A project funded by the:
OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION GUIDE
FOR EMPLOYERS IN THE UAE
Mechanisms to aid reliability and consist...
The National Qualifications Authority (NQA) acknowledges the
important contribution of students, employers and industry
re...
3
1. INTRODUCTION
Over the past 20 years, economies and the organisation of work have witnessed a fundamental
change in wh...
4
The UAE recognised the imperative of establishing a national qualification framework, and has
established a ten (10) lev...
5
3. A ‘NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK’ FOR THE UAE
On the 23rd of August 2010, President His Highness Sheikh Khalifa B...
6
3.2 Qualifications Framework for the Emirates (QFEmirates)
The design of the QFEmirates is based on three fundamental ‘b...
7
Types of qualifications in the QFEmirates
There are three types of qualifications in the QFEmirates which are defined ac...
8
3.4 CoreLife Skills
Many countries have introduced ways to acknowledge the role particular ‘generic’ skills play in
unde...
9
Recognition of prior learning (RPL) is a systematic practical process that assesses and recognises all
previously unreco...
10
Each one of the 155 occupational profiles is categorised and assembled in a manner that reflects
the scope of the occup...
11
Infrastructure – tools and resources
Operational – tools and resources
12
5. LINKING QUALIFICATIONS AND OCCUPATIONS
In the vocational education and training sector, and when modern systems are ...
13
QF
level
Indicative
employability range
Employment relevance indicated in QFEmirates level descriptors
6 Supervisory an...
14
5.2 Functions hierarchy
Occupational descriptions typically use functional verbs to specify what actions and/or decisio...
15
GeneralPrinciple
QualificationtitlesLevel
Indicative
employabilityindicator
FunctionFunctiondescription
VETHE
Doctoral
...
16
Having identified the three key benchmark reference tools and in particular, the functional key
hierarchy areas, a furt...
17
Occupational standards are agreed statements, which specify competent
performance expected in employment. They encompas...
18
Uses of occupational profiles
QFEmirates
(VET Sector)
• National vocational qualifications
• Career ladders and pathway...
19
5.3.2 Uses of national occupational skills standards (continued)
The main advantage of national occupational skills sta...
20
Education and training providers
 Ensure vocational education and training (VET) provision is relevant and current to ...
21
APPENDICES
22
APPENDIX 1: CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
A4. 1 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) system
ISCO - is t...
23
ISCO Major occupational groups
Ten (10) major occupational groups with an array of sub-divided fields have been identif...
24
A4. 2 International Standard Industrial Classification (ISCI) system
Chapter II The underlying principles of the classi...
25
ISIC draws attention to the increasing broadening (in Chapter I, item 17, pp. 5-6) in its use:
While ISIC was developed...
26
The National Qualifications Authority (NQA) is looking to establish a closer interrelationship between
qualifications a...
27
APPENDIX 2: EXPANDED NOTIONAL FUNCTION AND TAXONOMY FRAMEWORK
The following table provides an expanded list of verb tax...
28
Inspect
Institute
Mobilise
Monitor
Plan
Procure
Regulate
Schedule
Supervise
Verify
 Inspecting facilities, process and...
29
Make
Modify
Monitor
Operate
Overhaul
Perform
Position
Prepare
Produce
Provide
Rectify
Repair
Select
Sell
Service
Store
...
30
APPENDIX 3: EXAMPLE OCCUPATION – SALES AND MARKETING MANAGER
QF
level
QFEmirates summary level descriptor*
(learning ou...
31
QF
level
QFEmirates summary level descriptor*
(learning outcomes)
QFEmirates profile (vocational)
Employability indicat...
32
QF
level
QFEmirates summary level descriptor*
(learning outcomes)
QFEmirates profile (vocational)
Employability indicat...
33
QF
level
QFEmirates summary level descriptor*
(learning outcomes)
QFEmirates profile (vocational)
Employability indicat...
34
APPENDIX 4: EXAMPLE OCCUPATION 2 – ELECTRICIAN
QF
level
QFEmirates summary level descriptor*
(learning outcomes)
QFEmir...
35
Skills:
A range of specialist cognitive and practical
skills to:
 identify and deploy known solutions to
defined probl...
36
Role in context:
Under limited supervision can:
 function both independently and/or in a
facilitative role with multip...
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Occupational information guide for employers

  1. 1. A project funded by the: OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION GUIDE FOR EMPLOYERS IN THE UAE Mechanisms to aid reliability and consistency in occupational descriptions in the UAE
  2. 2. The National Qualifications Authority (NQA) acknowledges the important contribution of students, employers and industry representatives who participated in this project and the funding support from the Federal Demographic Council. No part of this report may be adapted or modified, in any form or medium, whether by electronic transmission or otherwise, without the prior written consent of the National Qualifications Authority. While all care has been taken in preparing this report, the Authority disclaims any liability for any damage from the use of the material contained in this publication and will not be responsible for any loss, howsoever arising from use, of or reliance on this material. Refer all correspondence to: Research and Development Department National Qualifications Authority Email: sandra.haukka@nqa.gov.ae Phone: +971 (0)2 815 6622 Address: P.O. Box 63003, Abu Dhabi, UAE Web: www.nqa.gov.ae © National Qualifications Authority (NQA) Front cover photo by iTami http://www.flickr.com/photos/tamyo0/6878138835/sizes/m/ CONTENTS Introduction (page 3) International context (page 3) A national qualifications framework for the UAE (page 5) ISCO system of occupations (page 9) Linking qualifications and occupations (page 12) Appendices (page 21) © National Qualifications Authority (NQA) February 2013
  3. 3. 3 1. INTRODUCTION Over the past 20 years, economies and the organisation of work have witnessed a fundamental change in which occupations have become more complex and employees' responsibilities have been linked more with competencies than with routine. This change has necessitated flexibility in labour mobility and productivity, and enhanced innovative capacity of companies to assimilate new production technologies rapidly and adapt themselves timely to new demands of the market. In response to such shift, new methods for occupational analysis and recognition are being deployed. The United Arab Emirates (UAE) is experiencing continuing economic growth that requires, for its sustainability, access to a more skilled and competent workforce, which can secure the international and regional competitiveness of its economy. Further it requires the UAE economy to operate in a more globally competitive and constantly changing environment. To address this, the UAE increasingly requires an adaptable and highly skilled, educated and qualified workforce. To build such a workforce the UAE is working to develop and establish a world class:  responsive education and training system that is both nationally and internationally recognised  supporting qualifications system. Currently there are well established arrangements in place for the Higher Education and General Education sectors, with specific improvements underway to raise quality. However, in the Vocational Education and Training (VET) sector much work is now focussing, in consultation with industry, on developing this sector aiming to connect education and training systems to workplace needs. An increasing approach is, to invite industry stakeholder (e.g. employers, employees, regulators and other associated technical experts practitioners) to codify their workplace requirements in the form of occupational skills standards. Occupational skills standards have been used as the mechanism for bridging the growing gap between workplace learning, technology and innovation with old economy institutions of education and training. They have been developed as the preferred medium for formally recognising competent performance of individuals and in tooling up human capital. Similarly, recent developments include the introduction of national and international qualification frameworks as a central comparative tool for organising and managing qualifications, with many interrelating qualification outcomes linked with occupational skills requirements. 2. INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT Many countries have already introduced national qualifications frameworks, including all of the UK countries, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ireland as a lead mechanism to reform their education and training systems and enhance international attractiveness and competiveness of available skills in their country. In all, more than 250 countries have now in place or proceeded to work towards implementing their national qualifications framework. Most of the EU countries have developed national frameworks, or are in the process of doing so to ensure alignment with the emerging trend to develop ‘meta-frameworks’ that link national systems of qualifications. Two of these international referencing systems are from Europe. The first is the European Qualifications Framework (EQF) which will provide an ‘interchange’ enabling the alignment of national qualifications systems in Europe. The second is the key initiative in the development of a European Higher Education Area, which has been the adoption of the ‘Bologna Framework’. This framework forms the basis of a common understanding of the ‘cycles’ in Higher Education and the qualifications associated with the cycles.
