BUDDHABHIVAND HOMAGE TO THE ANâ BUDDHANamo tassa Bhagavato, Arahato, Sammàsambuddhassa.Homage to that Blessed One, who is an Arahat andPerfectly Self-Enlightened.
Itipi so Bhagavà, Araha§, Sammà-sambuddho, Vijjà-caraõa-sampanno,Sugato, Lokavidå, Anuttaro purisà-damma-sarathi, Satthà deva-manussàna§, Buddho, Bhagavàti.Thus indeed, is the Blessed One, Entirely free fromdefilements, Fully Enlightened by his own effort, Perfect inknowledge and [good] conduct, Who has gone the correct path,Knower of the worlds, incomparable trainer of those who are tobe tamed, Teacher of deities and men, Enlightened (lit.awakened) and Blessed [with good fortune].
Recollection-of-the-Buddha (Buddhànussati) can bedeveloped by looking at the nine qualities of the Buddha, usinga formula He gives frequently in the suttas: Itipi So Bhagavà (The Blessed One is such): Araha§ Sammà Sambuddho Vijjà-Caraõa Sampanno Sugato Lokavidå Anuttaro Purisadamma Sàrathi D.iii.1 `Pathika Sutta (`Sutta of Provisions for a journey); Vinaya.I.1`Vera¤jakaõóa (`Vera¤ja Section); Vs.vii `Buddhànussati Kathà B125-130(`Recollection of The Buddha Explanation ¥4-25)
 Satthà Deva Manussàna§ Buddho Bhagavàti. This can be explained as:This Blessed One, having destroyed all defilements, is a worthy one: Araha§.He has attained perfect enlightenment by Himself: Sammà Sambuddho.He is perfect in knowledge and morality: VijjàCaraõa Sampanno.He speaks only what is beneficial and true: Sugato.He knows the worlds: Lokavidå.He is the unsurpassed tamer of men fit to be tamed: Anuttaro Purisadamma Sàrathi.He is the teacher of devas and human beings: Satthà Deva Manussàna§.
He is an Enlightened One: Buddho.He is the most fortunate possessor of the results of previous meritoriousactions: Bhagavà. Let us discuss how to develop concentration with, for example, thefirst quality, Araha§. According to the Visuddhi Magga, the Pàëi wordAraha§ has five definitions:1. Since He has removed totally, without remainder, all defilements and habitual tendencies, and has thereby distanced Himself from them, The Buddha is a worthy one: Araha§.2. Since He has cut off all defilements with the sword of the Arahant Path, The Buddha is a worthy one: Araha§.3. Since He has broken and destroyed the spokes of the wheel of dependent-origination, beginning with ignorance and craving,
5. Since He does not, even when in seclusion and unseen, do any evil by body, speech, or mind, The Buddha is a worthy one: Araha§. To develop this meditation, you should memorize these five definitions well enough to recite them. Then re-establish the fourth ànàpàna-, or white kasiõa-jhàna, so the light is bright and clear. Then use the light to visualize a Buddha image you remember, like, and respect. When it is clear, see it as the real Buddha and concentrate on it as such. If you were in a past life fortunate enough to meet The Buddha, His image may re-appear. If so, you should concentrate on also the qualities of The Buddha; not just His image. If the image of The real Buddha does not appear, then first see the visualized image as The real Buddha, and then recollect His qualities. You can choose the definition of Araha§ you like most, take the meaning as object, and
As your concentration develops and becomes stronger, theimage of The Buddha will disappear, and you should simplyremain concentrated on the chosen quality. Continue toconcentrate on that quality until the jhàna factors arise, althoughyou can with this meditation subject attain only access-jhàna(upacàra-jhàna). You can concentrate on the remaining qualities ofThe Buddha too.
A virtuous one who repeatedly contemplates the attributes of theBuddha has exceptional esteem of the Buddha comparable to theAriyass devotion to the Buddha. Repeated recollection of the Buddhaso develops his mind that he has a stable mindfulness. The profundityof the Buddhas attributes on which his mind is trained makes him aperson of profound wisdom. The nine attributes in themselves are thefertile field for sowing merit, therefore constant recollection of them ishighly meritorious.Reflection on the Buddha is a mental exercise conducive to delightfulsatisfaction (pãtã), one of the even factors of Enlightenment. The yogibecomes possessed of much delightful satisfaction, first of the feeblekind but, later an ecstatic kind. The mindfulness that dwells on theattributes of the Buddha overcomes fear, therefore the yogi becomesindiferrent to fear and dread, great or small.
Since this mental exercise has the nature off warding off physicalpain, the yogi acquires a kind of tolerance to pain. He also feels that heis together with the Buddha. The body of one whose mind is absorbedin the thoughts of the Buddha is like a shrine containing the Buddha sothat it becomes worthy of adoration. His mind is always inclined toSupreme Enlightenment.The yogis mind is constantly reminded of the attributes of the Buddhawith the result that any evil thought that might arise is driven awaybefore evil word or deed is committed, being shameful to do it, andbeing abhorrent to do it in the presence of the Buddha. Contemplationof the Buddha is a basis for gaining magga phala. If the yogi does not gainmagga phala in this existence for want of sufficient past merit he is rebornin the fortunate existences.These are the benefits of contemplating the Buddha as explained inthe Path of Purification (Visuddhimagga).
The future Buddha, Sumedha, was delighted with both the prophetic words of theBuddha Dãpaïkara and the encouraging words of Devas and Brahmàs. ThenSumedha admonished himself that for attaining the Knowledge of the Path andFruition, and Omniscience he should constantly establish the Ten Perfections andmake efforts to become accomplished in fulfilling it.
Perfection of GenerosityWhen the Buddha was bornas Vessantara, he had fulfilledhis Supreme Perfection ofGenerosity. He gave away hispossession, including whiteelephant, children, and wife.Failing to reconcile disputes andconflicts, he volunteered to leavehis kingdom in exile. He stayedin Vanktagiri for nine and ahalf months. Thereafter he wasinvited to return home andbecame king.
Perfection of MoralityWhen the Buddha was bornas Bhuridatta, he hadfulfilled his SupremePerfection of Morality. He wascaught by brahmin namedAlambayana and his boneswere crushed. However he didnot injure him.
