Why feedback


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Why feedback

  1. 1. *It helps students understand the subject being studied and gives them clear guidance on how to improve their learning. *LISTENING to your pupils will build an atmosphere of trust and respect and encourage the students to share with you what they feel. *It will foster positive classroom behaviour. *It will create a classroom culture of success. *It will make both the teacher and the pupils aware of their progress. *Feedback can improve a student's confidence, selfawareness and enthusiasm for learning.
  2. 2. Possible reasons why students keep on making the same mistakes: 1. They are not ready yet. 2. They don't realize it's the same grammar. 3. They are overloaded. 4. Accuracy is not their priority.
  3. 3. Slips: mistakes which students can correct themselves once the mistake has been pointed out to them. Errors: mistakes which they can not correct themselves and which therefore need explanation. Attempts: when a student tries to say something but does not yet know the correct way of saying it.
  4. 4. L1 Interference: Interlingual transfer is a significant source for language learners. That means errors as being the result of language transfer, which is caused by the learner’s first language. Interlingual errors may occur at different levels such as transfer of phonological, morphological, grammatical and lexica-semantic elements of the native language into the target language. *At phonological level Arabic, for example, does not have a phonemic distinction between /f/ and /v/, and Arabic speakers may well say ferry when they mean very. *At grammatical level Prepositions express a relation between two entities. English prepositions have different functions, so it is not easy for Arab learners to learn to use prepositions correctly. e.g. I am waiting (-----) him.(omission of the preposition) The English verb “wait” is followed by the preposition “for” while the Arab equivalent is not.
  5. 5. *Second language learners, like first language learners, pass through sequences of development. *Like first language learners, second language learners usually learn the irregular past tense forms of certain common verbs before they learn to apply the regular simple past –ed marker. *E.g: “He played football yesterday .Then, he buyed icecream”.
  6. 6. Did the students learn the concept(s) and/or skills that were planned? Were instructional methods appropriate to achieve mastery of the skills?
  7. 7. *When teachers assess student performance, they're not placing value or judgment on it — that's evaluating or grading. They're simply reporting a student's profile of achievement. •Assessment whether ,explicit or implicit both have major influence on learning process.
  8. 8. • • • • • Comments Marks and grades Reports Tests Portfolio
  9. 9. Although teachers are ideally placed to provide assessments of students performance, students can also be extremely effective at monitoring and judging their own language production. *How could you involve students in assessments of themselves and their peers ,and how can this involvement improve their learning?
  10. 10. It could be : 1- assessment 2- correction Q : Should teachers deal with every production in the same way ? Why?
  11. 11. • The kind of activity play very important role in how to correct . • 1- non- communicative activities : • T should stop the activity to correct the mistakes ,that is called “teacher intervention” • 2- communicative activities : • Teachers should not interrupt students in the middle of the activity. Doing so, can interrupt the communication , raise stress levels and stop the acquisition process. Such interrupting can remove students’ need to negotiate meaning and deny their learning opportunity. • When to intervene in learner talk ? • As late as possible .( Lynch ) • What if students’ communication is in a risk ? • Shell we ask the students about the kind of correction that they prefer ?
  12. 12. • Correction is made up of two stages: • 1- Teacher shows student that there is a mistake. • 2- If the student can not correct him/her self, the teacher helps the student about it. This can be by using alternative techniques : • First: Showing incorrectness: • • • • • • • by different ways: 1-repeating 2-Echoing 3-Expression 4- Statement and question 5- Hinting 6- Reformulation
  13. 13. • Second, Getting it right : • If student can not correct themselves we should interfere by; • 1- saying the correct sentence, emphasizing the part where is the problem then say the sentence normally . • 2- say the in correct part correctly • 3- some times we can explain the grammar. • 4- finally ask students to repeat the correct thing
  14. 14. • in fluency work we need to respond to the content and the language form but it should be after the event. this can be by some ways: • 1- Gentle correction : • in communicative activates we should offer help but with tact and discretion . Our correction well be more “gentle” to make our intervention less disruptive. This can happen by many ways : • 1-By reformulating the sentence expecting that the student will pick up our reformulation • 2-using echoing and expressions .