  4. 4. 4 The UAE recognised the imperative of establishing a national qualification framework, and has established a ten (10) level qualifications framework, known as the QFEmirates. It is a singular, coherent and integrated qualifications framework covering the higher education, vocational education and training (VET) and general education sectors with an agreed classification system of new qualifications, which will be nationally and internationally recognised. The establishment of a national qualifications framework ensures the UAE is well placed to align and compare its qualifications with that of other national qualifications frameworks and meta-frameworks. Structures of levels based on ‘learning outcomes’ are a common feature of all qualifications frameworks developed so far. There is emerging a new general understanding of the meaning of a qualification, certifying that an individual has achieved certain learning outcomes to standards set by a relevant and authoritative body. This understanding differs from the previous common approach that a qualification is based on participation and time spent on a course or program. 2.1 Key drivers The key drivers behind introducing a national qualifications system are the following: Key drivers of a national qualifications system Single framework The need for an enabling mechanism (a unified and singular system and reference point for all national qualifications) that could be used by a country’s decision makers to develop relevant strategic educational and training policies and directions (including prioritising targeted areas) to improve the country’s economic, social and personal competitiveness, and standing in the world community. Common benchmark The need to bring ‘national’ order (using common nomenclature and outcomes based criteria) to the many and varied qualifications on offer being issued across the country by licensed or unlicensed providers, and aid in the development of new recognisable and government endorsed national qualifications. Qualifications flexibility The need to facilitate adequate flexibility within qualifications’ structures to accommodate changing technologies, changing work organisation, learner mobility, and learner career paths, and which include improved opportunities for access and transferability between different educational and training providers. A framework of common language The need to provide a framework of common language that can be used as a ready guide for both employers and learners/employees in terms of identifying the level of education as well as knowledge sills and aspects of competence required when advertising for jobs. It also serves as guide to individuals to identify the type of jobs they may be eligible for and what qualifications are needed in order to apply for them. Labour market The need to address skills shortages/deficits in the economy and increase labour market opportunities for individuals through education and training, and labour mobility. Quality and consistency The need for improved and transparent mechanisms for assuring the quality, consistency and rigour of national qualifications for the country, community, employers and learners/employees. International alignments The need to establish linkages and alignments with other countries to effect international comparisons leading to improved information for assisting in learner mobility. Lifelong learning The need for more transparent mechanisms that facilitate formal recognition of ‘lifelong’ learning including formal, non-formal and informal learning and the need to ensure, for the long term that all qualifications at least support and recognise lifelong learning and be aligned to other international frameworks for mobility.
  5. 5. 5 3. A ‘NATIONAL QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK’ FOR THE UAE On the 23rd of August 2010, President His Highness Sheikh Khalifa Bin Zayed Al Nahyan issued Federal Decree No. 1 ‘Establish and maintain the National Qualifications Authority’. The Decree sets out sixteen (16) aims and objectives, which the Board of the National Qualifications Authority (NQA) is pursuing. It includes establishing a national qualifications framework for the UAE (QFEmirates) that serves as the national frame of reference for qualifications and is internationally recognised. The vision of the UAE’s National Qualifications Authority is to: Achieve distinct national qualifications that enhance UAE’s economic and social development.’ 3.1 Benefits of the Qualifications Framework for the Emirates (QFEmirates) The Qualifications Framework for the Emirates (QFEmirates) is a truly integrated system. It enables all qualifications to be described and compared, recognises achievement in learning from the most elementary task to the most complex, and uses nationally and commonly recognised titles and agreed conventions. It includes formal structured learning, achieved typically in schools, colleges, universities and training centres and more importantly, informal and non-formal (both structured and unstructured) learning achieved typically in the workplace or community. As a single, integrated system, the QFEmirates can be used by the country’s decision-makers to develop strategic education and training policies to improve the country’s economic advantage, social and personal effectiveness and wellbeing, and as well standing in the world. The QFEmirates in addition:  provides access to new learning opportunities for all citizens and residents  creates new learning pathways and progression routes  helps individuals to make decisions about what they want to do next and to continue learning while working or in their community  improves opportunities for individuals to work abroad without having to repeat qualifications  enables people to be recognised for the work they do in the workplace and communities as part of their development  enables qualifications achieved abroad to be recognised as equivalent to UAE qualifications, encouraging international mobility  uses a language to describe national and international qualifications that employers and learners can understand. Employers will be able to state clearly the education or training required when advertising jobs, and candidates will be able to check whether they have the skills required to apply.