Perfection of RenunciationWhen the Buddha was bornas Temiya, he had fulfilled hisSupreme Perfection ofRenunciation by pretending to bedumb and incapable of anyaction. His father ordered theroyal charioteer to bury himalive. Temiya showed him hisstrength and then resolve tolead the ascetic life.
Perfection of WisdomWhen the Buddha wasborn as Mahosotha, he hadfulfilled his SupremePerfection of Wisdom. He wonKing Culani and other onehundred and one kings,persuaded them to make peaceby Ahimsa, non-violence.
Perfection of EnergyWhen the Buddha wasborn as Mahà Janaka, hehad fulfilled his SupremePerfection of Energy. Whenhis ship was wrecked in mid-ocean, he swam valiantly forseven days, till Manimekhala,the goddess of the sea,admiring his courage, rescuedhim. Thereafter he wascrowned king of Mithila.
Perfection of ForbearanceWhen the Buddha wasborn as Candrakumara, hehad fulfilled his SupremePerfection of Forbearance. Hewas nearly brought down todeath several times. ButSakka saved him. Thereafterhe was crowned king ofPuppavati.
Perfection of TruthfulnessWhen the Buddha wasborn as Vidhurapaõóita, hehad fulfilled his SupremePerfection of Truthfulness.He preached to Pu¤¤à-kayakkha who tried in vain tokill him by frightening him.
Perfection of DeterminationWhen the Buddha wasborn as Nemi, he hadfulfilled his SupremePerfection of Resolution.Sakka sent his chariot,with Màtali, to fetch himto visit hells and heavensand places of various godsand goddesses.
Perfection of Loving KindnessWhen the Buddha wasborn as Suvannasama, he hadfulfilled his SupremePerfection of LovingKindness. He looked after hisblinded parents. One day hewas shot by Kapilayakkha,king of Benares, and died. Hisparents made a solemn act oftruth, and the poison leftSamas body, making him well.And by his likewise act, hisparents regained their sight.
Perfection of EquanimityWhen the Buddha wasborn as Brahma Narada, hehad fulfilled his SupremePerfection of Equanimity. Heconvinced King Angati oftruth.
All Devas (gods) kingsbelonging to the ten thousandworld systems and all Mahà-Brahmàs congre-gated in acertain universe imploring theBodhisatta Deva Setaketu ofthe Tusita Heaven to rebornon earth, he did not hastilygive his consent before madethe five great investigations asfollows: 1. appropriate time forthe appearance of a Buddha,2. appropriate island-continentfor the appearance of aBuddha, 3. appropriatecountry for the appearance ofa Buddha, 4. the family intowhich the Bodhisatta isreborn, and 5. the span of lifeof the Bodhisattas mother.
Observing the eight precepts andlying on the couch of splendor inthe last watch of the full-moonnight, Sirã Mahàmàyà Devã fellinto a short slumber and had adream. In her dream she saw apure white elephant grazing aroundthe golden mountain not far fromthe silver mountain where therewas the golden mansion insidewhich she slept. Then the whiteelephant descended from the goldenmountain, ascended the silvermountain and entered the goldenmansion. The white elephant thenwalked around the Queenclockwise, and effected entry intoher womb from the right side bybreaking it open.
Holding the sàla branch, QueenMahàmàyà stood majestically, atthat very moment she felt theunmistakable sign of the impendingbirth. Devas and Brahmàsacclaimed in joy and showeredflowers from the sky, all musicalinstruments produced mellifluousmelodies automatically. WhenBodhisatta halted after taking theseven steps in the direction of northhe made a fearless roar as follows:ßI am the most superior among theliving beings of the three worlds!û;ßI am the greatest Ć Ć Ć worlds!û; ßI am the mostexaltedĆĆĆworlds !û; ßThis is mylast birth!û; ßThere is no morerebirth for me!û
Kàëadevila the hermit, realizingthe astonishing and extraordinaryglory and power of the BodhisattaSiddhattha, then he rising form hisseat he paid obeisance to theBodhisatta with his hands clasped.Witnessing the marvelous scene,King Suddhodana also bowed beforehis own son. The hermit told theKing, ßthe child is the FutureBuddha; he will attainBuddhahood at the age of thirty-five.û The king was not pleased tohear that his son would become aBuddha. He wanted to see his sononly as a Universal Monarch, notas a Buddha.
The day arrived for King toperform the ploughing ceremony, hebrought Bodhisatta, to theceremonial sites and kept him underthe delightfully cool shade of a bigrose-apple. The Bodhisatta, onlooking around and seeing no one,quickly rose and sat cross-leggedquietly and calmly. He then practisedànàpàna meditation, concentrating onthe inhaling and exhaling breath,and thereby attained the firstRåpavacara Jhàna. When king camealong and observes; on seeing with hisown eyes the two strange miracles, heuttered, ßO Noble Son, this is thesecond time that I, your father,salute you,û and made obeisance to hisson lovingly and adoringly.
Bodhisatta demonstrated thefollowing four major archery skillsto his royal father and assembledroyal guests: 1. Shooting volleys ofarrows instantaneously in a flash oflightning at a target without anymiss. 2, Shooting to split into twohalves a tiny target such as a featheras if it were a brinjal. 3. Shooting tohit every preceding arrow by thesubsequent arrows. 4. Shooting to hita target not by sight but by listeningto the sound. After Bodhisattadisplayed the skill in archery all theroyal relatives willingly sentBodhisatta their own royaldaughters beautifully dressed andadorned for royal betrothal.
The gods gave the holy water fromthe conch when Bodhisatta marriedPrincess Yasodharà. From amongthe forty thousand princessespresented by Sàkyan relatives, tenthousand princesses were assigned toPrincess Yasodharà to form herpersonal suite. The remaining thirtythousand princesses were assigned tobe resident attendants in the threeseasons (hot season, raining seasonand winter season) palaces, tenthousand in each of them. The princetook up residence in the three palacesin turn according to the threeseasons, leading a life of happinessand comfort.
