LINGUISTICS FINAL PAPERByMaría del Refugio Garza Landeros
Introduction• Along the years, many differentteaching methods have beendeveloped whether to face studentsneeds or to match the requirements ofa new administration, all of themclaiming to be the best option to teachEnglish. Let’s remember some ofthem. . .
Review on teaching methods• Total Physical Response (TPR).• The Silent Way.• Community Language Learning.• Suggestopedia.• Whole Language.• Multiple Intelligences.• Neurolinguistic Programming.• The Lexical Approach.• Competency-Based Language Teaching.
Total Physical Response (TPR)Developed by James Asher, TPR is a language learning method based on the coordination of speech andaction. It is linked to the trace theory of memory, which holds that the more often or intensively a memoryconnection is traced, the stronger the memory will be. There are six principles Asher elaborates:1. Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalisticprocesses2. Listening should develop before speaking3. Children respond physically to spoken language, and adult learners learn better if they do that too4. Once listening comprehension has been developed, speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it.5. Adults should use right-brain motor activities, while the left hemisphere watches and learns6. Delaying speech reduces stress.• Some of the objectives of Total Physical Response are:– Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level– Using comprehension as a means to speaking– Using action-based drills in the imperative form• TPR uses a sentence-based grammatical syllabus.• TPR main learning techniques and activities are based on situations where a command is given in theimperative and the students obey the command.
The Silent WayCaleb Gattegno founded "The Silent Way" as a method for language learning in the early 70s, sharingmany of the same essential principles as the cognitive code and making good use of the theoriesunderlying Discovery Learning.• Some of his basic theories were:•"teaching should be subordinated to learning" and•"the teacher works with the student; the student works on the language".• The most prominent characteristic of the method was that the teacher typically stayed "silent" mostof the time, as part of his/her role as facilitator and stimulator, and thus the methods popularname.• Language learning is usually seen as a problem solving activity to be engaged in by the students bothindependently and as a group, and the teacher needs to stay "out of the way" in the process as muchas possible.• The Silent Way is also well-known for its common use of small colored rods of varying length(Cuisinere rods) and color-coded word charts depicting pronunciation values, vocabulary andgrammatical paradigms.• Typical Techniques(1) Sound-Color Chart - ( Trefers students to a color-coded wall chart depicting individual sounds in thetarget language - students use this to point out and build words with correct pronunciation)(2) Teachers Silence (T is generally silent, only giving help when it is absolutely necessary)(3) Peer Correction (Ss are encouraged to help each other in a cooperative and not competitive spirit)
(4) Rods (are used to trigger meaning, and to introduce or actively practice language. They can even bemanipulated directly or abstractly to create sentences)(5) Self-correction Gestures (T uses hands to indicate that something is incorrect or needs changing)(6) Word Chart (the sounds in each word corresponding in color to the Sound-Color Chart described above -students use this to build sentences)(7) Fidel Chart (A chart that is color-coded according to the sound-color chart but includes the variousEnglish spellings so that they can be directly related to actual sounds)(8) Structured Feedback (Students are invited to make observations about the days lesson and what theyhave learned)• It is a unique method and the first of its kind to really concentrate on cognitive principles in languagelearning.
Community Language LearningIn the early seventies, Charles Curran developed a new education model he called "Counseling-Learning". This was essentially an example of an innovative model that primarily considered "affective"factors as paramount in the learning process. Learners were to be considered not as a "class", but as a"group", Currans philosophy dictated that students were to be thought of as "clients" - their needs beingaddressed by a "counselor" in the form of the teacher.• The CLL method Principles:– To encourage the students to take increasingly more responsibility for their own learning, and to"learn about their learning", so to speak.– Learning in a nondefensive manner is considered to be very important, with teacher and studentregarding each other as a "whole person" where intellect and ability are not separated fromfeelings.– The initial struggles with learning the new language are addressed by creating an environment ofmutual support, trust and understanding between both "learner-clients" and the "teacher-counselor.”