  6. 6. 6 3.2 Qualifications Framework for the Emirates (QFEmirates) The design of the QFEmirates is based on three fundamental ‘building blocks’: Levels It is based on ten (10) levels, each representing a hierarchy of relative difficulty, complexity and depth. The higher the QFEmirates level, the greater the challenge and the demand expected of a learner in order to be awarded the relevant qualification. Learning Outcomes Learning outcomes define what a learner has learned and not what they have been taught. They are expressed in terms of knowledge, skills and aspects of competence: Learning outcomes in the QFEmirates Knowledge Learned from practical or professional experience as well as from formal instruction or study and can comprise description, memory, understanding, thinking, analysis, synthesis, debate and research Skill Is the learned ability to perform a function that in some way responds to or manipulates the physical, informational or social environment. Skills may be cognitive (such as use of logical, intuitive, creative and conceptual thinking) and practical (such as manual dexterity and the use of methods, techniques, processes, materials, tools and instruments). Aspects of competence Comprises three strands – the effective use of knowledge and skill in occupations and in social and civic life  Autonomy and responsibility  Role in context  Self-development The 10 levels and the five ‘strands’ of learning outcome statements define the level descriptors, indicating the complexity of learning for each level, the expected level of achievement for each level, and how each level relates to occupations in the world of work. Strands of learning outcomes in the QFEmirates Level X Strand 1 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Knowledge Skill Autonomy and responsibility Role in context Self- development Aspects of competence
  7. 7. 7 Types of qualifications in the QFEmirates There are three types of qualifications in the QFEmirates which are defined according to the volume and nature of the learning required: Qualification types in the QFEmirates ‘Principal’ Qualification A major type of qualification with formal recognition at each level, and capture a typical achievements for the level including all five strands of learning outcomes. ‘Composite’ Award Provides formal recognition for learners who achieve a set of cohesive learning outcomes including, in varying combinations, all five strands of learning outcomes. This may involve fewer learning outcomes and/or less complexity compared to a Principal Qualification. ‘Component’ Award Provides formal recognition of achievement of a limited number of learning outcomes which may relate to all or only some of the strands of learning outcomes. Qualification types at each level will vary across the higher education, general education and vocational education and training sectors, according to demand, learner need, and economic or social relevance. There are agreed conventions for titles for Principal, Composite and Component qualifications. The NQA will agree with each of the relevant approving bodies in the UAE (e.g. accreditation commissions) the precise qualification name based on content and level. Titles for general education and higher education will be familiar, but new titles are being developed for vocational education and training. 3.3 Principal Qualifications ‘generic’ titles The table below shows the Principal Qualifications titles adopted for use in the QFEmirates. Principal Qualifications titles used in the QFEmirates Principal Qualification titles Level Vocational Education and Training (VET) Higher Education (HE) General Education (G 12 – GE) 10 — Doctoral — 9 Applied Master Master — 8 Applied Graduate Diploma Postgraduate Diploma — 7 Applied Bachelor Bachelor — 6 Advanced Diploma Higher Diploma — 5 Diploma Associate Degree — 4 Certificate 4 — Secondary School Certificate (G 12) 3 Certificate 3 — TBA 2 Certificate 2 — — 1 Certificate 1 — —
  8. 8. 8 3.4 CoreLife Skills Many countries have introduced ways to acknowledge the role particular ‘generic’ skills play in underpinning work and the ability of learners to learn throughout their lives, promoting lifelong learning. To ensure that UAE citizens have the best foundation for learning, work and life, literacy and numeracy have been explicitly embedded within the learning outcome level descriptors for qualifications at levels one (1) to six (6) within the QFEmirates. The NQA requires relevant approving bodies (e.g. accreditation commissions) to monitor the implementation of mapping of CoreLife Skills by developers of programs, courses and unit standards as well as by licensed education and training providers. Seven (7) CoreLife Skills have been identified and are included in the following table. They will be used to inform education and training bodies to include such in their programs and courses. CoreLife Skills Collecting, analysing, organising and applying information in a given context Communicating information, concepts and ideas Initiating and organising self and activities, including motivation, exploration and creativity Working with others in teams including leadership Solving problems including using mathematical ideas and techniques Applying information and communication technology (ICT) Participating in social and civic life including ethical practice 3.5 Recognition of prior learning (RPL) Learning does not always take place in the classroom: it also happens on the job, at home, and in the community - through hands-on experience, volunteer work, military service, independent study, even leisure activities and travel. Often the skills acquired through these experiences can be applied to the skills or knowledge required in the workplace, at school, or elsewhere. Prior learning is comprised of three commonly recognised categories: Categories of prior learning Formal learning refers to learning that takes place through a structured program of instruction which is generally recognised by the attainment of a formal qualification or award (e.g. a Certificate, Diploma or Degree). Non-formal learning refers to learning that takes place through a program of instruction but does not usually lead to the attainment of a formal qualification or award (e.g. in-house professional development programs conducted in the workplace). Informal learning refers to learning that can result from daily work-related, social, family, hobby or leisure activities (e.g. the acquisition of interpersonal skills developed through the experience of working as a sales representative; financial skills from managing budgets in a small organisation).