The Bodhisatta rode out to theroyal garden in the chariot drawnby the thoroughbreds for fourvisit. At the first visit thePrinces saw the old man, secondvisit he saw a sick man, third visithe saw a dead man and at theforth visit he saw a recluse. Thesight of the recluse omen awakenedhim a liking for the life of arecluse; and, making the resolution,ßI shall become a recluse this veryday,û Bodhisatta proceeded on hisjourney to reach the palace thesame day
The Bodhisatta with intent ßtohave a look at the royal babybefore renunciationû went fromwhere he was to the royal chamberof Ràhulas mother, PrincessYasodharà, and opened the door ofthe chamber. At that time,Princess was lying asleep on thebed, with her hand resting on thehead of her baby. The Bodhisattastood at the door sill and, whilelooking, reflected: ßIf I remove theprincesss hand and nestle my sonin my arms, I will surely awakenthe princess; if the princess wakesup, that will endanger my plan ofrenunciation which I am about toexecute. So be it for now. I will notsee him yet; only after I haveattained Buddhahood, will I comeback and see my sonû.
Thinking to himself, ßIt is timefor me even today to go forth fromthe household lifeû, the Bodhisattacommanded Channa, saying: ßI wishto renounce the world today.Without letting anyone know, gonow quickly and saddle athoroughbred Kaõóaka white horsepossessing great speedû. It was thetime when royal father king hadtaken precautions to prevent theBodhisatta from going forth bystrengthening the two sides of themain gate of the royal city.Nevertheless, by virtue of theaccumulated merits and glory of theNoble Bodhisatta, the Devasguarding the gates of the royal citywere very glad to keep the main gatereadily open for the Bodhisatta togo out.
Having reached the other bankof the River Anomà, the nobleBodhisatta, with the sword in hisright hand cut off the hair-knotand seized it together with thediadem by his left hand. TheBodhisatta holding the hair-knottogether with the diadem, made asolemn resolution thus, ßIf I amone who will become a Buddha, letthis hair-knot stay in the sky. Ifnot, let it fall to the ground,û andthrew them up into the sky.Thereupon, the hair-knot togetherwith the diadem went as far up asone yojana and marvelouslyremained in the sky like a hangingfestoon of flowers. At that time,Sakka the King of Devas receivedit and took it to the CåëamaõiCetiya which he erected andembellished with seven kinds ofprecious gems.
After his departure from theSect-leader of Udaka, theBodhisatta went about theMagadha country in search ofNibbàna and eventually arrivedUruvelà forest, he stayed in theforest to engage in meditation Thegroup of five recluses moved aboutthe Bodhisatta fulfilling theirduties to the Bodhisatta. TheBodhisatta practice ofdukkaracariya, strenuous Exertionmade up of fourfold determination,namely, 1.ßLet only the skin beleft!û 2.ßLet only the sinews beleft!û 3.ßLet only the bones beleft!û 4.ßLet the flesh and theblood be dried up!û He practicedthe severest austerities for sixyears.
The Bodhisatta reflect: ßI maynot be able to exert and developConcentration Meditation withthis body of mine which is somuch exhausted and withered. Itwill be well if I take some food toresuscitate and freshen thisemaciated body before I endeavorto attained Concentration.û LadySujàtà offered the alms food ofGhana milk rice in the gold cupto the Bodhisatta. TheBodhisatta rose from his seat,proceeded to the bank of the RiverNera¤jà and after taken the almsfood over there he made theresolution ßIf I would attainedBuddhahood today, may this goldcup float away up stream.û Thegold cup cut across the currentand went straight to the mid-riverand then floated upstream.
The Bodhisatta had taken hisseat on the invincible, Aparàjitathrone, at the foot of the MahàBodhi Tree, for realization ofSabba¤¤uta ¥àõa. The Màra ofVesavatti Deva assembled thefighting forces and commandedthem, ßO Men, transformyourself into various frighteningforms, and each holding adifferent weapon proceed quicklyto the Bodhisatta like a hugetorrent of water rushing downoverwhelminglyû; He himself,followed them, riding onGãrimekhala elephant. TheBodhisatta having won his greatvictory over the Màra by meansof generosity and other virtuesThis unique victory acclaimed bythis inanimate earth and skythat rumbled as if animate,belongs only to the Buddha.
Having won his victory overMàra before sun-set on the full-moon of Vesakha, the Bodhisattarealised the three knowledges, insuccession as follows: knowledge ofpast existences, in the first watch ofthat night; divine power of sight, inthe middle watch of the night andknowledge of extinction of moralintoxicants, in the last watch of thenight, and attained Buddhahood inthe very last watch of the night ofthe Vesakha full-moon. All theDevas and Mahà Brahmàs fromthe other ten thousand world-systems came to paid homage to theBuddha and with belief, ßTheBuddha, by teaching us theDhamma of Deathlessness willbring about our emancipation andsafety from the continuing journeyof the cycle of rebirths.û
Three daughters of theMàra tried to entice theBuddha. The Buddha said:ßGo away, deities. Seeing whatbenefit did you try to tempt melike this? Such a thingsshould be done to those who arenot free yet from passion, hateand delusion. As for me, I haveabsolutely done away withpassion, hate and delusion.ûAfter saying in praise of theBuddha among themselves,ßOur father has told us thetruth. This recluse Gotama,being endowed with suchattributes as Araha§, cannotbe easily enticed by means ofpassion,û they returned to theirfather Màra.
The first week after attaining theBuddhahood, he breathed forth asolemn utterance of joy, and whilesitting cross-legged on the Aparàjitathrone, he conceived an idea thus: ßInorder to win this Aparàjita throne,I have moved from one birth toanother over the period of fourasaïkhyeyya and a hundred thousandaeons, fulfilling the ten Perfectionsseveral times in a unique manner.This is the throne on which I havecompletely overcome the fivefoldMàra.û Thus the Buddha spentseven days on the throne engaging inthe fourth Jhàna that led up to theFruition of Arahatship theattainments of which numbering morethan a hundred thousand crores. Atthe time the Buddha repeatedlyreflected on the DependentOrigination forward and back-wardorders.
When the third week came, theBuddha spent seven days, walkingup and down on the jewel walkcreated by Devas and Brahmàs andrunning from east to west betweenthe Aparàjita throne and theCetiya of the Gaze; at the sametime he was reflecting on theDhamma and getting absorbed inPhala Samàpatti meditation onthe Fruition Attainment. Thatplace is called RatanàcankamaCetiya.