• The Community Language Learning method involves some of the following features:(1) Students are to be considered as "learner-clients" and the teacher as a "teacher-counselor".(2) A relationship of mutual trust and support is considered essential to the learning process.(3) Students are permitted to use their native language, and are provided with translations from theteacher which they then attempt to apply.(4) Grammar and vocabulary are taught inductively.(5) "Chunks" of target language produced by the students are recorded and later listened to - theyare also transcribed with native language equivalents to become texts the students work with.(6) Students apply the target language independently and without translation when they feel inclined/confident enough to do so.(7) Students are encouraged to express not only how they feel about the language, but how they feelabout the learning process, to which the teacher expresses empathy and understanding.(8) A variety of activities can be included (for example, focusing on a particular grammar orpronunciation point, or creating new sentences based on the recordings/transcripts).• Typical Techniques(1) Tape Recording Student Conversation (Ss choose what they want to say, and their target languageproduction is recorded for later listening/dissemination)(2) Transcription (T produces a transcription of the tape-recorded conversation with translations in themother language - this is then used for follow up activities or analysis)(3) Reflection on Experience (T takes time during or after various activities to allow students to expresshow they feel about the language and the learning experience, and T indicates empathy/understanding)(4) Reflective Listening (Students listen to their own voices on the tape in a relaxed and reflectiveenvironment )(5) Human Computer (T is a "human computer" for the students to control - T stating anything in the targetlanguage the student wants to practice, giving them the opportunity to self correct)• (6) Small Group Tasks (Ss work in small groups to create new sentences using the transcript, afterwardssharing them with the rest of the class)
SuggestopediaIn the late 70s, a Bulgarian psychologist by the name of Georgi Lozanov introduced the contentionthat students naturally set up psychological barriers to learning - based on fears that they will beunable to perform and are limited in terms of their ability to learn. Based on psychological researchon extrasensory perception, Lozanov began to develop a language learning method that focused on"desuggestion" of the limitations learners think they have, and providing the sort of relaxed state ofmind that would facilitate the retention of material to its maximum potential. This method becameknown as "Suggestopedia" - the name reflecting the application of the power of "suggestion" to thefield of pedagogy.• Main ObjectiveTo tap into more of students mental potential to learn, in order to accelerate the process by whichthey learn to understand and use the target language for communication.• The four factors considered essential in this process:1. The provision of a relaxed and comfortable learning environment.2. The use of soft Baroque music to help increase alpha brain waves and decrease blood pressure andheart rate.3. “Desuggestion" in terms of the psychological barriers learners place on their own learningpotential, and4. “Suggestibility" through the encouragement of learners assuming "child-like" and/or new roles andnames in the target language.
• Here are some of the key features of Suggestopedia:(1) Learning is facilitated in an environment that is as comfortable as possible, featuring softcushioned seating and dim lighting.(2) "Peripheral" learning is encouraged through the presence in the learning environment of postersand decorations featuring the target language and various grammatical information.(3) The teacher assumes a role of complete authority and control in the classroom.(4) Self-perceived and psychological barriers to learners potential to learn are "desuggested".(5) Students are encouraged to be child-like, take "mental trips with the teacher" and assume newroles and names in the target language in order to become more "suggestible".(6) Baroque music is played softly in the background to increase mental relaxation and potential totake in and retain new material during the lesson.(7) Students work from lengthy dialogs in the target language, with an accompanying translationinto the students native language.(8) Errors are tolerated, the emphasis being on content and not structure. Grammar and vocabularyare presented and given treatment from the teacher, but not dwelt on.(9) Homework is limited to students re-reading the dialog they are studying - once before they go tosleep at night and once in the morning before they get up.(10) Music, drama and "the Arts" are integrated into the learning process as often as possible.
