*It helps students understand the subject being
studied and gives them clear guidance on how to
improve their learning.
*LISTENING to your pupils will build an atmosphere of
trust and respect and encourage the students to share
with you what they feel.
*It will foster positive classroom behaviour.
*It will create a classroom culture of success.
*It will make both the teacher and the pupils aware of
*Feedback can improve a student's confidence, selfawareness and enthusiasm for learning.
Possible reasons why students keep on making
the same mistakes:
They are not ready yet.
They don't realize it's the same grammar.
They are overloaded.
Accuracy is not their priority.
Slips: mistakes which students can correct
themselves once the mistake has been
pointed out to them.
Errors: mistakes which they can not correct
themselves and which therefore need
Attempts: when a student tries to say something but
does not yet know the correct way of
L1 Interference: Interlingual transfer is a significant source for
language learners. That means errors as being the result of
language transfer, which is caused by the learner’s first language.
Interlingual errors may occur at different levels such as transfer of
phonological, morphological, grammatical and lexica-semantic
elements of the native language into the target language.
*At phonological level Arabic, for example, does not have a
phonemic distinction between /f/ and /v/, and Arabic speakers
may well say ferry when they mean very.
*At grammatical level Prepositions express a relation between two
entities. English prepositions have different functions, so it is not
easy for Arab learners to learn to use prepositions correctly.
e.g. I am waiting (-----) him.(omission of the preposition)
The English verb “wait” is followed by the preposition “for” while
the Arab equivalent is not.
*Second language learners, like first language
learners, pass through sequences of development.
*Like first language learners, second language learners
usually learn the irregular past tense forms of certain
common verbs before they learn to apply the regular
simple past –ed marker.
*E.g: “He played football yesterday .Then, he buyed icecream”.
Did the students
and/or skills that
of the skills?
*When teachers assess student performance, they're not
placing value or judgment on it — that's evaluating or
grading. They're simply reporting a student's profile of
•Assessment whether ,explicit or implicit both have
major influence on learning process.
Marks and grades
Although teachers are ideally placed to
provide assessments of students
performance, students can also be extremely
effective at monitoring and judging their own
*How could you involve students in
assessments of themselves and their peers
,and how can this involvement improve their
It could be :
Q : Should teachers deal with every production
in the same way ? Why?
• The kind of activity play very important role in how to correct .
• 1- non- communicative activities :
• T should stop the activity to correct the mistakes ,that is called
• 2- communicative activities :
• Teachers should not interrupt students in the middle of the
activity. Doing so, can interrupt the communication , raise stress
levels and stop the acquisition process. Such interrupting can
remove students’ need to negotiate meaning and deny their
• When to intervene in learner talk ?
• As late as possible .( Lynch )
• What if students’ communication is in a risk ?
• Shell we ask the students about the kind of correction that they
• Correction is made up of two stages:
• 1- Teacher shows student that there is a mistake.
• 2- If the student can not correct him/her self, the
teacher helps the student about it. This can be by using
alternative techniques :
• First: Showing incorrectness:
by different ways:
4- Statement and question
• Second, Getting it right :
• If student can not correct themselves we
should interfere by;
• 1- saying the correct sentence, emphasizing
the part where is the problem then say the
sentence normally .
• 2- say the in correct part correctly
• 3- some times we can explain the grammar.
• 4- finally ask students to repeat the correct
• in fluency work we need to respond to the
content and the language form but it should be
after the event. this can be by some ways:
• 1- Gentle correction :
• in communicative activates we should offer help
but with tact and discretion . Our correction well
be more “gentle” to make our intervention less
disruptive. This can happen by many ways :
• 1-By reformulating the sentence expecting that
the student will pick up our reformulation
• 2-using echoing and expressions .
• 2-recording mistakes :
• One problem of giving feedback at the end is
that we can forget what students have said but
we can use :
• 1- writing down points we want to refer to.
• 2- use charts or other forms of categorization to
• 3- use audio or video records and make the
students themselves write down their notes in
• 4- divide students into groups, each one watch
for something different .
• 5- students write their records on the board and
discus them with the class.
• 3- after the event
• Giving feedback can be by number of ways:
• 1- give an assessment and discuss with the
• 2- write some of the mistakes on the board
make them recognize the problem and tray
to correct it .
• 3- write both the correct and the incorrect
and let them decides.
• 4- write individual notes to the students .
• Correcting students work can mean correcting
workbook exercises in which we indicate if their
effort is either right or wrong.
• Or correcting a more creative writing such as
letters, reports, stories etc... In this case we should
consider whether we are dealing with a draft or a
• The most important aspect while giving
feedback is adopting a positive attitude to
student writing. While marking mechanically we
may not realize that we are showing the student
only his mistakes – negative points. If the
student receives only negative feedback, he
may easily be discouraged from trying to form
complex structures and using new vocabulary.
However, feedback sessions can be a beneficial
experience for the student if the teacher shows
the strong points as well.
• The comments we offer to students
should be in the margin of the student’s
work or if it is on computer an editing
program can be used.
• To decrease teachers writing on a
student’s paper, it is better to use some
kind of “code”. This list of symbols which
show typical mistakes can be found in
writing guides such as APA or MLA or the
teacher can come up with one like this:
Correct Sentence: Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria.
Word or Phrase Error
Capital or Lowercase
Mr. Globa Class lives in the Cantabria.
Mr. Globa Class in Cantabria.
Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria (P)
Mr (P) Globa Class lives in Cantabria.
Mr. Globa Class has 7.000,00 (P) placards.
Correct: Mr. Globa Class has 7,000.00
mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria.
Mr. Globa Class lives in CAntabria.
The meaning is not
clear. Write in another
way to make the
Begin a new paragraph.
Divide letters or words.
Change the order of the
words or letters.
Mr. Globa Class lives in (SP) Cannntabria.
Mr. Globa Class in live stay Cantabria. ?
Mr. Globa Class (WC) stays in Cantabria.
Better: Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria.
// Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria. It is a
lovely place to learn about the world.
Mr. Globa(l)Class lives in Cantabria.
Mr. Globa Calss lives in Cantabria.
Mr. Globa Class in lives Cantabria.
• Students should be trained to
understand the process of correcting
through examples of incorrect
statements on the board and they are
asked to come up to the board and
underline the mistake in the sentence.
Then symbols can be introduced.
• Students should be encouraged to give
feedback to each other. It encourages
students to monitor each other and, as
a result, helps them to become better
at self monitoring.
• One of many new methods is called Group
• Group writing helps students to benefit from
several peers, helps students to learn not
only from their mistakes but from the
mistakes of others and makes economical
and efficient use of the students' and the
teacher's time. The group writing tasks are
everything from writing a paragraph to
writing an essay. Each group can get a
different topic to work on or sometimes it
can be the same topic and they compete
with the other groups.
Teachers’ reason for using codes and
symbols , while correcting students’ works ,
is the same; if students can identify the
mistakes they have made , they are then in
a position to correct them. The feedback
process is only really finished once they
have made these changes.
What does this saying mean?
To work late into the night, originally this was
by the light of an oil lamp or candle
But , why should we burn the midnight oil?
For students , the sight of their work covered in
corrections can cause great anxiety. For
teachers, marking and correcting take up an
enormous amount of time. Both teachers and
students deserve a break from this drudgery .
A- Selective marking
B- Different error codes
C- Don’t mark all the papers
D- Involve the students