At the six week after theattainment, the Buddha spent sevendays at Mucalinda tree near east ofthe Mahàbodhi. At the foot of thetree, the Buddha sitting cross-legged and enjoying the bliss ofArahatship. At the time the greatuntimely rain fell for seven days.When the great rain fell, a verypowerful Nàga king, Mucalindaabode underneath the lake renderhis service to the Buddha by meansof his body. So he assumed a hugephysical frame and encircled theBuddha with his seven coils andcovered the Buddhas head with hisexpanded hood so that the Buddhacould not be harmed by the cold,heat, gnats, mosquitoes, flies etc.
Four series of the Buddha doingsin every days. The last watch of thenight was divided into three parts:the first part was used for walkingup and down in order to ease hisperson that had been strained by hissitting posture since dawn.
The second part of the last watchof the night was taken up by hislying down on his right withoutlosing his mindfulness in thefragrant chamber.
In the third part of the lastwatch of the night the Buddharose from lying, surveying the worldof sentient being through histwofold Buddha-Eye, to find outindividuals clearly, who had done inpast live principal meritorious deedssuch as generosity, observed precepts,etc. in the presence of formerBuddhas. Then he will approachedthe beings and delivered the truthof the Dhamma to them.
The Buddha rose early and, inorder to honour his attendant monkwith merit as well as to see to hisown physical well-being, cleaned hisbody by washing his face fist andspent the time by engaging inPhala-samàpatti in quietude tillthe time of going alms-round. Whenthat time came he adjusted hislower garment, girded his waist, puton his robe, took his bowl andentered the village sometimes aloneand other times in the company ofmonks. His entry into the villagetook place sometimes in a naturalmanner and at other times attendedby miracles. In the first watch ofthe night monks presented theirproblems, ask about meditation,requests for a discourse. At themiddle watch of the night Devasand Brahmàs approaching theBuddha to ask their questions.
The two merchant brothers,Tapussa and Bhalika havingapproached the Buddharespectfully paid obeisance to him,and offered the rice-cakes andballs of honey-food to the Buddha.Thereupon the Buddha wonderedßMy brother-like predecessors hadnever received alms food withtheirs hands.û Knowing thethought of the Buddha, the fourDevas kings respectfully handedfour bowls of stones, the Buddhaaccepted and he placed one bowlupon another, the four bowlsreduced themselves to just one bowlwith four rims. After offered thefood the two brothers took refugein the Buddha and the Dhamma.Buddha rubbed his head with theright hand and gave them therelics of his hair conceding totheir request.
When, thus the mind continuum ofthe Buddha was such that he wasstill inclined not to exert himself forteaching the Dhamma, this thoughtoccurred to Sahampati MahàBrahmà. he approached the Buddhaand kneel on the ground, he madeobeisance to the Buddha by raisinghis clasped hands and addressed himthus: ßExalted Buddha, may theBuddha kindly teach the Dhamma toall sentient beings, humans, Devas andBrahmàs. There are many beings whohave just a little dust of defilement intheir eyes of knowledge and wisdom. Ifthese beings do not get the chance tolisten to the Dhamma of the Buddha,they will suffer a great loss by notacquiring the extraordinary Dhammaof Maggaphala which they deserve.Venerable Buddha, there willevidently appear those who cancomprehend the Dhamma to be taughtby you.û
After Sahampati Mahà Brahmàhad thus left, The Buddha reflected:ßTo whom should I first teach theDhamma first? Who will quicklyunderstand the Dhamma to be taughtby me?û Then the Buddha thought:ßThe Group of Five Ascetics.û Afterintending, he proceed to the deer Parkat Isipatana, and delivered the Sermonof Dhammacakka to them. When theBuddha thus delivered the discourseVen. Koõóa¤¤a followed the teachingconcentrating his mind on the sermonthrough its course and developed his¥àõa so that he became established inSotàpatti Phala along with theeighteen crores of Brahmàs by the timethe delivery of the discourse came to anend. The Buddha delivered the sermonof Anatta Lakkhaõa Discourse in orderthe five Bhikkhus might becomeArahat with the àsavas extinguished.
The Buddha addressed the richmerchants son Yasa; ßMy dear sonYasa, this Dhamma of Nibbànawhich I, the Buddha, alreadyknow is the Dhamma which is nottormented and oppressed by anykind of kilesa.û Yasa taking off hisgolden footwear, approached theBuddha respectfully madeobeisance and took his seat at anappropriate place. The Buddhataught Yasa the teachings in seriesbeginning with Dàna-kathà, whenthe Dhamma of the Four NobleTruths was delivered, SotàpattiMagga-¤àõa arose in Yasas mind.Even while the Buddha wasteaching the Dhamma to the Yasafather, he realised the threehigher Maggas and became anArahat and Yasa requestedordination.
Bhikkhu, you have achieved complete freedom from all the snares of such impurities as cravingand greed, namely, the snare of craving and greed for the sensual pleasure of Devas and the snareof craving and greed for the sensual pleasure of humans. Bhikkhus, go out in all the eightdirection for the mundane and supramundane welfare, prosperity and happiness of many being,such as humans, Devas and Brahmàs. Let not two of you travel together for each journey.Bhikkhus, teach the Dhamma that is full of virtuous qualities. Give the Devas and humans,the threefold training of precepts, concentration and wisdom which is perfect in all aspects andfree from the dirt of wrong conduct.
The Buddha went to Uruvela-Kassapa and made a request to stay atthe fire-place. While the Nàga saw theBuddha, he was very angry and blewforth fumes incessantly towards theBuddha. The Buddha having over-whelmed the Nàga by his psychic power.When Uruvela-Kassapa know aboutthis incident he thought the Buddha isso mighty and powerful, but he is not yetan Arahat like me. Later the Buddhaspoke to Uruvela-Kassapa three sets ofwords: ßO Kassapa, 1. you are not anArahat with àsavas eradicated, 2. youare not one who has attained theArahatta Magga, 3. you have not eventhe least practice of the right path forthe attainment of the ArahattamaggaArahatttaphala.û Thereupon, UruvelaKassapa, feeling a strong sense ofreligious urgency, he and the thousandhermits receive ordination as bhikkhuand while listened to âdittapariyàyaDiscourse all of them attainedArahattaphala.
