POETRYA type of literaturethat expressesideas, feelings, ortells a story in aspecific form(usually using linesand stanzas)
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRYPOETThe poet is the authorof the poem.SPEAKERThe speaker of thepoem is the “narrator”of the poem.
POETRY FORMFORM - theappearance of thewords on the pageLINE - a group ofwords together on oneline of the poemSTANZA - a group oflines arranged togetherA word is deadWhen it is said,Some say.I say it justBegins to liveThat day.
KINDS OF STANZASCouplet = a two line stanzaTriplet (Tercet) = a three line stanzaQuatrain = a four line stanzaQuintet = a five line stanzaSestet (Sextet) = a six line stanzaSeptet = a seven line stanzaOctave = an eight line stanza
RHYTHMThe beat created bythe sounds of thewords in a poemRhythm can be createdby meter, rhyme,alliteration and refrain.
METERA pattern of stressed and unstressedsyllables. Meter occurs when the stressed and unstressedsyllables of the words in a poem are arranged in arepeating pattern. When poets write in meter, they count out thenumber of stressed (strong) syllables andunstressed (weak) syllables for each line. Theythey repeat the pattern throughout the poem.
METER cont.FOOT - unit of meter.A foot can have two orthree syllables.Usually consists ofone stressed and oneor more unstressedsyllables.TYPES OF FEETThe types of feet aredetermined by thearrangement ofstressed andunstressed syllables.(cont.)
METER cont.TYPES OF FEET (cont.)Iambic - unstressed, stressedTrochaic - stressed, unstressedAnapestic - unstressed, unstressed, stressedDactylic - stressed, unstressed, unstressed
METER cont.Kinds of Metrical Linesmonometer = one foot on a linedimeter = two feet on a linetrimeter = three feet on a linetetrameter = four feet on a linepentameter = five feet on a linehexameter = six feet on a lineheptameter = seven feet on a lineoctometer = eight feet on a line
FREE VERSE POETRYUnlike meteredpoetry, free versepoetry does NOT haveany repeating patternsof stressed andunstressed syllables.Does NOT haverhyme.Free verse poetry isvery conversational -sounds like someonetalking with you.A more modern typeof poetry.
BLANK VERSE POETRYWritten in lines ofiambic pentameter, butdoes NOT use endrhyme.from Julius CeasarCowards die many times beforetheir deaths;The valiant never taste of death butonce.Of all the wonders that I yet haveheard,It seems to me most strange thatmen should fear;Seeing that death, a necessary end,Will come when it will come.
RHYMEWords sound alikebecause they share thesame ending voweland consonant sounds.(A word alwaysrhymes with itself.)LAMPSTAMPShare the short “a”vowel soundShare the combined“mp” consonant sound
END RHYMEA word at the end of one line rhymes with aword at the end of another lineHector the CollectorCollected bits of string.Collected dolls with broken headsAnd rusty bells that would not ring.
INTERNAL RHYMEA word inside a line rhymes with anotherword on the same line.Once upon a midnight dreary, while Ipondered weak and weary.From “The Raven”by Edgar Allan Poe
NEAR RHYMEa.k.a imperfectrhyme, close rhymeThe words shareEITHER the samevowel or consonantsound BUT NOTBOTHROSELOSEDifferent vowelsounds (long “o” and“oo” sound)Share the sameconsonant sound
RHYME SCHEMEA rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usuallyend rhyme, but not always).Use the letters of the alphabet to represent soundsto be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See nextslide for an example.)
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEMEThe Germ by Ogden NashA mighty creature is the germ,Though smaller than the pachyderm.His customary dwelling placeIs deep within the human race.His childish pride he often pleasesBy giving people strange diseases.Do you, my poppet, feel infirm?You probably contain a germ.aabbccaa
ONOMATOPOEIAWords that imitate the sound they arenamingBUZZOR sounds that imitate another sound“The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling ofeach purple curtain . . .”
ALLITERATIONConsonant sounds repeated at thebeginnings of wordsIf Peter Piper picked a peck of pickledpeppers, how many pickled peppers didPeter Piper pick?
CONSONANCESimilar to alliteration EXCEPT . . .The repeated consonant sounds can beanywhere in the words“silken, sad, uncertain, rustling . . “
ASSONANCERepeated VOWEL sounds in a line or linesof poetry.(Often creates near rhyme.)Lake Fate Base Fade(All share the long “a” sound.)
