A fabless (fabrication-less) semiconductor company specializes in the design and sale of hardware devices and semiconductor chips while outsourcing the fabrication or &quot;fab&quot; of the devices to a specialized manufacturer called a semiconductor foundry.
APAC – AsiaPACific…With many of these products being manufactured in Asia, along with growing consumption electronics in these countries, explains why sales to this region are so large. The Asia-Pacific region surpassed the Americas to become the world’s largest region for semiconductor sales in 2001, and since then, its lead has increased every year.
An integrated device manufacturer (IDM) is a semiconductor company which designs, manufactures, and sells integrated circuit (IC) products. Cypress Semiconductor, Fujitsu, Hitachi, IBM, IDT, Intel, LSI Corporation, Matsushita, Mitsubishi, Freescale, NEC, Philips, NXP, Samsung, STMicroelectronics, Infineon, Sony, National Semiconductor, Texas Instruments, and Toshiba. Vertical integrated captive producers manufacture for in-house use. Vertical integrated captive-merchant producers manufacture semiconductors partly for their own use and partly for sale. Merchant producers are companies making semiconductors only for sale. A fabless semiconductor company specializes in the design and sale of hardware devices implemented on semiconductor chips but do not manufacture them. Nvidia Today most major IDMs including Freescale, Infineon, Texas Instruments and Cypress Semiconductor have adopted the practice of outsourcing chip manufacturing as a significant manufacturing strategy. Foundries manufacture semiconductors to customer specifications but do not design them UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) which was founded as Taiwan's first semiconductor company in 1980 Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC)
MESFET – Metal Semiconductor FETs.
HITEC city - H yderabad I nformation T echnology E ngineering C onsultancy City.. ATMP (Assembly Test Mark Plant). Fab city houses close 15 companies with an expected investment of $7Billion. This project will be realized over a number of years in three phases: Phase 1 : (07/08) investment of US$1 billion; the assembly and testing phase. Estimated employment: 2000 jobs. Phase 2 : (08/10) investment of US$2 billion; the construction of the actual chip manufacturing facility and leading to the production of semiconductor chips. Estimated employment: 1000 jobs. Phase 3 : (10/15-17) establishment of advanced semi-conductor plant. Estimated employment: 5000 jobs.
Chairman and CEO of TSMC: Dr Morris Chang
INTEL - Int egrated El ectronics Corporation Paul Otellini (President & CEO of INTEL)
Divestiture - The partial or full disposal of an investment or asset through sale, exchange, closure or bankruptcy. Ajith Manocha – CEO of Global Foundries…Bachalors from Delhi university and Masters from Kansas State university.
YOY – Year Over Year
All four of these companies (TSMC, GlobalFoundries, Samsung, Intel) are expected to outperform all other foundries in 2011, wielding the technology, capacity, and money to keep their leadership positions.
Fabrication units in India and outside
Seminar FABRICATION FACILITY IN INDIA AND OUTSIDE Subash John CGB0911005 VSD528 M. Sc. [Engg.] in VLSI System Design Module Title: Full Custom Physical Design Module Leader: Mr. Chandramohan P.
Contents <ul><li>Semiconductor manufacturing in India </li></ul><ul><li>Global semiconductor market </li></ul><ul><li>Types of chip manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Fabs in India </li></ul><ul><li>Fabs outside India </li></ul><ul><li>Fab rankings </li></ul><ul><li>Current trends </li></ul><ul><li>Future scope </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
Semiconductor manufacturing in India <ul><li>The semicon industry is one of the key drivers of growth, not just for a few electronics appliances but of the entire electronics value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, there are NO operational wafer fabrication units in the country and semiconductor manufacturing is limited to three government companies (BEL, SITAR and SCL). </li></ul><ul><li>Main drivers of the semicon industry are cost competitiveness, vast talent pool, stringent IP protection measures and proximity to other APAC countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing spend on electronics products in India offers a large opportunity to global semiconductor companies to set up manufacturing plants in the country. The Indian government has set up Fab City in Hyderabad, which houses 14 manufacturing plants and is expected to create 1.4 million jobs by 2016 in over 200 ancillary industries. </li></ul>
