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What teachers need to learn

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  • 1. What Teachers Need to Learn
  • 2. Today’s Presentation Goals 1. What is meant by a good teacher? 2. What is meant by teacher learning? 3. What are the possible goals of teacher learning? 4. Views of teaching learning 5. What good teachers know? 6. Types of teacher knowledge 7. Types of knowledge and teacher learning goals. 8. What are the characteristics of good language teachers? 9. Why do teachers need to know more about language? 10. What are the courses that teachers need to take?
  • 3. What Is Meant By A Good Teacher? The literature abounds with different definitions of good teachers: (as cited in Shono: 2004: 2-3): i. Simon and Boyer (1969), for example, define good teachers as analytic teachers; i.e. teachers who use a systematic method of recording and examining their classrooms and their interactions with their students. ii. Cruickshank (1987) considers good teachers to be reflective teachers who demonstrate interest not only in learning the art and science aspects of teaching but in learning about themselves as teachers as well. iii. Good teachers are caring teachers who take a special interest in the lives of their students and are sensitive to their particular needs.
  • 4. What Is Meant By Teacher Learning? Westwood (2008) reports that: teacher learning is the process of making the teacher informed about: 1. The subject knowledge and the curriculum goals that he/she will deal with. 2. The linguistic and non- linguistic competencies he/she should have. 3. The personal and social qualities that he/she should have. 4. The teaching methods and learning styles/strategies that he/she will adopt. 5. Students‘ needs and individual differences.
  • 5. What Are The Possible Goals of Teacher Learning? Goal 1: Producing Good Teachers What do teacher preparation programmes mainly focus on? 1. Developing sufficient belief and confidence to feel enough like a teacher. 2. Pupil behavior during lessons. What are the intrapersonal teacher should have? and interpersonal qualities a Good teachers are : (Intrapersonal): knowledgeable, kind, patient, & attractive. (Interpersonal) : able to form relationships, team work, leadership…etc.
  • 6. Good teachers : 1. Pay attention to learners’ emotions – confidence building. 2. Teacherly qualities and intrapersonal skills. 3. Interpersonal skills – conflict resolution. 4. Using drama techniques to support the personal public presentation aspects of the work.
  • 7. Goal 2: Producing / Developing Good Teaching Is teaching art or Science? 1. Craft: teachers benefit from other experienced teachers. 2. Science :teachers apply what is scientifically acceptable. Teaching is a Complex & an Open Skill. Complex: many activities happen at the same time inside the classroom such as reading, writing, listenining, managing behavior , etc. Open Skill: there are many ways to do an activity: ex: managing behavior can be made by talking, shouting, mocking, etc.
  • 8. Teaching contains the elements of an Art, a Craft, a Science and as a Complex open skill 1- What are the implications for teaching as an art? Making personal choices & new ways of doing things & access to experiences teachers. 2- What are the implications for teaching as a craft? Opportunities for learners practice – practice in real world situations. 3- What are the implications for teaching as a science? Access to the latest findings of scientific research.
  • 9. 4- What are the implications for teaching as a complex open skill? • Opportunities for learners to practise and receive comments on the component parts of skill in a safe environment. • Opportunities together, and for learners managing to the practise putting complexity situations, and be supported in doing so. in the parts real world
  • 10. Goal 3: Producing Teaching Professionals What teachers need to do in order to be professional teachers? 1. Understand how and to whom they are accountable. 2. Obtain recognized specialist qualifications. 3. Access to professional journals. 4. Participate in professional debates 5. Participate in professional activities ( conferences, reading newsletters. Etc.). 6. Develop flexible and informed decision-making skills.
  • 11. Goal 4: Teachers as Reflective Practitioners What is required of teachers to be reflective practitioners ? 1. Noticing and observing what is actually happening in classrooms . 2. What teachers think about (i.e. themselves, learning, exams, the influence of the wider context) and why . 3. How teachers use what they think about in relation to their teaching, their pupils, their colleagues. 4. When teachers give themselves time and space to thinkimmediately after teaching , sometime later, on the bus , in the bath.
  • 12. Goal 4: Teachers as Reflective Practitioners Reflective: Characterized by deep careful thought. Practitioner: Somebody who practices a particular profession. Reflective practitioner: A teacher who uses deep, careful thought to improve instruction.
  • 13. Goal 4: Teachers as Reflective Practitioners Why is Reflective practicing important?
