciprocates. In Planer also, the metal is removed during the cutting stroke called forward stroke and no metal is removed during the return stroke called idle stroke. Cutting stroke takes place at a slower speed and return stroke with faster speed.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY PARTS OF A PLANER 1. Bed 2. Table 3. Columns 4. Cross rail 5. Tool head P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGYP.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 50
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 51 PLANER - SPECIFICATIONS 1. Maximum length of the table 2. Total weight of the planer 3. Power of the motor 4. Range of speeds & feed available 5. Type of drive required PLANER OPERATIONS • Planing horizotal surface • Planing of an angle • Planing vertical surface • Planing curved surface
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 52 PLANER VS SHAPER • Tool stationary – work piece reciprocates • Large & heavy work piece • More accuracy – tool rigidly supported • Production time more • Work setting more skill • Heavy cut , strong base, strong tools RESULT: Thus the working principle and operations done in planning machine have been studied.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 53 EX.NO: 13 CUTTING KEY WAYS USING SHAPER/PLANER DATE: AIM: To cut external key to the required dimensions in Shaping Machine to accommodate key. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Work piece -shaft as per the required diameter TOOLS REQUIRED: Steel rule, Tipped tool, Scriber, Dot punch, Anvil, Surface gauge, Steel rule SKETCH:
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 54 PROCEDURE: 1. The dimensions of the given work piece are checked as per the requirements. 2. Key and key way dimensions in proportionate to shaft diameter found. 3. Key way dimensions are marked over the shaft then permanent mark are made using dot punch. 4. Key way is machined in shaper machine to the required dimensions. RESULT: Thus external key to the required dimensions in Shaping Machine is cut to accommodate key.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 55 EX.NO: 12 DOVE TAIL MACHINING IN SHAPER/PLANER DATE: AIM: To perform a dove tail fitting on the given work piece by shaper machine. MATERIALS REQUIRED: Rectangular Slab work piece as per the required dimension. TOOLS REQUIRED: Steel rule, Scriber, Dot punch, Try square, Parting tool SKETCH:
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 56 PROCEDURE: 1. Initially the given work piece is checked for its dimensions. 2. The dove tail surfaces are marked using scriber to given dimensions, then punched. 3. The job is fixed on a vice of the shaper to name external dove tail. 4. The vertical slide of the tool head is swiveled to the required angle from vertical position. 5. The apron is further swiveled away from the work so that the tool will clear the work during return stroke. 6. The angular down feed is given to the required depth of cut and length of stroke is adjusted. 7. The above procedure is respected to obtain an internal dove tail part. 8. Then the work piece is removed and assembled for dove tail fit. RESULT: Thus the dove tail [internal and external] part were made to the given dimensions and assembled to obtain dove tail fit assembly.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 57 EX.NO: 15 ESTIMATION OF MACHINING TIME FOR THE LATHE OPERATIONS DATE: AIM: To Determine the Machining Time Requirement For Lathe Operations. PROCEDURE: The factors that govern machining time will be understood from a simple case of machining. A steel rod has to be reduced in diameter from D1 to D2 over a length L by straight turning in a centre lathe as indicated in Figure. Actual cutting or machining time =TC Where, t = depth of cut in one pass, mm.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 58 But practically the value of t and hence np is decided by the machining allowance kept or left in the preformed blanks. Usually, for saving time and material, very less machining allowance is left, Hence, number of passes used is generally one or maximum two : one for roughing and one for finishing. The Equation clearly indicates that in turning to a given diameter and length, the cutting time, TC is governed mainly by the selection of the values of cutting velocity, VC and feed, so. This is true more or less in all machining operations being done in different machine tools. ESTIMATION OF MACHINING TIME: In case of turning in lathes a. Determine the length of cut by proper selection of amount of approach, A (2 ~ 5 mm) and over run, O (1 to 3 mm). b. Select the approximate values of VC and so based on the tool –work materials and other factors. c. Determine the spindle speed, N using equation then fix N as well as so from the chart giving the lists of N and so available in that lathe d. Finally determine TC using equation
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 59 The machining time for facing, grooving, taper turning, threading, parting etc. in lathes can also be determined or estimated following the same principle and method. CALCULATION: How much machining time will be required to reduce the diameter of a cast iron rod from 120 mm to 116 mm over a length of 100 mm by turning using a carbide insert? Reasonably select values of VC and so. RESULT: Thus the machining time for lathe operations can be determined by this method.
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 60 VIVA QUESTIONS 1. What is a lathe? 2. What are the various operations can be performed on a lathe? 3. What are principle parts of the lathe? 4. What are the types of headstock? 5. State the various parts mounted on the carriage? 6. What are the four types of tool post? 7. What is an apron? 8. State any two specification of lathe? 9. List any four types of lathe? 10. What is a semi-automatic lathe? 11. What is copying lathe? 12. State the various feed mechanisms used for obtaining automatic feed? 13. List any four holding devices? 14. Define the term ‘Conicity’? 15. What is shaper? 16. List any four important parts of a Shaper? 17. How the feed & depth of cut is given to the shaper? 18. Mention any four-shaper specification? 19. Define cutting stroke? 20. Why the time for forward stroke is greater than return stroke? 21. How the planer differs from the shaper? 22. State the use of planer? 23. List the various types of planners? 24. Name the various parts of a double housing planer? 25. Mention any four specification of planer? 26. What is meant by drilling? 27. What is gang -drilling machine? 28. Mention any four specification of drilling machine? 29. List any four machining operations that can be performed on a drilling machine? 30. What are the different ways to mount the drilling tool? 31. What are the specifications of the milling machine? 32. Mention the various movements of universal milling machine table? 33. State any two comparisons between plain &universal milling machine? 34. What are the cutter holding devices? 35. List the various type of milling attachment? 36. Write any six specifications in milling machine? 37. Write any ten nomenclature of plain milling cutter? 38. What are the advantages of milling process?
  • P.M SUBRAMANIAN, ASST PROF (AUTO), GRT INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY Page 61 39. What are the down milling processes? 40. List out the various milling operations? 41. What are the types of milling cutter? 42. What does term indexing mean? 43. What are the three types dividing heads? 44. What is cam milling? 45. What are the different types of thread milling? 46. What are the other forming methods for manufacturing gears? 47. List the gear generating process? 48. Mention the various parts of single point cutting tool? 49. What is tool signature? 50. What is effect of back rake angle &mention the types? 51. What is side rake angle & mention its effects? 52. What are all the conditions for using positive rake angle? 53. When will the negative rake angles be used? 54. Define orthogonal & oblique cutting? 55. Define machinability of metal? 56. What are the factors affecting the machinability?