The Sàkyan family membersthought to themselves, ßPrinceSiddhattha is very junior to us inrespect of ageû, so they told the youngprinces, ßYou, young folks, may payhomage. As for us, we will sitbehind youû. On seeing thisTathàgata realized the inner feelingand strong pride of birth of theSàkyans and thus considered anddecided to let them know the realmight and glory of a Buddha bydemonstration of Twin Miracleinvolving simultaneous streamingforth of water and fire from variouspart of the body, and will create atthe same time a walk in the sky andpouring down the Dhamma rain. Sawthis strange miracle the royalfather king made obeisance to theTathàgata, all the members of theroyal family without exception, couldnot help but pay homage to theTathàgata.
The Tathàgata accompanied bytwenty thousand arahats, visited hisroyal fathers palace to partake ofmeal. Queen Yasodharà had her son,Ràhula, aged seven pay homage to theTathàgata. The queen told her sonthat the Tathàgata is his father andasked him to approach the Tathàgataand ask for inheritance, saying: ßVen.Father, I am a young Prince and Iwill, in due course, be crowned as aUniversal Monarch of the Fourislands and, as such, I am in need ofwealth and treasures befitting such aking; I pray that those four goldenpots may be given me as inheritance, inkeeping with the tradition of a sonalways inheriting such a gift fromhis fatherû. After finishing themeal the Tathàgata left the palace,prince Ràhula immediately wentalong behind Tathàgata request forthe heirloom.
On arrival at the monastery, theBuddha thought it over: ßTheprince wants to inherit his fathersproperty, I shall give the royal sonthe inheritance of sevensupramundane treasures of theAriyas, namely faith, morality,sense of shame, dread of consequencesof wrong deeds, knowledge, liberalityand wisdom. û So deciding, theTathàgata bade the Ven. Sariputtamake arrangements for theinitiation of Ràhula as a novice Incompliance with the expressedinstruction of the Buddha, TheVen. Sariputta took the role of thepreceptor; the Ven. Moggallanaacted as instructor, while Ven.Mahà Kassapa served as hisadvisor. Thus prince Ràhula wasgiven admission to noviciateship andbecame a novice.
Prince Nanda (the nephew of theBuddha) holding the bowl, he thusfollowed the Tathàgata. TheTathàgata went on without taking thebowl from Nanda, and on arrival atthe monastery, Nanda was admittedinto the order as a bhikkhu. LaterNanda told that he wanted to returnto the life of a householder because hekept remembering Princess JanapadaKalyàni. The Tathàgata, bysupernormal power, showed Nanda thebeautiful female devas of theTavati§sa world who were far prettierthan the princess. Nanda was toldthat he could have one of them if hestrove hard in the practice of theDhamma. Other bhikkhus ridiculedNanda by saying that he was like ahireling who practised of the sake ofbeautiful girl. He felt very muchtormented and ashamed. So, inseclusion, he strove diligently andeventually he attained Arahanthood.
All the Buddhas of the pasttaught Ovàda Pàñimokkha asfollow: Not to do any evil, tocultivate good, to purify ones mind, Þthis is the Teaching of theBuddhas. Forbearing patience is thehighest austerity. Nibbàna issupreme, say the Buddhas. He, verily,is not a recluse who harm another.Nor is he an ascetic who oppressesothers. Not insulting, not harming,restraint according to theFundamental Moral Code,moderation in food, secluded abode,intent on higher thoughts, Þ this isthe Teaching of the Buddhas. Ourown Gotama Buddha, theEnlightened One, taught the OvàdaPàñimokkha o nly in the firs ttwe nty y e a rs of hisBud d ha ho o d . The Bhikkhuso nly wo uld re c ite d the Vina y ad is c ip lina ry rule s , a ls o c a lle dthe â nà Pà ñim o kkha o nc ee ve ry fo rtnig ht.
Mahà Pajapati Gotami, be-decked with ornaments and infull ceremonial dress, proceeded tothe monastery. On arrival at themonastery she addressed theTathàgata; ßMost ExaltedGlorious son, I, your step-mother,intending it for you, have myselfginned and spun and woven acloth for a set of robes. I praythat you accept the piece of clothwhich I have woven and offeredto you out of compassion andsympathetic regard for meû. TheTathàgata advised her to offer itto the Saïgha (instead of to theindividual) so that she may gainexceedingly greater merit.
When the Buddha was keepingthe fifth lent in the Mahàvanaforest near Vesali, the royalfather King Suddhodana enteredNibbàna after attainingArahatship under the whiteumbrella in his golden palace.
The Buddha gave flame to theremains of King Suddhodana at theCremation Ceremony, and taughtthe four Buddhist companies onfilial piety.
Step-mother of the Buddha Mahàpajapati Gotami and the five hundred princesses (includingQueen Yasodharà) of royal blood requested for admission of women to the Order by formalordination. The Buddha thus permitted the establishment of Bhikkhuni Sàsana after expoundingthe Eight Special Rules for their guidance. When the ordination ceremony was over,Mahàpajapati Gotami attained Fruitional Stage of Arahatship through hearing SankhittaSutta and those five hundred bhikkhunis attained Ariyaship.
Having established Ankura andIndaka devas in the fruition stageof Sotàpatti, the Tathàgatacontinued to stay on to keep up the7th Vassa sitting crossed-legged onthe throne of Sakka in Tavati§saand preached the Abhidhamma,day and night, to all those devasfrom ten thousand world systems,who rallied round the Tathàgata,with Santusita deva at their head.He started with the `Law of goodaction and its result; bad actionand its result; neutral or amoralor indeterminate action; teachinground the clock, like the river ofthe sky flowing continuously, forthe duration of the lent or vassa.