  9. 9. 9 Recognition of prior learning (RPL) is a systematic practical process that assesses and recognises all previously unrecognised knowledge that has been have acquired outside the formal education and training system, including an individual’s knowledge, skills and aspects of competence regardless of where or how the learning was acquired. RPL can reduce the need for duplication of learning, and encourages individuals to continue upgrading their skills and knowledge and pursue lifelong learning through structured and informal learning and training towards formal qualifications. More importantly, it can improve employment outcomes in terms of career progression and rewards, and act as a catalyst for lifelong learning. The QFEmirates is an enabling tool that can assist in the recognition of prior learning (RPL) by assessing unrecognised learning against the requirements of a qualification. 4. ISCO SYSTEM FOR OCCUPATIONS There is another international system that has an interrelationship between qualifications and occupations. It is the International Labour Organisation’s (ILO’s) International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) system, used for classifying occupations and for data gathering and reporting. ISCO is divided into ten (10) major occupational groups1 with an array of sub-divided fields of sub- major groups, minor groups and unit groups (resulting in four levels of disaggregation). The number of occupations that ISCO lists at unit group level (4 digits) is 437. There are thousands of jobs in the labour market which can be added to this group. The internationally recognised ISCO unit groups provide a titling and code convention for each of the 437 listed occupations as well as a general description of the occupation. The UAE adopted directly the ISCO titling and code convention. This convention sets the framework for recognising the myriad of jobs in the labour market. There are many different titles used in industry to represent the same job or occupation family. Employers usually like to reflect their particular setting or context when looking to recruit or advertise for prospective job applicants. It would be extremely difficult to list all these in a statistical system, given the nature and life cycle of jobs in modern economies is dynamic and ever changing. However, all jobs can be clustered together and included in one of the 437 ISCO listed occupations. They can be shown to represent a respective job family. It is simply an exercise of mapping these many titles and related descriptions to the recognised UAE adopted ISCO titles. More importantly, ISCO also provides a ready-made reference source for linking to the QFEmirates. See Appendix 1: Classification systems for more information about the ISCO system. 4.1 Occupational profiles Most recently the UAE has embarked on developing its own unique occupational list through the development of a UAE Occupations Career Handbook for UAE Nationals. The Handbook identified 155 occupations from key industry sectors using ISCO-08 as the reference source. These 155 occupations are considered most critical, essential and important in the emerging new knowledge- based UAE economy. The Handbook aims to provide UAE Nationals and resident career aspirants with an inaugural national resource to assist them in planning their careers. It is also intended the Handbook will be used as a guide by all stakeholders in the field of human resource development and management in both the private and public sectors, including educators, trainers, career counsellors, employers and managers. 1 The International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) system is used by the Ministry of Economy in the UAE for its occupational data gathering and reporting tool. ISCO: http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/ilo-bookstore/order- online/books/WCMS_172572/lang--en/index.htm
  10. 10. 10 Each one of the 155 occupational profiles is categorised and assembled in a manner that reflects the scope of the occupation, a summary statement of the expected outcome, an outline of the key tasks and responsibilities of the occupation, the pre-requisite requirements for the occupation, and support information for those looking for a job, i.e. size of the industry and potential job numbers, potential salary, outlook for the occupation over the ensuing few years, and job titles/related occupations. 4.2 Occupational skills standards Many modern and developing countries that have introduced qualifications frameworks and systems of qualifications that link to the labour market have often included the use and reference of the unique country related ISCO system to articulate and codify respective qualifications. Often the functions performed in an occupation in these systems are expressed through mechanisms such as occupational standards, competency standards, skills standards, national occupational skills standards or some derivative thereof, meaning the same. They typically describe what is expected of an employee in the workplace rather than on a learning process or time spent in training or education. National occupational skills standards individually may be called unit standards, units of competency or units, and are packaged or combined together to form a national work-related qualification. These qualifications and related occupational standards are aligned to the qualifications framework system established in the respective country and approved exclusively for use in the country. Often they are the only recognised qualifications that attract government funding for learners undertaking them. Increasingly therefore, there is a stronger correlation emerging between the development of qualifications that use occupational skills standards within a singular qualifications framework with a country’s occupational classification system. The two figures on the next page are conceptual diagrams that illustrate the infrastructure at international, UAE and local level tools and resources that are typically established in modern competitive economies. This infrastructure underpins and improves consistency and recognition in the use of approved qualifications and occupational data, terminologies and descriptions (core reference platform). Respective stakeholders such as employers, education and training institutions and practitioners, the community, individuals, government agencies and compliance bodies, research bodies and a host of other organisations tap into this infrastructure as a benchmark resource or reference tool to refer to, build, contextualise, adapt, or modify as they see fit, to meet their needs. For example, employers may use benchmarks as a starting reference point for recruitment, re-skilling and retention practices as a means of communicating with the wider world for same occupation or qualification requirements. Institutions too, use the same to demonstrate to their prospective students the occupations that lead from the qualifications they achieve.
  11. 11. 11 Infrastructure – tools and resources Operational – tools and resources
  12. 12. 12 5. LINKING QUALIFICATIONS AND OCCUPATIONS In the vocational education and training sector, and when modern systems are being introduced there is often an increasing close correlation and nexus between qualifications and the range of occupational employability. A closer inspection of the employability indicators of the QFEmirates demonstrates this point. The employability indicators are indicated below. It is worth noting that as per the QFEmirates level descriptors, the employability indicators also scaffolded in terms of a comparable hierarchy of relative difficulty, complexity and depth at each level. 5.1 Employability indicators of QFEmirates levels The employability indicators of the QFEmirates levels is a notional occupational reference guide to employment relevance. They are an indicative alignment only to the QFEmirates level descriptors. Employability indicators of the QFEmirates levels QF level Indicative employability range Employment relevance indicated in QFEmirates level descriptors 10 Leading specialist/expert Employability in the leadership of research and critical change activity A leading expert in their field of work, profession or discipline, with expertise in the critique and development of social and organisational structures and in the initiation of change, that includes mastery in producing new and original knowledge or extending and redefining existing knowledge or professional practice and can deploy substantial authority, creativity, autonomy, independence, fair and valid ethical judgements, scholarly and professional integrity, and account for overall governance of processes and systems in identifying unique solutions or conclusions. Can apply innovative and advanced approaches to managing, leading and developing technical or professional teams. Typically, they display highly developed expert communication and information technology skills. 9 Higher professional Employability as senior professionals or leaders in specialised fields Highly specialised professionals with requisite knowledge and expertise allied to competence in management and strategic leadership and who can lead and function autonomously and ethically, and deploy a range of advanced skills in planning, evaluating, producing and executing creative solutions to highly complex, unpredictable and unfamiliar issues in a range of contexts. Typically, they display highly developed specialist communication and information technology skills. 8 Professional Employability as autonomous professionals and as managers In some fields, advanced and specialised knowledge-based professionals and, in others, generalists with high level research, analysis and problem-solving skills who are able to work independently and ethically and/or apply management expertise in the supervision and/or mentoring of others or in a combination of both. Typically, they have highly developed advanced communication and information technology skills. 7 Para-professional and higher technical Employability at the upper end of many technical occupations, or in para-professional and management roles Specialist command of the theoretical knowledge and analytical skills of an occupational field and the ability to design, evaluate and/or plan solutions and apply ethical values to complex and unpredictable problems, and/or apply high level specialist administrative/management responsibilities including leading multiple, complex groups. Typically, they display highly developed advanced communication and information technology skills.