Global semiconductor market <ul><li>The global semiconductor industry is dominated by USA, South Korea, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, and European Union. </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide semiconductor growth in recent years has been largely driven by the increasing demand </li></ul><ul><li>for consumer electronics such as portable music players, mobile phones and flat screen televisions. </li></ul><ul><li>During the global recession, sales in the Asia Pacific remained flat, whereas that in the Americas and Europe witnessed a steep decline. </li></ul>Fig. 1 Global market share
Fabs in India <ul><li>SCL (Semiconductor Laboratory) </li></ul><ul><li>SITAR (Society for Integrated Circuit Technology and Applied Research) </li></ul><ul><li>BEL (Bharath Electronics Limited) </li></ul><ul><li>ITI (Industrial Training Institute) </li></ul><ul><li>USHA </li></ul><ul><li>CDIL (Continental Device India Limited) </li></ul><ul><li>Team Asia/Greaves </li></ul>
Fabs in India (1/2) <ul><li>SCL – Semiconductor Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>SCL (formerly known as Semiconductor Complex Limited under Dept. of Space, Govt. of India, established in 1983), through its in-house R&D efforts has developed 3 micron, 2 micron, 1.2 micron and 0.8 micron CMOS technologies as well specialized technologies such as EEPROM and CCD. Mainly into development of Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) for high reliability and industrial applications. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>SCL is mainly into manufacture of digital, mixed signal IC’s and that of electro-optical image sensors. These have been developed using Class-10, 6-inch Wafer Fabrication Facility - the facility is designed and equipped to meet the requirements of 0.8 micron CMOS and CMOS-compatible process technologies. </li></ul>
Fabs in India (2/2) <ul><li>SITAR (Society for Integrated Circuit Technology and Applied Research ) </li></ul><ul><li>SITAR is a Government of India Organization. It has two units; SITAR, </li></ul><ul><li>Bangalore established in 2003, engaged in Digital CMOS ASIC devices, </li></ul><ul><li>design and fabrication. SITAR has dedicated CMOS process line housed </li></ul><ul><li>in class 10 clean rooms working on 1u node. </li></ul><ul><li>SITAR at present is engaged in design, development of sensors for </li></ul><ul><li>diversified applications like Medical Image Sensing and Therapy Monitoring Unit. </li></ul><ul><li>The other unit-Gallium Arsenide Enabling Technology Centre (GAETEC), Hyderabad is established in 1996 and merged with SITAR in April 2004 . </li></ul><ul><li>At present GAETEC is running 0.7 and 0.5 micron MESFET technologies. </li></ul>Fig.2 SITAR ASIC
Comparison of Fabs in India Table 1. Comparison of Top 3 Fabs in India Fab Name SCL SITAR BEL Location Chandigarh Bangalore & Hyderabad Bangalore Technology node 0.8u 0.5u 1u Clean room Class 10 Class 10 Class 100 Wafers/year 44000 20000 24000 Wafer size 6″(150mm) 6″ 4″(100mm) Products Data Converters, Clock Drivers, LVDS Transmitter and Receiver Digital Frequency Synthesizer, Content Addressable Memory, DSPs Industrial ICs, Consumer ICs, Digital ICs
Fab city <ul><li>Located at Hyderabad and setup by SemIndia Inc. under the license of AMD with an initial investment of around $3 billion </li></ul><ul><li>SemIndia will also set up an assembly, test, mark, packing (ATMP) facility close to the Fab unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Hindustan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company ( HSMC ) has roped in Infineon Technologies as a technology partner and licensed its 130 nm technology. </li></ul><ul><li>HSMC will manufacture Infineon's chips for cell phones, smart cards and automotive segment for the Indian market </li></ul>Fig. 3 Fab ecosystem
Fabs outside India <ul><li>TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company) </li></ul><ul><li>UMC (United Microelectronics Corporation) </li></ul><ul><li>Global Foundries </li></ul><ul><li>SMIC (Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation) </li></ul><ul><li>Tower Jazz </li></ul><ul><li>IBM (International Business Machine) </li></ul><ul><li>CNSE (College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering) </li></ul><ul><li>Intel ( Int egrated El ectronics Corporation) </li></ul><ul><li>SRMicroelectronics </li></ul><ul><li>Freescale Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><li>Hynix </li></ul><ul><li>Fujitsu </li></ul><ul><li>National Semiconductor </li></ul><ul><li>Vanguard </li></ul><ul><li>ASMC (Advanced Semiconductor Manufacturing Corporation) </li></ul><ul><li>ON Semiconductor </li></ul>