The Tathàgata made known hisdeparture to Sakka: ßLay devoteeSakka, King of Devas Ć I shall bereturning to the world of menû byway of formal leave taking. Sakkacreated a set of three stairways, oneof gold another of ruby and anotherof silver, side by side, with the basesat the Gate of Sankassa town andwith their upper end resting on thesummit of Mt. Meru. The devascame along down the gold stair-wayon the right hand side. Thebrahmàs came along down the silverstairway on the left hand side. TheTathàgata alone descended by theruby stairway in the middle. Thosepeople, who where gathered atSàvatthi city, left after the morningmeal, looking forward to seeing theTathàgata.
At the time a monkey, seeingdaily duties performed actively andenergetically by Pàlileyyakaelephant, became inspired andthought to himself, ßI too will dosome act of merit toward theMaster.û He offered honeycomb tothe Buddha. The Buddha acceptedit and did the Buddha eat it. Soelated was the monkey that hejoyously danced moving from onetree branch to another, while sodoing both the branch he washolding with his hand and that hewas treading on broke off and hefell on a tree stump. With his bodypierced by the stump but with hismind devoted to the Buddha, hedied and was reborn in a goldenmansion in the Deva abode ofTàvati§sa, having a thousandfemale celestials as his retinue.
Aïgulimala, the bandit, tried tokill his mother. When he saw theBuddha walking for alms round,he changed his mind and wanted tokill the Buddha and ordered Himto stop. The Buddha said He hadalready stopped, He meant He hadstopped from killing. Aïgulimalasuddenly under-stood, dropped hisweapon, and asked to be ordained.He later became an Arahant.
Having been ill for nine monthDevadatta had the desire to seethe Buddha at the last moment.The disciples bearing Devadattalaid the couch on the of the pondnear the Jetavana monastery andstepped into the pond to bathe.Devadatta sat up on the couchputting his two feet on theground. Then his feet sank intothe earth irresistibly and theearth had gorged him up to thejaw-bones when he uttered thefollowing verse. ßI, Devadatta, onmy death-bed seek refuge in theExalted One with these bones andthis lingering life-force.û Afteruttering the verse he entered theearth and landed in the Avãcihell. Devadatta will be a PaccekaBuddha by the name ofAññhissara after one hundredthousand kappas.
At the age of eighty years old theBhagavà Parinibbàna atKusinàgara. The Bhagavà said tothe bhikkhus as his lastadmonition: ßNow, bhikkhus, I saythis as my last exhortation: Decay isinherent in all compounded things.Hence, strive with mindfulness anddiligence to complete the task.û Thiswas given even as he was on hisdeath-bed. It is a most significantcompression of all that he hadtaught over forty-five years into justone word, appamàda, mindfulness ordiligence. The Bhagavà passingaway after the reviewing impulsionwhere the incumbent Arahat, afterentering upon the jhàna and factorscombinedly or separately, and at theend of such contemplation, which isthe reviewing impulsion, he revertsto life continuum though-moment,during which he passed away.
When Doõa the Brahmin learntthe tense situation between the sevendisputants he thought, ßTheseprinces are doing dishonour to theplace where the Bhagavà passedaway. This is most improper as noone is going to benefit from war: Iwill pacify them allû So he whento the scene, stood on a small moundand uttered a series of stanzasextolling the glory of the Bhagavà.Then, all the princes agreed thatBrahmin Doõa got the Aëhaka-measure basket used in the divisionof the relics. The Buddhas relicsstupas have been build by KingAjàtasattu, Licchavã Princes,Sakyan Prince, Kàbuli Princes,Koëiya Princes, BrahminVeññhadãpa, Malla Princes,Brahmin Doõa and MauriyaPrinces in reverence. Sakka the kingof Tàvati§sà deva realm placed acherished relic in a golden basketenshrined it in the Cåëàmaõishrine.
Patàcàrà lost her two sons, her husband as well as her both parents and brother, she wentstark mad. She went naked about the streets, shouting out, `Woe is me! The Buddha consoledher, `Patàcàrà, have no fear; you have now come to one who can protect you and really guide you.Throughout this round of existence, the amount of tears you have shed on account of the death ofsons, husbands, parents and brothers is voluminous. Then, the Buddha expounded to her theAnamatagga Discourse, which dealt with countless existences, and she felt relieved and calmed.On hearing this discourse Patàcàrà realised the uncertainty and futility of existence and becameestablished in the Path that leads to the attainment of liberation from Sa§sàra. She became abhikkhuni.
Kisà Gotami carrying her dead son, she went everywhere asking for medicine that would restoreher son to life. She went to the Buddha and asked him to give her the medicine that wouldrestore her dead son to life. The Buddha knowing her distracted mental condition told her to getsome mustard seeds from a home where there had been no death. Kisà Gotami ran from house tohouse, begging for some mustard seeds. She could not find a single home where death had notoccurred. As the day dragged on, she realised that hers was not the only family had faced deathand that there were more people dead than living. As soon as she realised this, her attitudetowards her dead son changed and she realised that everything that is born must eventually die.She then admit to the Order of Bhikkhunis. She meditating on the impermanent nature of allcomponent things and attained Arahathood.
Råpanandà is very attached to her body and very proud of her beauty. The Buddha with hissupernormal power, he caused a vision of a very beautiful lady about sixteen years of age to beseated near him. When Råpanandà saw the girl, she realised that compared to that girl, sheherself was just like an old, ugly crow next to a beautiful white swan. Råpanandà liked her verymuch. Again and again, she looked at the figure and each time she noticed that the girl hadgrown older and older. Finally, she died, her body got bloated, pus and maggots came out of thebody. Having seen all these, Råpanandà pondered, `In the same way, my body will also grow oldand decay. It will be subjected to disease and I will also die. Responding to further guidancefrom the Buddha, Råpanandà attained Arahanthood.
The Sàkyans and Koëiya both side wanted the water for their own use only and as result, therewas much ill-will and hatred on both sides. The Buddha came to know that his relatives on bothsides of the river were preparing for battle. For their wellbeing and happiness and to avoidunnecessary suffering, he went and appeared in the middle of the river. The Buddha admonishedthem, `For the sake of some water, which is of little value, you should not destroy your liveswhich are of so much value. Why have you taken this unwholesome course of action? If I hadnot been here today, your blood would have been flowing like this river by now. You are striving todevelop selfishness and enmity, but I dont strive for the development of selfishness. Both sidesthen became ashamed of their foolishness and thus bloodshed was averted.