  13. 13. 13 QF level Indicative employability range Employment relevance indicated in QFEmirates level descriptors 6 Supervisory and technical Employability as a highly developed and specialist craft- worker, technician or administrative operative and/or supervisor roles Specialist command of the knowledge and skills of an occupational field and the ability to develop, specify and/or implement solutions to complex problems, and/or apply specialist administrative/supervisory responsibilities including leading multiple groups. Typically, they display advanced communication and information technology skills. 5 Highly skilled Employability as an advanced craft-worker, technician or administrative operative, and/or in limited supervisory roles Entry to many higher level supervisory and para-professional careers with strong general employability Comprehensive command of the knowledge and skills of an occupational field and the ability to identify, diagnose and implement solutions to abstract, familiar and non-routine problems covering complex type work, and assume control, coordination or administrative implementation responsibilities that include leading teams and multiple groups. Typically, they display comprehensive communication and information technology skills. 4 Skilled Employability as a generalist craft-worker, technician or administrative operative, and/or lead teams Entry to many careers with strong general employability Command of a broad range of specialised knowledge and skills of an occupational field and the ability to work independently, identify and deploy known solutions to defined problems, assume control or administrative responsibilities for specified outcomes covering skilled type work, and lead technical/peer teams and/or others in a specific work activity. Typically, they display effective communication and information technology skills. 3 Semi-skilled Entry to many occupational sectors and employment in semi- skilled vocational occupations The capacity to draw on a broad range of mainly factual and procedural knowledge and apply a limited range of skills to carry out tasks and deploy routine solutions to predictable and occasional unpredictable problems using simple rules, instruments, tools and techniques relating to a whole job, whilst working under indirect supervision with some autonomy and which may include leading small teams within a technical or group activity. 2 General Entry to many occupational sectors and employment in roles requiring routine general skills The capacity to draw on general, factual knowledge of a defined field of work or discipline and carry out simple, routine tasks under guidance and in accordance with procedures within a defined context to respond to, and/or solve, defined problems whilst working independently and/or in small structured teams under direct supervision and in a managed and/or routine environment. 1 Basic Employability in occupations requiring limited well-defined and procedural skills or programs to enable occupational entry The capacity to carry out work in well-defined, familiar and predictable contexts under direct supervision or to perform simple repetitive and predictable tasks to solve well-defined problems in a controlled environment.
  14. 14. 14 5.2 Functions hierarchy Occupational descriptions typically use functional verbs to specify what actions and/or decisions are required to perform the respective duties and responsibilities. They are generally structured in a functional hierarchy that closely reflect the verbs used in the employability indicators descriptors and in turn align with the QFEmirates level descriptors. That is, a common but notional thread can be identified at each level that links the QFEmirates, the employability indicators and the functions performed in an occupation. The following six types of functions are generally considered the key and most common functional areas represented in a hierarchical form and across occupations and organisations. By establishing the QFEmirates and the employability indicators as the benchmark reference tool or core language reference platform, augmented by the common and key functional areas, the opportunity for increasing consistency across occupational descriptions and their market recognition is enhanced. This in turn leads to improved community and stakeholder awareness, understanding and confidence of occupational nomenclatures (titles) and meanings ascribed to them in the market across all levels of the QFEmirates. Key and hierarchical functional areas and definitions Key and hierarchical functional areas Types of actions and/or decisions (function definition) A Policy and strategy A high level function for researching, establishing, managing and strategising policies and philosophy B Managing The function of managing personnel, systems, resources and processes C Specifying The function of specifying, implementing and assessing personnel, systems, resources and processes D Controlling The function of controlling, regulating and monitoring activities related to personnel, systems, resources and processes E Maintaining credibility The function of maintaining the capability of employees/independents and a healthy organisational culture and safe workplace F Performing The function of carrying out the work activities to produce and maintain goods and services The function of performing simple tasks in a controlled environment Functions are generally organised into a hierarchy which denotes the types of actions and/or decisions involved. Policy type functions refer to executive decisions where policy is made and objectives are formulated. Control type functions relate to middle management actions and decisions to monitor day-to-day affairs and assure that executive decisions are met. Operational type functions involve the routine activities or work of the enterprise. Three key benchmark reference tools that depict a common set of national terminologies and definitions have now been identified for use by those formulating occupational descriptions and the related duties and responsibilities. The use of the benchmark tools can assist in harmonising and developing consistency. The three tools are: 1. The QFEmirates and its related level descriptors and qualification profiles (requirements) for a given learning outcomes 2. Employability indicators of QFEmirates levels – range and descriptors 3. Key and hierarchical functional areas and definitions - actions and/or decisions
  15. 15. 15 GeneralPrinciple QualificationtitlesLevel Indicative employabilityindicator FunctionFunctiondescription VETHE Doctoral degree 10 Leading specialist/expert PolicyandStrategy Ahighlevelfunctionforestablishingand managingpolicies,philosophyandstrategiesApplied Master Master’s degree 9Higherprofessional Applied Graduate Diploma Post Graduate Diploma 8ProfessionalManaging Thefunctionofmanagingpersonnel,systems, resourcesandprocesses Applied Bachelor Bachelor degree 7 Para-professionaland highertechnical Specifying Thefunctionof specifying,implementing andassessingsystems andprocesses Controlling Thefunctionof controlling, regulatingand monitoring activitiesrelatedto personnel,systems, resourcesand processes Advanced Diploma Higher Diploma 6 Supervisoryand technical Maintaining capability Thefunctionof maintainingincluding coordinatingthe capabilityofemployees andhealthy organisationalculture andsafeworkplace Diploma Associate degree 5Highlyskilled Certificate44Skilled Certificate33Semi-skilled Performing Thefunctionofcarryingouttheworkactivitiesto produceandmaintaingoodsandservices Certificate22General Certificate11Basic Entrylevelandfunctional employment Thefunctionofperformingsimpletasksina controlledenvironment The three can be linked together in a matrix to provide formal information for demonstrating the notional interrelationship between qualifications and functions performed in an occupation and vice versa. The following illustration denotes the notional interrelationship that applies. National functional framework model and indicative alignment to QFEmirates’ outcomes