ASSONANCE cont.Examples of ASSONANCE:“Slow the low gradual moan came in thesnowing.”- John Masefield“Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep.”- William Shakespeare
REFRAINA sound, word, phraseor line repeatedregularly in a poem.“Quoth the raven,‘Nevermore.’”
LYRICA short poemUsually written in first person point of viewExpresses an emotion or an idea ordescribes a sceneDo not tell a story and are often musical(Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.)
HAIKUA Japanese poemwritten in three linesFive SyllablesSeven SyllablesFive SyllablesAn old silent pond . . .A frog jumps into the pond.Splash! Silence again.
CINQUAINA five line poemcontaining 22 syllablesTwo SyllablesFour SyllablesSix SyllablesEight SyllablesTwo SyllablesHow frailAbove the bulkOf crashing water hangsAutumnal, evanescent, wanThe moon.
SHAKESPEAREAN SONNETA fourteen line poem witha specific rhymescheme.The poem is written inthree quatrains and endswith a couplet.The rhyme scheme isabab cdcd efef ggShall I compare thee to a summer’s day?Thou art more lovely and more temperate.Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May,And summer’s lease hath all too short a date.Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines,And often is his gold complexion dimmed;And every fair from fair sometimes declines,By chance or nature’s changing course untrimmed.But thy eternal summer shall not fadeNor lose possession of that fair thou ow’st;Nor shall Death brag thou wanderest in his shade,When in eternal lines to time thou grow’stSo long as men can breathe or eyes can see,So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.
NARRATIVE POEMSA poem that tells astory.Generally longer thanthe lyric styles ofpoetry b/c the poetneeds to establishcharacters and a plot.Examples of NarrativePoems“The Raven”“The Highwayman”“Casey at the Bat”“The Walrus and theCarpenter”
CONCRETE POEMSIn concrete poems, thewords are arranged tocreate a picture thatrelates to the contentof the poem.PoetryIs likeFlames,Which areSwift and elusiveDodging realizationSparks, like words on thePaper, leap and dance in theFlickering firelight. The fieryTongues, formless and shiftingShapes, tease the imiagination.Yet for those who see,Through their mind’sEye, they burnUp the page.
SIMILEA comparison of two things using “like, asthan,” or “resembles.”“She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”
METAPHORA direct comparison of two unlike things“All the world’s a stage, and we are merelyplayers.”- William Shakespeare
EXTENDED METAPHORA metaphor that goes several lines orpossible the entire length of a work.
IMPLIED METAPHORThe comparison is hinted at but not clearlystated.“The poison sacs of the town began tomanufacture venom, and the town swelledand puffed with the pressure of it.”- from The Pearl- by John Steinbeck
HyperboleExaggeration often used for emphasis.
LitotesUnderstatement - basically the opposite ofhyperbole. Often it is ironic.Ex. Calling a slow moving person “Speedy”
IdiomAn expression where the literal meaning ofthe words is not the meaning of theexpression. It means something other thanwhat it actually says.Ex. It’s raining cats and dogs.
PERSONIFICATIONAn animalgiven human-like qualitiesor an objectgiven life-likequalities.from “Ninki”by Shirley Jackson“Ninki was by this time irritatedbeyond belief by the general air ofincompetence exhibited in thekitchen, and she went into the livingroom and got Shax, who isextraordinarily lazy and never catcheshis own chipmunks, but who is, atleast, a cat, and preferable, Ninki sawclearly, to a man with a gun.
SYMBOLISMWhen a person, place,thing, or event that hasmeaning in itself alsorepresents, or standsfor, something else.= Innocence= America= Peace
AllusionAllusion comes fromthe verb “allude”which means “to referto”An allusion is areference to somethingfamous.A tunnel walled and overlaidWith dazzling crystal: wehad readOf rare Aladdin’s wondrouscave,And to our own his name wegave.From “Snowbound”John Greenleaf Whittier
IMAGERYLanguage that appeals to the senses.Most images are visual, but they can alsoappeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste,or smell.then with cracked hands that achedfrom labor in the weekday weather . . .from “Those Winter Sundays”