The Buddha happened to see the sorrowful state of the monk, who had been abandoned by hisfellow monks on account of his stinking body. The Buddha washed the body of the sick monk,and after the washed he became fresh in body and mind and soon developed one-pointedness ofconcentration. Then the Buddha told him that this body when devoid of life would be useless asa log and would be laid on the earth. At the conclusion of the sermon, Tissa attainedArahanthood. Soon after, he passed away into Parinibbàna. Then the Buddha said, `Bhikkhus!You do not have your mother or father here who can tend to you. If you do not tend to oneanother, who will be there to tend to you? Remember that whoever tends a sick person tends tome, as it were.
Who bear within them enmity: ßHe has abused and beaten me, defeated me and plundered meû,hate is not allayed for them. Who bear within no enmity: ßHe has abused and beaten me,defeated me and plundered meû, hate is quite allayed for them. Never here by enmity are thosewith enmity allayed, they are allayed by amity, this is a timeless truth. Still others do notunderstand that we must perish in this world, those who understand this, their quarrels areallayed. He who seeks his own happiness by inflicting pain on others, being entangled by bondsof enmity, cannot be free from enmity,
By birth one is no brahmin, by family, austerity. In whom are truth and Dhamma too pure ishe, a Brahmins he. I call him not the brahmin though by womb-born mothers lineage, hes justsupercilious if with the sense of ownership, owning nothing and unattached; that one I call abrahmin true.
Oneself is ones own protector (refuge); what other protector (refuge) can there be? Withoneself fully controlled, one obtains a protection (refuge) which is hard to gain. You yourselvesshould make the effort; the Tathàgatas are only teachers. Those who enter this Path andwho are meditative, are delivered from the bonds of Màra. Make an island of yourself, quicklystrive and wise become, free from stain and passionless youll not return, take flesh, decay.
ßWhen Màra advanced on Bodhisatta to do battle, the noble Bodhisatta said, `If I wish,I can keep the whole of the world-system covered with my body frame and also withßPointing out as witness the great charities performed in his existence as Vessantaraû. WhileMàra launched his attacks by nine kinds of weapons, they proved ineffective. Him, did theLord of Sages subdue by means of generosity and other virtues.
Having failed in âëavaka attempt to frighten the Buddha by displaying various terrible objectsthus for half the night, he conceived an idea: ßIt were well if I would fling the weapon ofwhite divine cloak that is invincible!û Then âëavaka the ogre, rising up and up around theBuddha and roaming about, hurled his weapon towards the Buddha. Making a terrible soundin the sky like the weapon of thunder and emitting smoke all over and burning with flames, thecloak flew towards the Buddha but on coming near him it turned into a foot-towel and droppedat his feet to destroy the ogres pride. Him, did the Lord of Sages subdue by means of his patienceand self-control.
When Nàëàgiri the elephant saw the Buddha coming, rushed towards the Buddha like amoving mountain with its trunks raised, his ears and tails set upright, scaring the people,destroying the houses and crushing the carts to pieces. The Buddha focused his separatelyintended loving-kindness on the elephant and the Buddha said: ßO Nàëàgiri, they served yousixteen pots of liquor and made you drunk not to catch any other being but verily to kill me. So donot go about harassing the pedestrians. Come straight to where I am.û On hearing the word, thewild Nàëàgiri opened his both eyes and saw the glorious body of the Buddha. He was shockedand owing to the power of the Buddha, he became sober and dropping his trunk and flapping hisears, he came to the Master and crouched at the feet. Sprinkling the waters of loving-kindness,this ferocious beast, him did the Lord of Sages subdue.
Aïgulimàla, the bandit who adorned himself with one thousand fingers, tried to kill hismother. When he saw the Buddha walking for alms round, he changed his mind and wanted tokill the Buddha and ordered Him to stop. The Buddha said He had already stopped, He meantHe had stopped from killing. Aïgulimàla suddenly understood, dropped his weapon, and asked tobe ordained. He later became an Arahant. Him , d id the Lo rd o f Sa g e s s ubd ue by hisp s y c hic p o we rs .
Cincàmana tied a disc of wood shape of half of an egg round her body and wore a red costumeto assume the form of a pregnant woman. She levelled a malicious accusation against theTathàgata that she got pregnant by the Recluse Gotama. Sakka Deva accompanied by fourdevas transformed themselves into rats and got the strings bitten off, the wooden disc dropped.All those present condemned Cincàmana, they dragged her out of the monastery. Once she wasout, the earth split into two and the Avici fires swallowed her into the great hell. Her, didthe Lord of Sages subdue by his serene and peaceful bearing.
Warder Saccaka, submit a question to the Tathàgata, the Tathàgata replied his question andthen the Tathàgata question back the Saccaka, at that time he had discovered his grave mistake.He thought to himself, ßSamana Gotama had brought about the destruction of my view; I wasfoolish enough to have created a chance for Samana Gotama to defeat me in my own game.û Sakkaking of devas could not help coming to the scene under guise of an ogre holding a burning, blazing,flaming thunder bolt and stood right on top of Saccakas head, as though threatening to punishhim should he fail to answer the Tathàgatas reasonable question. Lighting the lamp of wisdom,him did the Lord of Sages subdue.
The Buddha granted permission to Mahà Moggallàna to tamed the Nandopananda the NàgaKing. Having tamed the Nàga and freed him from the poison of conceit, the Thera took him tothe Master. The Nàga paid his respect to the Buddha and solemnly himself a follower,ßVenerable Sir, I took refuge in you.û The Buddha gave his blessings to the Nàga, and thenaccompanied by the monks, the Buddha went to the house of the merchants Anàthapiõóika topartake the meal. The wicked and powerful Nàga, the Noble Sage got subdued by psychic powersthrough his disciple con- Mahà Moggallàna.
To the Baka Brahmà who was unable to hide himself, the Buddha said: ßBaka Brahmà, ifyou cannot hide yourself, I will hide myself in your presence now; I am going to perform amiracle so that you cannot see me.û After saw the Buddha performance the miracle, then heand the attendants were filled with great wonder saying, ßWonderful indeed is the great powerand the great might of the monk Gotama! Never have we seen or heard any Samaõa orBràhmaõa who is so powerful and so mighty as the Monk Gotama. Indeed, he can remove theroot of existence from all beings who take delight in existence, who take pleasure in existence andwhose arise in existence. Him, did the Lord of Sages cured with his medicine of wisdom.