  16. 16. 16 Having identified the three key benchmark reference tools and in particular, the functional key hierarchy areas, a further level of disaggregation can be undertaken, as this level of aggregation is too high for identifying duties and functions of an occupation. That is, unpacking the high level (key) functional areas in smaller elements using aligned verb taxonomies to help provide more clarity as to the actions and/or decisions, and which typically reflect and are used in general workplace applications. The verb taxonomies are appended to each function, as per the table below - Notional function and taxonomy framework. This table provides an augmented base structure (core language reference platform) for technical practitioners to support their activities, such as HR personnel, recruitment specialists, organisational specialists and/or job design specialists, as well as curriculum, qualification, occupational standards or occupational profile writers or developers. A further expanded and more detailed framework that includes additional sample verbs and information is included at Appendix 2 – Expanded notional function and taxonomy framework. Notional function and taxonomy framework QF Level Function Taxonomy 9 - 10 Policy Analyse, Develop, Forecast, Research, Strategise 7 - 8 Managing Evaluate, Lead , Manage 6 -7 Specifying Assess, Commission, Design, Develop, Direct, Estimate, Facilitate, Implement, Investigate, Report, Specify 6 Controlling Audit, Control, Diagnose, Evaluate, Inspect, Institute, Mobilise, Monitor, Plan, Procure, Regulate, Schedule, Supervise, Verify 4 - 6 Maintaining capability Administer, Comply, Coordinate, Develop, Maintain, Organise, Respond, Test, Utilise 2 - 4 Performing Align, Apply, Assemble, Attend, Build, Calibrate, Carry out, Check, Compile, Conduct, Configure, Construct, Contribute, Control, Deliver, Document, Erect, Fabricate, Fault-find, Identify, Install, Make, Modify, Monitor, Operate, Overhaul, Perform, Position, Prepare, Produce, Provide, Rectify, Repair, Select, Sell, Service, Store, Troubleshoot, Undertake, Use 5.3 Example approaches to developing occupational profiles It is important to have in place a process for increasing consistency in the development of occupational profiles across the UAE that can be undertaken and result in a notional alignment with the QFEmirates. The two examples of occupations in Appendix 3: Example occupation – Sales and Marketing Manager (QFEmirates level 8) and Appendix 4: Example occupation – Electrician (QFEmirates level 4: Electrician) are presented as a matrix consisting of:  QFEmirates level  QFEmirates summary level descriptor (learning outcomes)  QFEmirates profile (vocational)  Employability indicators of the QFEmirates  UAE national occupation profile for a specific position e.g. Sales and Marketing Manager
  17. 17. 17 Occupational standards are agreed statements, which specify competent performance expected in employment. They encompass the knowledge, skill and aspects of competence in the workplace in a work-related or occupational area, and the ability to transfer and apply the knowledge, skills and aspects of competence in new situations and environments. It should be noted the alignment is notional and not an exact science but based on knowledge of the scaffolded hierarchy of learning outcomes of the QFEmirates and commonly recognised general knowledge of occupational hierarchies and their comparability respectively, consistent with that deployed in the ISCO classification system. 5.3.1 Uses of occupational profiles The establishment of national occupational profiles provides a national resource for users. It affords them an essential and central building block to progress their organisational and respective development activities. It improves the prospects for enhanced synergies and consistency in the recognition of same occupation across relevant stakeholders. That is, whether it be employers seeking to develop job descriptions, undertaking workplace reform or managing and planning employee careers, or institutions looking to identify future programs that align and link with growth in the labour market. It may be in research activities or compliance regimes that seek to identify occupational linkages. The benefits and features of occupational profiles pervade beyond their known interfaces. The respective occupational profile acts as the central reference document for building and contextualising relevant outcomes and requirements. Increasing the use of occupational profiles through key stakeholders like employers, government and their agencies/regulators, institutions and associated bodies improves community understanding, recognition and acceptance. They act, as well, to help build confidence in the market place of the role and scope of occupations in the labour market and the economy. 5.3.2 Uses of national occupational skills standards Downstream of occupational profiles are national occupational skills standards (referred to as NOSS in the UAE). Occupational skills standards were referred to earlier. This section looks at their uses and benefits. Distinctively, they are a medium for adding more specificity to the occupational profiles and can be used to guide qualifications development, education and training as well as assessment provision, and more importantly, as augmented information in workforce development and quality assurance regulatory regimes. Occupational skills standards are typically national and developed with the involvement of industry and respective technical subject matter experts. Occupational standards’ definitions used across the world typically share common definitions; and can be derived and subsequently adapted for local context. In the UAE the suggested definition for national occupational skills standards is: National Occupational Skills Standards (NOSS) are therefore concerned with what people are able to do and with the ability to do this in a range of contexts. They emphasise outcomes and the application of skills and knowledge and aspects of competence, not just their specification. NOSS can readily be aligned to, and used for, in due course defining and confirming qualifications outcomes against the Qualifications Framework for the Emirates (QFEmirates). They have other important uses too, such as application in VET, industry and as well government regulation and compliance (e.g. occupational certification/licensure or assessment of overseas workers).
  18. 18. 18 Uses of occupational profiles QFEmirates (VET Sector) • National vocational qualifications • Career ladders and pathways • National Occupational Skills Standards (NOSS) • Assessment guidance • Training resources and delivery advice Workforce Development • Learning and organisational development • Career planning and management • Job design (align job with occupation profile) • Recruitment, retention and re-skilling • Performance management • Employee conditions • Workplace culture • Labour market information Education and training providers • Identify occupations and offer relevant qualifications • Align future programs with occupations in demand in the market • Identify resources requirements required for the occupation • Planning • Marketing Quality Assurance • Regulation of occupations • Migration and expatriates labour supply • Occupation and qualifications mapping, alignment and recognition • Census, data collection, research, analyses and comparisons international, national and local
  19. 19. 19 5.3.2 Uses of national occupational skills standards (continued) The main advantage of national occupational skills standards (NOSS) is that they crystallise the objective of driving education and training market outcomes towards the needs of the economy, industry and the community. They seek to effect an education and training market that is demand driven rather than supply driven, shifting the power relationship from one that is singular (provider orientated) to one of shared vision and responsibility by the stakeholders. They directly contribute to the development of a suitably skilled, educated and qualified workforce and in turn UAE’s economic growth and prosperity. There are many benefits associated with introducing NOSS as the new focal point for industry, employers/establishments, VET sector, government regulatory systems, and in particular individuals. They provide an additional instrument of specified common language for communicating between stakeholders and thus can be used respectively by stakeholders: Benefits of national occupational skills standards (NOSS) General benefits  Improve productivity, efficiency, cost effectiveness, health and safety.  Build confidence and pride in the credentials received.  Provide equal opportunities for recruitment, employment, learning and recognition of achievements for all citizens and residents.  Enable mobility and employment opportunities for individuals.  Enable portability of credentials based on a rigour of quality assured occupational standards.  Reduce duplication and improving consistency in education and training support materials and resources.  Facilitate benchmarking and improvements of national education and training goals and strategic initiatives.  Enable improved investment decisions and transparency in government purchase of publicly funded education and training provision.  Become more internationally competitive and economically sustainable. Employers  Improve business prioritisation and planning in recruitment, retention and skills development.  Provide an objective and directly relevant measure for employers and employees alike.  Promote quality delivery required to secure and retain contracts.  Improve appraisal and feedback mechanisms for individual employees.  Improve workplace performance by benchmarking practice against the standards.  Improve compliance with legal and business requirements.  Align individual effort with organisational goals and targets. Learners/individuals  Improve an individual’s clarity in job and responsibility levels.  Improve an individual’s confidence in working effectively and safely to best practice standards.  Improve an individual’s opportunity to transfer competence to other jobs or work contexts.  Encourage an individual to recognise and pursue further personal development and widen the breadth of career possibilities.
