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Strategic teaching and examples (1)

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  • Welcome! Denise and I are secondary regional reading coaches for the Alabama Reading Initiative. This year marks the beginning of a new focus for education in Alabama. 14 schools have been chosen to be part of an initiative in the middle and high schools called ARI Project for Adolescent Literacy. A key factor in promoting adolescent literacy is strategic teaching. Today you will learn about the part that strategic teaching plays in adolescent literacy, the defining features of this, how to recognize strategic teaching in a classroom, and participate in strategic lessons.
  • Notice the term literacy strategies, meaning that strategic teaching is used in all content areas, every day, every class. It is a process, not a program, a way of thinking and organizing a lesson. We tell teachers, strategic teaching isn’t just about teaching reading, it is about maximizing one’s students ability to comprehend content material. It is not isolated strategies, but connections are made before, during, and after reading so that students learn that reading is purposeful and active at all stages. It doesn’t isolate skills such as vocabulary or writing but makes these an integral part of comprehension. The teacher’s purpose for each lesson guides the strategies used.
  • Kids are doing well at the elementary level, but achievement declines as they go through middle and high school. Turn and talk to a neighbor about the reasons for this decline.
  • Strategic teaching will benefit all students. Everyone encounters text that they can’t handle. We as teachers need to provide literacy tools for these students to take with them after they leave our classroom. Struggling readers – 5-10 percent that need extreme intervention (decoding). 10-60% that are poor comprehenders, need leveled text and good strategies via strategic teaching. These students needs can be addressed through strategic teaching. And lastly, expanding readers that still encounter difficult text and need ways to deal with that text successfully.
  • Strategic teaching is able to address each of these at one point or another. The connection to comprehension is made through the connections of before, during, after reading strategies.
  • What makes strategic teaching extremely effective is that connections are made before, during, and after reading. Everyday those kids are engaged in each of these phases. Not, Monday is a day to activate prior knowledge…Tuesday, we read, and Wednesday we access. Purposes….
  • Frequently the part left out the most, replace with well meaning teachers that summarize information, write it up as a study guide, and lecture. During reading activities are purposeful and active.
  • Before and after do not take much of the class period but are vital. Before – 10 minutes, During – 30, After 10, if that much.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • Every day in every class should encompass …
  • Sample lesson plan and activity for today.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.
  • To make all of this happen smoothly, these ideas must become part of a philosopy, a way of thinking about student learning.

Transcript

  • 1. Strategic TeachingStrategic Teachingin thein theMiddle and High SchoolMiddle and High School
  • 2. Strategic Teaching Defined…Strategic Teaching Defined…Strategic teaching is the process of using a variety ofStrategic teaching is the process of using a variety ofliteracy strategies.literacy strategies.It maximizes the understanding and retention ofIt maximizes the understanding and retention ofcontent material.content material.It incorporates before, during, and after readingIt incorporates before, during, and after readingstrategies.strategies.It incorporates a variety of vocabularyIt incorporates a variety of vocabularydevelopment and writing strategies.development and writing strategies.The strategies a teacher chooses will depend on the purposeThe strategies a teacher chooses will depend on the purposeof the lesson and the nature of the material being studied.of the lesson and the nature of the material being studied.
  • 3. Why is Strategic TeachingWhy is Strategic TeachingNecessary?Necessary?The student performance drops off in the middleThe student performance drops off in the middleschool and high school yearsschool and high school years (International Reading Association andNational Middle School Association, 2002).Research has shown that many children who readat grade level in grade 3 will not automatically becomeproficient comprehenders in later grades. Therefore,teachers must teach comprehension explicitly, beginningin the primary grades and continuing through high school(RAND Reading Study Group, 2002).
  • 4. It benefits ALL of our students.It benefits ALL of our students.Struggling ReadersStriving ReadersExpandingReaders
  • 5. The Strategic TeacherThe Strategic Teacher TheThe strategic teacher plans lessons with thestrategic teacher plans lessons with theoutcomeoutcome in mind. The outcomes of strategicin mind. The outcomes of strategiclessons move the students toward mastery oflessons move the students toward mastery ofcontent standards.content standards. TheThe strategic teacher plans and facilitatesstrategic teacher plans and facilitatesengaging lessonsengaging lessons. Students in strategic. Students in strategicclassrooms have the opportunity to talk, listen,classrooms have the opportunity to talk, listen,read, write, and investigate everyday whileread, write, and investigate everyday whileactively involved in the learning process.actively involved in the learning process. TheThe strategic teacher builds assessment intostrategic teacher builds assessment intoevery lesson.every lesson. The lesson contains elements thatThe lesson contains elements thatallow the teacher to know which students haveallow the teacher to know which students haveand have not met the stated outcome(s).and have not met the stated outcome(s).