• Typical Techniques(1) Classroom Set-up (Emphasis is placed on creating a physical environment that does not "feel"like a normal classroom, and makes the students feel as relaxed and comfortable as possible)(2) Peripheral Learning (Students can absorb information "effortlessly" when it is perceived as partof the environment, rather than the material "to be attended to")(3) Positive Suggestion (Teachers appeal to students consciousness and subconscious in order tobetter orchestrate the "suggestive“ factors involved in the learning situation)(4) Visualization (Students are asked to close their eyes and visualize scenes and events, to helpthem relax, facilitate positive suggestion and encourage creativity from the students)(5) Choose a New Identity (Students select a target language name and/or occupation that placesthem "inside" the language they are learning)(6) Role-play (Ss pretend temporarily that they are someone else and perform a role using thetarget language)(7) First Concert (T does a slow, dramatic reading of the dialog synchronized in intonation withclassical music)(8) Second Concert (Students put aside their scripts and the teacher reads at normal speedaccording to the content, not the accompanying pre-Classical or Baroque music - this typicallyends the class for the day)(9) Primary Activation (Students "playfully" reread the target language out loud, as individuals or ingroups)(10) Secondary Activation (Students engage in various activities designed to help the students learnthe material and use it more spontaneously - activities include singing, dancing, dramatizationsand games - "communicative intent" and not "form" being the focus)
Whole Language• A holistic philosophy of reading instruction which gained momentum during the 1970s, 80s, and early90s. Emphasizes the use of authentic text, reading for meaning, the integration of all language skills(reading, writing, speaking, and listening), and context.• Key features of Whole Language1. The key theoretical premise for whole language is that the world over, babies acquire languagethrough actually using it, not through practicing its separate parts until some later date when theparts are assembled and the totality is finally used.2. The major assumption is that the model of acquisition, through real use (not through practiceexercises), is the best model for thinking about and helping with the learning of reading and writing.3. Language acquisition (both oral and written) is seen as natural - - not in the sense of innate orinevitable unfolding, but in the sense that when language (oral or written) is an integral part offunctioning of a community and is used around and with neophytes, it is learned "incidentally"...4. Little use is made of materials written specifically to teach reading and writing. Instead, wholelanguage relies on literature, on other print used for appropriate purposes (e.g. cake-mix directionsused for really making a cake, rather than for finding short vowels), and on writing for variedpurposes.
• Key activities of Whole LanguageIn order to “Emphasize the use of letter/sound cues along with prior knowledge and context."teachers can do as follows:1. by modeling how they themselves use meaning (and grammar) along with initial letters topredict what a word might be;2. by repeatedly encouraging children to think "what would make sense here" before trying tosound out a word,3. by engaging together in oral cloze activities based on their shared readings ("What would fit inthis sentence, I put c------ in the soup?") and4. by discussing, in literature discussion groups, how various children dealt with problem words.It is critical to help children develop and use letter/sound knowledge in the context ofconstructing meaning from texts.
Multiple Intelligences• Psychologist Howard Gardner, put forth this theory which suggests that an array of different kinds of“intelligence" exists in human beings, that each individual manifests varying levels of these differentintelligences, and thus each person has a unique “cognitive profile.“• Objective of Multiple IntelligencesTo find more ways of helping all students in their classes. The bottom line is a deep interest inchildren and how their minds are different from one another, and in helping them use their mindswell.Gardner identifies kinds of intelligences based upon eight criteria to describe something as anindependent kind of intelligence, rather than merely one of the skills or abilities included in a kind ofintelligence, or a synonym for, or combination of other kinds of intelligence. He proposes the followinglist:• Linguistic intelligence ("word smart"):• Logical-mathematical intelligence ("number/reasoning smart")• Spatial intelligence ("picture smart")• Bodily-Kinesthetic intelligence ("body smart")• Musical intelligence ("music smart")• Interpersonal intelligence ("people smart")• Intrapersonal intelligence ("self smart")• Naturalist intelligence ("nature smart")
• Key Criteria for implementing Gardener’s theory in the classroom.Its very important that a teacher take individual differences among kids very seriously …– Lesson design. Some schools focus on lesson design. This might involve team teaching("teachers focusing on their own intelligence strengths"), using all or several of theintelligences in their lessons, or asking student opinions about the best way to teach andlearn certain topics.– Interdisciplinary units. Secondary schools often include interdisciplinary units.– Student projects. Students can learn to "initiate and manage complex projects" when theyare creating student projects.– Assessments. Assessments are devised which allow students to show what they havelearned. Sometimes this takes the form of allowing each student to devise the way he or shewill be assessed, while meeting the teachers criteria for quality.– Apprenticeships. Apprenticeships can allow students to "gain mastery of a valued skillgradually, with effort and discipline over time." Gardner feels that apprenticeships "…shouldtake up about one-third of a students schooling experience."