  20. 20. 20 Education and training providers  Ensure vocational education and training (VET) provision is relevant and current to job roles in industry.  Recognise previously acquired competencies (RPL).  Identify gaps in knowledge, skills and aspects of competence and requisite training needs.  Reduce training costs in learning and assessment design and provision.  Support the design of relevant courses and/or training programs. Government  Establish and enunciate Emirate or national strategies and priorities for the development of world class skills.  Promote the skills base of the Emirate or country, internally and internationally.  Improve the statistical information base of skills and competence levels achieved by individuals, internally and internationally.  Improve an individual’s compliance to regulatory requirements leading to reduced incidents in terms of safety, health and workplace productivity through mediums such as providing formal benchmarks for licensure and certification agencies in implementing occupational licensure regimes for accountability of performance.  Maximise the use of an individual’s skills in the labour market.  Establish quality skills assessments regimes for overseas workers seeking to work in UAE.  Directly or through prioritised funding influence the education and training market to equip citizens for the world of work.  Increase stakeholders’ investment in the development of world class skills.  Increase an individual’s interest in skills development.  Promote and appropriately recognise and reward citizens for skills attained and deployed so that certification/qualification can become one of preferred choice.
  21. 21. 21 APPENDICES
  22. 22. 22 APPENDIX 1: CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS A4. 1 International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) system ISCO - is the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO) system established by the International Labor Organisation (ILO). It is the internationally recognise system for classifying occupations. It is used by the Ministry of Economy in the UAE for its occupational data gathering and reporting tool. The following provides general information about how ISCO classifies occupations. For more invitation, visit: http://www.ilo.org/global/publications/ilo-bookstore/order-online/books/WCMS_172572/lang-- en/index.htm What is an occupational classification? An occupational classification is a tool for organising all jobs in an establishment, an industry or a country into a clearly defined set of groups according to the tasks and duties undertaken in the job. It normally consists of two components:  The classification system itself, which gives the guidelines on how jobs are to be classified into the most detailed groups of the classification and how these detailed groups are to be further aggregated into broader groups. It includes the occupational titles and codes, and represents a value set for the variable >occupation=, a variable which describes the different tasks and duties of jobs.  A descriptive component, which usually consists of descriptions of the tasks and duties as well as other aspects of the jobs which belong to each of the defined groups, including goods and services produced, skill level and specialisation, occupations included and excluded, entry restrictions, etc. These descriptions can be said to constitute a dictionary of occupations. An occupational classification can be compared to a system of maps for a country, where the top level of aggregation corresponds to a small scale road map for the main motorways and highways; the next level corresponds to a set of larger scale maps for, say, each of the main regions, also showing provincial and local roads; and so on. At the most detailed level, they are the detailed technical maps used by municipal engineers to plan sidewalks, traffic lights, road extensions, etc. Such detailed technical maps can be compared to the job descriptions used by enterprises for personnel management and wage systems which in most countries are not the concern of national authorities, except for the management of public sector employees. ISCO organises occupations in a hierarchical framework. They are based on two main concepts:  The concept of kind of work performed – defined as a set of tasks or duties designed to be executed by one person  The concept of skill, defined as the skill level – the degree of complexity of constituent tasks – and skill specialisation – the field of know ledge required for competent performance of the constituent tasks.
  23. 23. 23 ISCO Major occupational groups Ten (10) major occupational groups with an array of sub-divided fields have been identified for ISCO- 08 data collection and publication. At the major group level, these are as follows:  Managers  Professionals  Technicians and associate professionals  Clerical support workers  Service and sales workers  Skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers  Craft and related trades workers  Plant and machine operators, and assemblers  Elementary occupations  Armed forces occupations Each of the major group is disaggregated further into sub-major groups, minor groups and unit groups (resulting in four levels of disaggregation). For instance, the following applies with respect to a sample from the ISCO “Professional” group: 2 Professionals 21 Science and engineering professionals 211 Physical and earth science professionals 2111 Physicists and astronomers 2112 Meteorologists 2113 Chemists 2114 Geologists and geophysicists 212 Mathematicians, actuaries and statisticians 2120 Mathematicians, actuaries and statisticians 213 Life science professionals 2131 Biologists, botanists, zoologists and related professionals 2132 Farming, forestry and fisheries advisers 2133 Environmental protection professionals 22 Health professionals 221 Medical doctors 2211 Generalist medical practitioners 2212 Specialist medical practitioners 222 Nursing and midwifery professionals 2221 Nursing professionals 2222 Midwifery professionals 223 Traditional and complementary medicine professionals 2230 Traditional and complementary medicine professionals 224 Paramedical practitioners 2240 Paramedical practitioners
  24. 24. 24 A4. 2 International Standard Industrial Classification (ISCI) system Chapter II The underlying principles of the classification (item 3, p. 9) in the International Standard Industrial Classification (ISCI) revision 4 includes a definition of industry classifications: ISIC is a classification according to kind of productive activity, and not a classification of goods and services. The activity carried out by a unit is the type of production in which it engages. This is the characteristic of the unit according to which it will be grouped with other units to form industries. An industry is defined as the set of all production units engaged primarily in the same or similar kinds of productive activity. ISIC is distinctively different in nature and purpose from the classifications of goods and services, ownership, institutional units or other types of classifications. As it is in general not possible to establish a one-to-one correspondence between activities and products, ISIC is not designed to measure product data at any detailed level. For this purpose, a separate classification exists, namely, the Central Product Classification (CPC). The broad structure of ISIC has been aggregated into 21 sectors: Broad structure of ISCI Field Code Industry Sector A 01–03 Agriculture, forestry and fishing B 05–09 Mining and quarrying C 10–33 Manufacturing D 35 Electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply E 36–39 Water supply; sewerage, waste management and remediation activities F 41–43 Construction G 45–47 Wholesale and retail trade; repair of motor vehicles and motorcycles H 49–53 Transportation and storage I 55–56 Accommodation and food service activities J 58–63 Information and communication K 64–66 Financial and insurance activities L 68 Real estate activities M 69–75 Professional, scientific and technical activities N 77–82 Administrative and support service activities O 84 Public administration and defence; compulsory social security P 85 Education Q 86–88 Human health and social work activities R 90–93 Arts, entertainment and recreation S 94–96 Other service activities T 97–98 Activities of households as employers; undifferentiated goods- and services-producing activities of households for own use U 99 Activities of extraterritorial organisations and bodies