  • 6. Connection to ComprehensionConnection to ComprehensionThe following six strategies appear to have a firm scientific basisThe following six strategies appear to have a firm scientific basisfor improving text comprehension. These findings are fromfor improving text comprehension. These findings are from PutPutReading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching ChildrenReading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Childrento Read, 2001.to Read, 2001. Monitoring comprehensionMonitoring comprehension Using graphic and semantic organizersUsing graphic and semantic organizers Answering questionsAnswering questions Generating questionsGenerating questions Recognizing text structureRecognizing text structure SummarizingSummarizingThe following strategies have received some support from theThe following strategies have received some support from theresearch.research. Making use of prior knowledgeMaking use of prior knowledge Using mental imageryUsing mental imagery
  • 7. Before Reading StrategiesBefore Reading Strategies activate background knowledgeactivate background knowledge establish a purpose for readingestablish a purpose for reading generate questionsgenerate questions make predictions about textmake predictions about text encounter new vocabularyencounter new vocabulary connect writing to readingconnect writing to reading
  • 8. During Reading StrategiesDuring Reading Strategies engage with the textengage with the text use cognitive processuse cognitive process verify and reformulate predictionsverify and reformulate predictions integrate new information with priorintegrate new information with priorknowledgeknowledge self-monitor comprehensionself-monitor comprehension construct graphic organizersconstruct graphic organizers summarize textsummarize text
  • 9. After Reading StrategiesAfter Reading Strategies reflect on what they readreflect on what they read evaluate predictionsevaluate predictions examine questions that guidedexamine questions that guidedreadingreading respond to text through discussionrespond to text through discussion respond to text through writingrespond to text through writing retell or summarizeretell or summarize
  • 10. Strategic Teaching InvolvesStrategic Teaching Involves Purposeful Planning-Purposeful Planning- Make before, during, and afterMake before, during, and afterliteracy connections by choosing strategies depending onliteracy connections by choosing strategies depending onthe purpose of the lesson, student’s needs, and the naturethe purpose of the lesson, student’s needs, and the natureof the material being studied.of the material being studied. Multiple StrategiesMultiple Strategies -- Incorporate strategies that supportIncorporate strategies that supportvarious learning styles and preferences.various learning styles and preferences. Connected StrategiesConnected Strategies –– Incorporate before, during, andIncorporate before, during, andafter reading strategies that include a variety of vocabularyafter reading strategies that include a variety of vocabularydevelopment and writing strategies.development and writing strategies. Explicit InstructionExplicit Instruction –– Maximize the understanding andMaximize the understanding andretention of content material through direct explanation,retention of content material through direct explanation,modeling, guided practice, and independent application. (Imodeling, guided practice, and independent application. (Ido, we do, you do.)do, we do, you do.)
  • 11. Strategic Teaching ShouldStrategic Teaching ShouldInclude…Include…The Five Literacies in Every LessonThe Five Literacies in Every LessonReadingReadingWritingWritingTalkingTalkingListeningListeningInvestigatingInvestigating
  • 12. Strategic Lesson ExampleStrategic Lesson ExampleTopic: SurvivalTopic: Survival Course of StudyCourse of StudyObjectives: N/AObjectives: N/ALesson Objectives: toLesson Objectives: touse comprehension skillsuse comprehension skillsBeforeBefore ReadingReadingOutcomeOutcome:: activate prioractivate priorknowledge and buildknowledge and buildvocabulary.vocabulary.StrategyStrategy:: Interview andInterview andresponseresponseTeacherTeacher ActivityActivity::Teacher will model theTeacher will model theinterview and responseinterview and responsestrategy .strategy .StudentStudent ActivityActivity::Students will interviewStudents will interviewthree people with thethree people with thequestion: What doesquestion: What doessurvival mean to you? Writesurvival mean to you? Writeresponses on note card.responses on note card.Then turn note card overThen turn note card overand write a statement thatand write a statement thatincludes interviews as wellincludes interviews as wellas personal response.as personal response.DuringDuring ReadingReadingOutcomeOutcome:: Students focusStudents focuson skills needed as oneon skills needed as onereads.reads.StrategyStrategy:: GrandGrandConversationsConversationsTeacherTeacher ActivityActivity::The teacher reads aloudThe teacher reads aloudarticle (Hiker Resorts toarticle (Hiker Resorts toSelf-Amputation)Self-Amputation)encouraging students to useencouraging students to usecards.cards.StudentStudent ActivityActivity::Respond to the reading withRespond to the reading withWonderWonder,, Notice, PriorNotice, PriorKnowledge, or Spark card.Knowledge, or Spark card.AfterAfter ReadingReadingOutcomeOutcome: To reflect on: To reflect onarticle and respond to thearticle and respond to thereading through writing.reading through writing.StrategyStrategy:: Reflection CircleReflection CircleTeacherTeacher ActivityActivity::Model the use of theModel the use of thereflection circle graphicreflection circle graphicorganizer (Venn diagram)organizer (Venn diagram)StudentStudent ActivityActivity::Respond to each phase ofRespond to each phase ofthe circle about how thisthe circle about how thisman’s survival affected him,man’s survival affected him,his family, his community,his family, his community,and other hikers.and other hikers.