<ul><li>Founded in 1987, world 's first dedicated semiconductor foundry. </li></ul><ul><li>Has a total 11 fab’s working on different technology nodes from 28nm to 180nm </li></ul><ul><li>Various fabless high-tech companies such as Applied Micro Circuits Corporation, Qualcomm, Altera, Broadcom, Conexant, Marvell, NVIDIA, and VIA are customers of TSMC. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>One 150 mm (6 inches) wafer fab in full operation (Fab 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Four 200 mm (8 inches) wafer fabs in full operation (Fabs 3, 5, 6, 8) </li></ul><ul><li>Two 300 mm (12 inches) wafer fabs in production (Fabs 12, 14) </li></ul><ul><li>One 200mm (6 inches)wafer fab in Shanghai (Fab 10) </li></ul><ul><li>WaferTech, TSMC's wholly owned subsidiary 200 mm (8 inches) fab in Camas, Washington, USA. </li></ul>Fig. 4 Wafer diameters
<ul><li>Founded in 1968, ventured into the fab business only in the early 90’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Headquartered in Santa Clara, California, United States is the world's largest semiconductor chip maker, based on revenue. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel also makes motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphic chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. </li></ul><ul><li>Intel combines advanced chip design capability with a leading-edge manufacturing capability. </li></ul><ul><li>Has four, 300mm fabs at Arizona, three, 300mm at Oregon, four at Leixlip,Ireland, one each in New Mexico, Massachusetts, Israel and China, </li></ul><ul><li>Intel’s 22nm microprocessor are due for production in early 2012 and a 14nm manufacturing plant in Chandler, Arizona will enable Intel to manufacture more powerful and efficient computer chips. The plant is expected to begin production in 2013. </li></ul>
<ul><li>World's third largest independent semiconductor foundry, with its headquarters located in Milpitas, California. </li></ul><ul><li>Global Foundries was created by the divestiture of the manufacturing side of AMD in 2009, and was expanded through its merger with Chartered Semiconductor on January 13, 2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Global Foundries manufactures integrated circuits in high volume mostly for semiconductor companies such as AMD, Broadcom, Qualcomm, and STMicroelectronics. </li></ul><ul><li>The company has five 200 mm fabrication plants in Singapore, and two 300 mm fabrication plants each in Germany and Singapore, as well as a new 300mm fabrication plant under construction in Saratoga County, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Has a total 8 fab’s working on different technology nodes from 28nm to 600nm </li></ul>
Comparison of Fabs from around the world Table 2. Comparison of top 5 Fabs outside India Fab name TSMC Intel UMC Global foundries SMIC Founded 1987 1994 1980 2009 2000 Location Hsinchu, Taiwan (12) Santa Clara, California (16) Hsinchu, Taiwan (10) Milpitas, California (8) Shanghai, China (8) Technology node (nm) 22/28/45/55/65/90/130 14/22/32/45/65/90/130/180 28/40/65/90/130/150/180/250 600nm to 40nm 350nm to 40nm Wafer size (inches) 4/6/8/12 6/8/12 6/8/12 6/8/12 6/8/12 Wafers/year 13.2 Million 8.6 Million 2Million 1.5Million 900K
Fab Rankings Table 3. Revenues for Fabs for the year 2010 Fig 5. World’s top semiconductor consumers 2010 Ranking Company 2010 Revenues YOY change (%) 1 TSMC US$ 13.3B 48 2 UMC US$ 3.9B 41 3 Global Foundries US$ 3.5B 219 4 SMIC US$ 1.5B 45 5 Tower Jazz US$ 510M 70 6 VISC US$ 508M 33 7 Dongbu US$ 495M 25 8 IBM US$ 430M 28 9 Magna Chip US$ 420M 60 10 Samsung US$ 400M 38
Fab nodes Fig 6. Technology nodes Table 4. Top 25 Semicon suppliers
Future Scope <ul><li>Moving to larger wafers is key for the integrated circuit industry because it drives substantial cost reductions. </li></ul><ul><li>The use 18 inch wafers (450mm) from the current size of 12 inch which reduces the cost per die by 20-30% and the move into smaller technology nodes (22nm, 14nm) which allows more circuits to be packed in an area. </li></ul><ul><li>TSMC broke ground on its latest factory, which it is calling a "giga" fab because it will produce more than 100,000 wafers a month and generate annual revenue of $5 billion when it reaches full capacity. TSMC has two similar fabs that will have a combined capacity of more than 240,000 wafers a month by the end of this year. </li></ul><ul><li>Fearing the possibility of rogue programs getting embedded in imported chips that could compromise security of critical installations, the government is planning to two chip-manufacturing units at an investment topping Rs 25,000 crore through a public-private partnership. </li></ul>
References  Ken Liu (2011), TSMC Retains Lead on 2010 Foundry Ratings [online] available at < http://news.cens.com/cens/html/en/news/news_inner_35197.html> Retrieved on 20 Nov 2011  Peter Clarke (2011), Chipmakers 2011 capabilities ranked [online] <http://electronics-eetimes.com/en/chipmakers-201-capabilities ranked.html?cmp_id=7&news_id=222905562#> Retrieved on 20 Nov 2011  Department of Information Technology, Government of India (2011), Study on semiconductor design, embedded software and services industry. Bangalore: India Semiconductor Association