Neurolinguistic Programming• The word Neurolinguistic programming can be broken down to three distinct words:1. Neuro, which refers to the brain and neural network that feeds into the brain. Neurons or nervecells are the working units used by the nervous system to send, receive, and store signals thatadd up to information.2. Linguistic(s) refers to the content, both verbal and non-verbal, that moves across and throughthese pathways.3. Programming is the way the content or signal is manipulated to convert it into useful information.The brain may direct the signal, sequence it, change it based on our prior experience, or connectit to some other experience we have stored in our brain to convert it into thinking patterns andbehaviors that are the essence of our experience of life.• Objectives of Neurolinguistic Programming Our experiences and feelings affect the way we react toexternal stimuli.NLP’s main objective is to create and provide tools to help people to learn through manydifferent strategies and for many different modalities of teachers. Also,– Identifying and enriching personal strengths– Enhancing memory and imagination– Developing optimal learning states and strategies– Dealing with resistances to learning– Establishing beliefs that support learning– Identify and reframe limiting beliefs relating to learning– Management of multi-level learning interventions– Transforming perceived failures into positive feedback– Exploring interactive learning processes
• NLP Activities in the classroomDifferent learning modalities and strategies can be used in classrooms. It is important to discover eachstudents combination of learning styles and talents to provide to it while simultaneously encouragingthe development of all potential abilities (Dryden & Vos, 1999). So, basically a mixture of activities toreach all the different kinds of intelligences are recommended. In the model of NLP defining a learningstrategy involves:1. Identifying the particular sequence of representational systems a person uses within this feedbackloop in order to acquire a mental or behavioral skill.2. Eliciting a learning strategy by defining the specific sensory modalities (visual, auditory, kinesthetic)a person uses during the process of acquiring a certain ability or competency.3. Helm (1990) experimentally has found no discernable differences between sexes or races as to thedistribution of visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learning modalities.4. The sense modalities are seen as the key to processing information and the mind and body are seenas mutually influencing each other (Craft, 2001).5. Related to this NLP strategy concept is research conducted by Gardner (1993) to document that eachperson possesses at least seven different types of intelligence:linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, visual-spatial intelligence, bodily-kinestheticintelligence, musical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, and interpersonal intelligence. Gardenersees that individuals can excel in one area but not the others andthat other types of intelligence can also exist.• A single and universally effective learning strategy does not exist. Certain sequences of representationalsystems tend to be more appropriate for some learning tasks and they may be inefficient in othersituations.
The Lexical Approach• The Lexical Approach proposed by Michael Lewis consists not of traditional grammar and vocabularybut often of multi-word prefabricated chunks. This approach is understood as a serious attempt atrevaluation for the individual teacher and the profession as it develops many of the fundamentalprinciples advanced by proponents of Communicative Approaches.• Lexical Approach basic principle, is: "Language is grammaticalized lexis, not lexicalized grammar“(Lewis 1993). In other words, lexis is central in creating meaning, grammar plays a subservientmanagerial role.• Lexical chunk is an umbrella term which includes all the other terms. We define a lexical chunk asany pair or group of words which is commonly found together, or in close proximity.Here are some examples of Lexical Chunks (that are not collocations):by the way up to now upside downIf I were you a long way off out of my mind• Collocation is also included in the term lexical chunk, but we refer to it separately from time to time,so we define it as a pair of lexical content words commonly found together. Following this definition,basic + principles is a collocation, but look + at is not because it combines a lexical content wordand a grammar function word. Identifying chunks and collocations is often a question of intuition,unless you have access to a corpus.Here are some examples Lexical Chunks (that are collocations):totally convinced strong accent terrible accidentsense of humor sounds exciting brings good luck•
• There are several aspects of lexis that need to be taken into account when teachingvocabulary. The list below is based on the work of Gairns and Redman (1986):– Boundaries between conceptual meaning: knowing not only what lexis refers to, but also where the boundaries arethat separate it from words of related meaning (e.g. cup, mug, bowl).– Polysemy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form with several but closely relatedmeanings (head: of a person, of a pin, of an organisation).– Homonymy: distinguishing between the various meaning of a single word form which has several meanings whichare NOT closely related ( e.g. a file: used to put papers in or a tool).– Homophony: understanding words that have the same pronunciation but different spellings and meanings (e.g.flour, flower).– Synonymy: distinguishing between the different shades of meaning that synonymous words have (e.g. extend,increase, expand).– Affective meaning: distinguishing between the attitudinal and emotional factors (denotation and connotation), whichdepend on the speakers attitude or the situation. Socio-cultural associations of lexical items is another importantfactor.– Style, register, dialect: Being able to distinguish between different levels of formality, the effect of different contextsand topics, as well as differences in geographical variation.– Translation: awareness of certain differences and similarities between the native and the foreign language (e.g. falsecognates).– Chunks of language: multi-word verbs, idioms, strong and weak collocations, lexical phrases.– Grammar of vocabulary: learning the rules that enable students to build up different forms of the word or evendifferent words from that word (e.g. sleep, slept, sleeping; able, unable; disability).– Pronunciation: ability to recognise and reproduce items in speech.• Lexical Approach Activities in the classroomThe implication of the aspects just mentioned in teaching is that the goals of vocabulary teaching must bemore than simply covering a certain number of words on a word list. We must use teaching techniques thatcan help realize this global concept of what it means to know a lexical item. And we must also go beyond that,giving learner opportunities to use the items learnt and also helping them to use effective written storagesystems.