  • 14. Goal 4: Teachers as Reflective Practitioners What is required of teachers to be reflective practitioners ? 1. Noticing and observing what is actually happening in classrooms . 2. What teachers think about (i.e. themselves, learning, exams, the influence of the wider context) and why . 3. How teachers use what they think about in relation to their teaching, their pupils, their colleagues. 4. When teachers give themselves time and space to thinkimmediately after teaching , sometime later, in the car …etc
  • 15. Goal 4: Teachers as Reflective Practitioners 5. How teachers (can) access and use other people‘s ideas in their thinking . 6. Teacher diary. 7. Peer observation. 8. Recording lessons. 9. Student feedback.
  • 16. Goal 5: Technicians What teachers should have to be described as technicist teachers? 1. Share the syllabus and materials designers ‘ ways of thinking . 2. Develop the skills to carry out the requisite in-class operations and activities that these ways of thinking engender, in ways that are consistent with the expected outcomes.
  • 17. Views of Teacher Learning Are Good teachers born or made? What are the main views/perspectives of teacher learning? 1. Identity and interpersonal skills development. 2. Socio-cultural perspective: teacher learning is made through participation in culture of teachers in a given context. 3. The cognitive view: social constructivism: emphasize engaging the learner in meaning-making & and interaction with others. 4. Skill theory : intelligent action is developed through cyclical processes of trial and error.
  • 18. What Good Teachers Know What are the topic areas teachers need to be knowledgeable about? 1. Content Knowledge : subject knowledge. 2. General pedagogical knowledge: classroom management & assessment techniques. 3. Curriculum knowledge: what is in it? Why it is there? Planning to cover it. 4. Pedagogical content knowledge: techniques to teaching the subject. 5. Knowledge of learners and their characteristics. 6. Knowledge of the educational context. 7. Knowledge of the educational ends, purposes, values, and historical backgrounds.
  • 19. Types of Teacher Knowledge 1- Knowing About (KA) WHAT SHOULD TEACHERS KNOW ABOUT AND USE IN THEIR THINKING? 1. Their subject : its aim & role 2. How the subject is learnt. 3. The school and its policies. 4. The students, their backgrounds, their needs. 5. Strategies for managing their ongoing professional learning, professional organizations, & journals in their subject area.
  • 20. 2- Knowing How(KH) WHAT SHOULD TEACHERS BE ABLE TO ? 1. Use strategies to support pupils and their learning. 2. Notice important features of classrooms and organizations. 3. Promote conditions which support the learning processes. 4. Assess learning. 5. Relate to students, other professionals, parents, and colleagues. 6. Fulfill other professional obligations. 7. Access and use new idea and theories.
  • 21. 3- Knowing to (KT) What should the expertise developed by good teachers allow them to do ? To intuitively and instantaneously use what they know at just the right moment and in just the right way to support the learning of their learners in their classroom.
  • 22. Types of Knowledge & Goals of Teacher Learning Goal Knowledge 1- Producing Good Teachers: Focus on personal & Interpersonal skills 2- Developing Good Teaching: Make appropriate choices at the appropriate time. 3- Producing Teaching Professionals: Access to professional journals 4- Producing Reflective Practitioners: Understand what they think about. 5- Producing Technicist Teachers: Interpret the syllabus in the manner the designers intended.
  • 23. LANGUAGE TEACHER LEARNING
  • 24. What Are the Characteristics of Good Language Teachers? 1. Having a Good Command of the L2 (e.g. fluent in the foreign language with good communication skills). 2. Possess Sound Teaching Skills (e.g. employs diverse teaching methodology). 3. Teacher Empathy toward Students (e.g. knows and understands students’ needs, and Strengths and weaknesses). 4. Personal Qualities (e.g. is patient and humorous). 5. Reflection and Improvement (e.g. reflects on their own teaching and keeps up-to-date in knowledge and skills).
  • 25. Why Do Teachers Need To Know More About Language? 1- Teacher as Communicator Understanding student talk – his langauge must be clear. 2- Teacher as Educator Selecting materials that suit students – assessing student accomplishments. 3- Teacher as Evaluator Sorting learners - placement 4- Teacher as Educated Human Being Access to basic information about langauge. 5- Teacher as Agent of Socialization Matching practices at home & school.
  • 26. What Are The Courses That Teachers Need To Take? 1. Language and Linguistics 2. Language and Cultural Diversity 3. Sociolinguistics for Educators in a Linguistically Diverse Society 4. Language Development 5. Second Language Learning and Teaching 6. The Language of Academic Discourse 7. Text Analysis and Educational Settings Language Understanding in