Kàyena vàcà cittena Þ pamàdena mayà kata§, Accaya§ khama me Bhante Þ bhåri-pa¤¤a Tathàgata. (x1) I by d e e d , wo rd o r tho ug ht Iha ve he e d le s s ly d o ne wro ng , m a y the Ta tha g a ta , f p o s s e s s e d o f g re a t wis d o m fo r g ive m e . (prostrate once) Kàyena vàcà cittena Þ pamàdena mayà kata§, Accaya§ khama me Dhamme Þ sandiññhika akàlika. (x1)I by d e e d , wo rd o r tho ug ht Iha ve he e d le s s ly d o ne wro ng , to the Dha m m a , whic h is fto be s e e n in this ve ry life a nd g ive s re s ults witho ut d e la y , m a y Ibe fo rg ive n. (prostrate once) Kàyena vàcà cittena Þ pamàdena mayà kata§, Accaya§ khama me Saïghe Þ supañipanno anuttara. (x1) I by d e e d , wo rd o r tho ug ht Iha ve he e d le s s ly d o ne wro ng , m a y the Sa ïg ha , the f inc o m p a ra ble fie ld o f m e rit, fo rg ive m e . (prostrate once)
Imàya dhammànudhamma-pañipattiyà Buddha§ påjemi. By this p ra c tic e in a c c o rd a nc e with the Dha m m a Iho no ur the Bud d ha . Imàya dhammànudhamma-pañipattiyà Dhamma§ påjemi. By this p ra c tic e in a c c o rd a nc e with the Dha m m a Iho no ur the Dha m m a . Imàya dhammànudhamma-pañipattiyà Saïgha§ påjemi. By this p ra c tic e in a c c o rd a nc e with the Dha m m a Iho no ur the Sa ïg ha . Addhà imàya pañipattiyà jàñi-jarà-maraõamhà Parimuccissàmi.By this p ra c tic e Iwill m o s t c e rta inly g a in libe ra tio n fro m birth, a g ing a nd d e a th.
âkàsaññhà ca bhummaññhà Þ devà nàgà mahiddhikà, Pu¤¤a§ ta§ anumoditvà Þ cira§ rakkhantu sàsana§. M y the d e itie s a nd nà g a s o f m ig hty p o we r, who inha bit the a e a rth a nd the s ky , re jo ic e in this m e rit a nd lo ng p ro te c t the [Bud d ha s ] s à s a na . âkàsaññhà ca bhummaññhà Þ devà nàgà mahiddhikà, Pu¤¤a§ ta§ anumoditvà Þ cira§ rakkhantu desana§.M y the d e itie s a nd nà g a s o f m ig hty p o we r, who inha bit the e a rth aa nd the s ky , re jo ic e in this m e rit a nd lo ng p ro te c t the [Bud d ha s ] Te a c hing . âkàsaññhà ca bhummaññhà Þ devà nàgà mahiddhikà, Pu¤¤a§ ta§ anumoditvà Þ cira§ rakkhantu ma§ para§. M y the d e itie s a nd nà g a s o f m ig hty p o we r, who inha bit the a e a rth a nd the s ky , re jo ic e in this m e rit a nd lo ng p ro te c t m y s e lf a nd o the rs .
Ettàvatà ca amhehi Þ sambhata§ pu¤¤a-sampada§, sabbe devà anumodantu Þ sabba-sampatti-siddhiyà. To the e x te nt m e rit a nd p ro s p e rity ha s be e n a c c um ula te d by us , m a y a ll d e itie s re jo ic e , fo r the a tta ining o f a ll [kind s o f] s uc c e s s . Ettàvatà ca amhehi Þ sambhata§ pu¤¤a-sampada§, sabbe bhåtà anumodantu Þ sabba-sampatti-siddhiyà.To the e x te nt m e rit a nd p ro s p e rity ha s be e n a c c um ula te d by us , m a y a ll living be ing s re jo ic e , fo r the a tta ining o f a ll [kind s o f] s uc c e s s . Ettàvatà ca amhehi Þ sambhata§ pu¤¤a-sampada§, sabbe sattà anumodantu Þ sabba-sampatti-siddhiyà. To the e x te nt m e rit a nd p ro s p e rity ha s be e n a c c um ula te d by us , m a y a ll be ing s re jo ic e , fo r the a tta ining o f a ll [kind s o f] s uc c e s s .
Ida§ me ¤àtãna§ hotu Þ sukhità hontu ¤àtayo. M y this [m e rit be re jo ic e d in by ] m y re la tio ns a[who ha v e p a s s e d a wa y ]. M y the y be ha p p y . aIda§ me ¤àtãna§ hotu Þ sukhità hontu ¤àtayo. M y this [m e rit be re jo ic e d in by ] m y re la tio ns a[who ha v e p a s s e d a wa y ]. M y the y be ha p p y . aIda§ me ¤àtãna§ hotu Þ sukhità hontu ¤àtayo. M y this [m e rit be re jo ic e d in by ] m y re la tio ns a[who ha v e p a s s e d a wa y ]. M y the y be ha p p y . a
Ida§ me pu¤¤a§ àsavakkhayàvaha§ hotu.M y this m e rit [a c c rue d ] be c o nd uc ive fo r the e lim ina tio n o f the [m e nta l] a e fflue nts . Ida§ me pu¤¤a§ Nibbànassa paccayo hotu. By this merit of mine, may it bring about the realization of Nibbana. Mà ma§ pu¤¤à bhàga§ sabba Sattàna§ dema. I share my merits done today with all beings. May all those beings get an equal share of the merits shared by me. Sàdhu! Sàdhu! Sàdhu! Well done! Well done! Well Done!
Buddha sàsana§ cira§ tiññhatu. May the Buddhas Sàsana last long. Dhamme hontu sagàrava. Sabbe pi sattà kàlena. May all being stalways respect theNot for Sale 2007 1 Edition Email: Dhamma.