Competency-Based LanguageTeaching• “CBL is a functional approach to education that emphasizes life skills and evaluates mastery of those skillsaccording to actual leaner performance. It was defined by the U.S. Office of Education as a “performance-basedprocess leading to demonstrated mastery of basic and life skills necessary for the individual to function proficientlyin society”(U.S. Office of Education, 1978).• With regards to a Competency-Based Programme (CBP) and Competency-Based Language Teaching(CBLT), Auerbach (1986) highlights the following features sum up the essence of this approach. They warrantinclusion here as they outline much of what the Tuning Project deems appropriate for second language learning inan academic setting. The features are:– 1. A focus on successful functioning in society. The goal is to enable students to become autonomousindividuals capable of coping with the demands of the world.– 2. A focus on Life skills. Rather than teaching language in isolation, CBLT teaches language as a function ofcommunication about con-crete tasks. Students are taught just those language forms/skills required by thesituations in which they will function. These forms are determined by "empirical assessment of languagerequired" (Findley and Nathan 1980: 224).– 3. Task- or performance-centred orientation. What counts is what stu-dents can do as a result of instruction.The emphasis is on overt behaviours rather than on knowledge or the ability to talk about lan-guage andskills.– 4. Modularized instruction. "Language learning is broken down into manageable and immediately meaningfulchunks" (Center for Applied Linguistics 1983: 2). Objectives are broken into narrowly focused sub objectivesso that both teachers and students can get a clear sense of progress.– 5. Outcomes that are made explicit a priori. Outcomes are public knowl-edge, known and agreed upon by bothlearner and teacher. They are specified in terms of behavioral objectives so that students know exactly whatbehaviors are expected of them.– 6. Continuous and ongoing assessment. Students are pre-tested to deter-mine what skills they lack and post-tested after instruction in that skill. If they do not achieve the desired level of mastery, they continue to workon the objective and are re-tested. Program evaluation is based on test results and, as such, is consideredobjectively quantifiable.– 7. Demonstrated mastery of performance objectives. Rather than the traditional paper-and-penciltests, assessment is based on the ability to demonstrate pre-specified behaviors.– 8. Individualized, student-centered instruction. In content, level, and pace, objectives are defined in terms ofindividual needs; prior learning and achievement are taken into account in developing curricula. In-structionis not time-based; students progress at their own rates and concentrate on just those areas in which theylack competence.– Auerbach (1986: 414-415) in Richards and Rogers (2001:p146)
• Subsequently, Richards and Rogers list a series of advantages of this methodologyfor the learner,– The competencies are specific and practical and can be seen to relate to thelearners needs and interests.– 2. The learner can judge whether the competencies seem relevant and useful.– 3. The competencies that will be taught and tested are specific and public -hence the learner knows exactly what needs to be learned.– 4. Competencies can be mastered one at a time so the learner can see whathas been learned and what still remains to be learned.– (Richards and Rogers, 2001: p146-7)• Activities for CBL:In a content-based approach, the activities of the language class are specific to thesubject being taught, and are geared to stimulate students to think and learnthrough the target language. Such an approach lends itself quite naturally to theintegrated teaching of the four traditional language skills. For example, it employsauthentic reading materials which require students not only to understandinformation but to interpret and evaluate it as well. It provides a forum in whichstudents can respond orally to reading and lecture materials. It recognises thatacademic writing follows from listening, and reading, and thus requires studentsto synthesise facts and ideas from multiple sources as preparation for writing. Inthis approach, students are exposed to study skills and learn a variety of languageskills which prepare them for a range of aca-demic tasks they will encounter.Brinton et al., in Richards and Rogers (2001:p220)