  15. 15. • 2-recording mistakes : • One problem of giving feedback at the end is that we can forget what students have said but we can use : • 1- writing down points we want to refer to. • 2- use charts or other forms of categorization to help. • 3- use audio or video records and make the students themselves write down their notes in categories . • 4- divide students into groups, each one watch for something different . • 5- students write their records on the board and discus them with the class.
  16. 16. • 3- after the event • Giving feedback can be by number of ways: • 1- give an assessment and discuss with the students. • 2- write some of the mistakes on the board make them recognize the problem and tray to correct it . • 3- write both the correct and the incorrect and let them decides. • 4- write individual notes to the students .
  17. 17. • Correcting students work can mean correcting workbook exercises in which we indicate if their effort is either right or wrong. • Or correcting a more creative writing such as letters, reports, stories etc... In this case we should consider whether we are dealing with a draft or a final version.
  18. 18. • The most important aspect while giving feedback is adopting a positive attitude to student writing. While marking mechanically we may not realize that we are showing the student only his mistakes – negative points. If the student receives only negative feedback, he may easily be discouraged from trying to form complex structures and using new vocabulary. However, feedback sessions can be a beneficial experience for the student if the teacher shows the strong points as well.
  19. 19. • The comments we offer to students should be in the margin of the student’s work or if it is on computer an editing program can be used. • To decrease teachers writing on a student’s paper, it is better to use some kind of “code”. This list of symbols which show typical mistakes can be found in writing guides such as APA or MLA or the teacher can come up with one like this:
  20. 20. Symbol Meaning Example Correct Sentence: Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria. Word or Phrase Error Missing Word(s) P Punctuation Capital or Lowercase Letters Mr. Globa Class lives in the Cantabria. Mr. Globa Class in Cantabria. lives Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria (P) Mr (P) Globa Class lives in Cantabria. Numbers Example: Mr. Globa Class has 7.000,00 (P) placards. Correct: Mr. Globa Class has 7,000.00 placards. mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria. Mr. Globa Class lives in CAntabria. SP ? WC Spelling The meaning is not clear. Write in another way to make the meaning clearer. Word Choice // Begin a new paragraph. l Divide letters or words. Change the order of the words or letters. ~ Mr. Globa Class lives in (SP) Cannntabria. Mr. Globa Class in live stay Cantabria. ? Mr. Globa Class (WC) stays in Cantabria. Better: Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria. // Mr. Globa Class lives in Cantabria. It is a lovely place to learn about the world. Mr. Globa(l)Class lives in Cantabria. ~ Mr. Globa Calss lives in Cantabria. ~ Mr. Globa Class in lives Cantabria.
  21. 21. • Students should be trained to understand the process of correcting through examples of incorrect statements on the board and they are asked to come up to the board and underline the mistake in the sentence. Then symbols can be introduced. • Students should be encouraged to give feedback to each other. It encourages students to monitor each other and, as a result, helps them to become better at self monitoring.
  22. 22. • One of many new methods is called Group writing. • Group writing helps students to benefit from several peers, helps students to learn not only from their mistakes but from the mistakes of others and makes economical and efficient use of the students' and the teacher's time. The group writing tasks are everything from writing a paragraph to writing an essay. Each group can get a different topic to work on or sometimes it can be the same topic and they compete with the other groups.
  23. 23. Teachers’ reason for using codes and symbols , while correcting students’ works , is the same; if students can identify the mistakes they have made , they are then in a position to correct them. The feedback process is only really finished once they have made these changes.
  24. 24. What does this saying mean? To work late into the night, originally this was by the light of an oil lamp or candle But , why should we burn the midnight oil? For students , the sight of their work covered in corrections can cause great anxiety. For teachers, marking and correcting take up an enormous amount of time. Both teachers and students deserve a break from this drudgery .
  25. 25. A- Selective marking B- Different error codes C- Don’t mark all the papers D- Involve the students