  • 13. WonderWonder,, Notice, Prior Knowledge,Notice, Prior Knowledge,or Spark cardor Spark cardGrand Conversations StrategyGrand Conversations StrategyGrand conversations are discussions held by theGrand conversations are discussions held by theentire class community. This strategy allows forentire class community. This strategy allows fordialogue among students that is student directeddialogue among students that is student directedand each one has the opportunity to critique,and each one has the opportunity to critique,debate and extend upon each other’s ideas.debate and extend upon each other’s ideas.ObjectivesObjectives -To provide a skillful strategy to students-To provide a skillful strategy to studentsthat helps them focus on comprehending andthat helps them focus on comprehending andthinking as they readthinking as they read-To develop deeper understanding.-To develop deeper understanding.
  • 14. Procedure:Procedure:1. Hand out the think aloud cards to1. Hand out the think aloud cards tostudents and a reading passage such as anstudents and a reading passage such as anarticle, a text or a novel.article, a text or a novel.2. The teacher or a fluent reader from the2. The teacher or a fluent reader from theclass reads aloud. As the reading takesclass reads aloud. As the reading takesplace, the students are directed to use theplace, the students are directed to use thecards as follows:cards as follows:WonderWonder,, Notice, Prior Knowledge,Notice, Prior Knowledge,or Spark cardor Spark card
  • 15. W – “I Wonder” cardW – “I Wonder” card- use when you have a- use when you have aquestion about what is being read orquestion about what is being read or“wonder” about the information.“wonder” about the information.N – “I Notice” cardN – “I Notice” card – use when you notice– use when you noticesomething interesting about the text orsomething interesting about the text orpictures, any connections or incongruence’s.pictures, any connections or incongruence’s.P – “Prior Knowledge” cardP – “Prior Knowledge” card – use when you– use when youhave any prior knowledge to share about thehave any prior knowledge to share about thetopic.topic.S – “Spark” cardS – “Spark” card – use when someone else– use when someone elsesays something that makes you think ofsays something that makes you think ofsomething else related to the text. This cansomething else related to the text. This canonly be used during a discussion.only be used during a discussion.
  • 16. 33.. As each student uses a card, the card isAs each student uses a card, the card isturned over. All students must useturned over. All students must usetheir cards before starting over.their cards before starting over.4. When all students have used their cards,4. When all students have used their cards,turn them back to front and startturn them back to front and startthe process over.the process over.
  • 17. N SWPWonderWonder,, Notice, PriorNotice, PriorKnowledge, or Spark cardKnowledge, or Spark card
  • 18. Venn DiagramVenn Diagram
  • 19. Other StrategiesOther Strategies Purposeful Planning-Purposeful Planning- Make before, during, and afterMake before, during, and afterliteracy connections by choosing strategies depending onliteracy connections by choosing strategies depending onthe purpose of the lesson, student’s needs, and the naturethe purpose of the lesson, student’s needs, and the natureof the material being studied.of the material being studied. Multiple StrategiesMultiple Strategies -- Incorporate strategies that supportIncorporate strategies that supportvarious learning styles and preferences.various learning styles and preferences. Connected StrategiesConnected Strategies –– Incorporate before, during, andIncorporate before, during, andafter reading strategies that include a variety of vocabularyafter reading strategies that include a variety of vocabularydevelopment and writing strategies.development and writing strategies. Explicit InstructionExplicit Instruction –– Maximize the understanding andMaximize the understanding andretention of content material through direct explanation,retention of content material through direct explanation,modeling, guided practice, and independent application. (Imodeling, guided practice, and independent application. (Ido, we do, you do.)do, we do, you do.)