• The main features of this model are outlined below:- The focus is on process rather than product.- Basic elements are purposeful activities and tasks that emphasisecommunication and meaning.- Learners learn language by interacting communicatively andpurposefully while engaged in the activities and tasks.• Activities and tasks can be either:– Those that learners might need to achieve in real life;– Those that have a pedagogical purpose specific to the classroom.– Activities and tasks of a task-based syllabus are sequenced according to difficulty.• The difficulty of a task depends on a range of factors including :– the previous experience of the learner,– the complexity of the task,– the language required to undertake the task, and the degree of support available.Feez in Richards and Rogers (2001: p 224)
ESCUELA NORMAL SUPERIOR“PROFR. MOISÉS SÁENZ GARZA”STAGE PROCEDURE AIM AIDS TIMING METHOD EVALUABLEPRODUCTSWarm up T verbally compares three schoolobjects, three people and three TVsitcoms Ss know well.Activate Ssawareness of thecomparative andsuperlative formsRealiaFlash cards5’PresentationorChallengeSs answer questions based on whatT has told them.Ss pair up to complete the first andthe second exercises on the worksheet.Ss infer the rules for theconstruction of the comparative andsuperlative forms based on theircompletion of the previous tasks.T will probably have to point outthat a three letter word following theCVC (consonant - vowel -consonant) form will double thefinal consonant. Example: big -biggerSs remember thebasic oncomparative andsuperlative formsso they go on intohigher difficultylevel usage ofthem.WorksheetNotebooksPencilsWall chartBoardMarkers5’5’10’5’Silent WayCommunityLanguageLearningMultipleIntelligencesWork sheet: Ex 1 & 2Rules elaborated bythe Ss.Practice Ss get into groups of three to fourand choose one of the topicheadings in exercise number threefor their group.Ss then decide on three objects inthe topic area to compare andcontrast in superlative formverbally.Encourage Ss torecycle theirpreviousknowledge, blendit with the newone and improveboth their skillsand knowledgeWork sheetpencils2’8’NeurolinguisticProgrammingCommunityLanguageLearningCompetency-BasedTeachingVerbal report atrandom (just to checkthey worked notmarking mistakes inpronunciation)Production Individually, Ss write a shortparagraph including threecomparative sentences and threesuperlative ones on the topic theychoose.Test Ss level ofacquisition of thenew structuresand themanagement theyhave on it.NotebooksPencilsDictionaries5’ All of theabove butSilent WayParagraph written intheir notebooks.
Conclusions• It is impossible or at least very difficult, to use onlyone method in an English class.• Therefore, we will say we use an Eclectic Approachby applying what we think is the best option to helpour students.• Variety and Flexibility are the most importantfeatures to implement in a class, in any class.• There is not a quintessential method nor an activity: itall depends on the teacher’s style and the student’sneeds.• Keeping updated in teaching stuff is a “must”.
Work sheet• Exercise 1• Read the sentences below and then give the comparative form for each of the adjectives listed.– Tennis is a more difficult sport than Jogging.– I think John is happier now than a year ago.• Could you open the window, please? Its getting hotter in this room by the minute.– interesting ___________– weak ___________– funny ___________– important ___________– careful ___________– big ___________– small ___________– polluted ___________– boring ___________– angry ___________• Exercise 2• Read the sentences below and then give the superlative form for each of the adjectives listed.– New York is the most exciting city in the world.– His biggest desire is to return home.– She is probably the angriest person I know.• interesting ___________• weak ___________• funny ___________• important ___________• careful ___________• big ___________• small ___________• polluted ___________• boring ___________• angry ___________• Exercise 3• Choose one of the topics below and think of three examples from that topic - for example: Sports - football, basketball andsurfing. Compare the three objects.– Cities– Sports– Writers– Films– Inventions– Cars
Sources of Information• Baigent, M. (2003) Vocabulary development strategies for teachers and learnershttp://www.oup.com/elt/global/teachersclub/teaching/articles/development/• http://www.sil.org/LinguaLinks/LanguageLearning/WaysToApproachLanguageLearning/.htm• Larsen-Freeman, Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (1986:45-47)• http://www.education-world.com/a_curr/curr054.shtml• http://www3.telus.net/linguisticsissues/teachingvocabulary.html• Richards, J and Rogers (2nd Edition, 2001) Approaches and Methods in LanguageTeaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.