  25. 25. 25 ISIC draws attention to the increasing broadening (in Chapter I, item 17, pp. 5-6) in its use: While ISIC was developed with a view to categorising economic activities for national accounts and other economic analysis purposes, its use extends to data collection, tabulation, analysis and presentation for a variety of social and environmental applications, such as the link between the economy, education and health sectors and the environment at the national and international levels. Moreover, at the national versions are increasingly used for administrative and business purposes, such as the categorisation of revenues and expenditures. This broadening of the use of ISIC data states (in Chapter IV, item 4, p. 38) the relationship of other international classifications with ISIC: The following classifications developed by the United Nations or its subsidiary organs have some relationship with ISIC or make use of parts of ISIC in defining their own scope or categories; whether describing statistics on occupations, employment, expenditures, education, tourism or the environment: the Classification of the Functions of Government (COFOG), the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), the International Standard Classification of Occupations (ISCO), the activity classification of the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) and the International Classification of Non-Profit Organizations (ICNPO). This broadening of use has many benefits not least of which is that there is an increasing need to recognise the importance of data relationships, for instance, between ISIC and ISCO when analysing an array of relevant economic, industrial, labour market and education and training information for use in such activities as workforce development, organisational development, occupation or job design, career management and planning, and education and training management and planning. In the UAE, the 21 ISIC sectors have been aggregated and simplified into 12 segmented industry sectors to reflect the nature and unique industry construct of country. The 12 sectors reflect and are representative of the broader UAE demographics in terms of:  UAE key economic indicators (United Arab Emirates Yearbooks 2007 and 2008)  identified key Ministry of Economy economic industry sectors  UAE Chambers of Commerce and industry categories  social context  employment  population size  vocational skills mix as well as cross sector skills used  current and prospective skills demand of the emirates  international experiences.
  26. 26. 26 The National Qualifications Authority (NQA) is looking to establish a closer interrelationship between qualifications and needs of industry and the workplace (occupations). It is to establish arrangements for developing and approving national qualifications comprised of national occupational skills standards against and across these 12 recognised industry sectors. The 12 industry sectors are as follows: NQA recognised UAE industry sectors No Industry Sectors 1 Government services and public administration 2 Community, health and social services 3 Business, administration and financial services 4 Tourism, hospitality, retail and leisure services including personal care services 5 Arts, culture and entertainment 6 Education, learning and social development 7 Building and construction, estates and assets development and management 8 Utilities and infrastructure 9 Energy resources – oil, natural gas, petrochemical, chemical and mining/quarrying 10 Manufacturing 11 Logistics and transport 12 Agriculture, livestock and fishery
  27. 27. 27 APPENDIX 2: EXPANDED NOTIONAL FUNCTION AND TAXONOMY FRAMEWORK The following table provides an expanded list of verb taxonomies and related examples as well as workplace applications that can be used by technical practitioners in their development work. They are provided only as suggestions and indications of how specific verb taxonomies can be aligned and applied to the key functional areas. They can be augmented as required. KEY FUNCTIONAL AREAS QF LEVEL EXEMPLAR TAXONOMY EXAMPLES WORKPLACE APPLICATION A POLICY A high level function for researching, establishing, managing and strategising policies and philosophy 9 - 10 Analyse Develop Forecast Research Strategise  Analysing policy  Developing policy  Forecasting demand  Researching policy  Strategising policy Specialist Expert B MANAGING The function of managing personnel, systems, resources and processes 7 - 8 Evaluate Lead Manage  Establishing systems and policies  Evaluating the effectiveness of policies and processes  Initiating actions  Leading people  Managing communication  Managing finances  Managing group processes  Managing human resources  Managing information  Managing knowledge and information  Managing physical resources Professional Limited professional Higher technician C SPECIFYING The function of specifying, implementing and assessing personnel, systems, resources and processes 6 -7 Assess Commission Design Develop Direct Estimate Facilitate Implement Investigate Report Specify  Assessing effectiveness of systems and processes  Commissioning systems and processes  Designing products and services  Developing systems and techniques  Directing enquiries  Estimating projects  Facilitating processes  Implementing systems  Investigating and analysing faults and problems  Reporting performance  Specifying requirements Professional Limited professional Higher technician Technician Supervisor D CONTROLLING The function of controlling, regulating and monitoring activities related to personnel, systems, resources and processes 6 Audit Control Diagnose Evaluate  Auditing services  Controlling delivery of projects/programs  Diagnosing problems  Evaluating functions, processes and ideas Technician Supervisor
  28. 28. 28 Inspect Institute Mobilise Monitor Plan Procure Regulate Schedule Supervise Verify  Inspecting facilities, process and quality  Instituting quality assurance  Mobilising plant, equipment and personnel  Monitoring activities  Planning and scheduling activities  Procuring resources for activities  Regulating activities  Supervising people and activities  Verifying programs E MAINTAINING CAPABILITY The function of maintaining including coordinating the capability of employees and a healthy organisational culture and safe workplace 4 - 6 Administer Comply Coordinate Develop Maintain Organise Respond Test Utilise  Administering user networks, processes and information  Complying with regulations and schedules  Coordinating people and activities  Developing learning and skills  Maintaining a safe and healthy workplace environment  Maintaining the environment  Organising operations  Responding to the values of the community  Testing functions and ideas  Utilising plant and equipment Technician Supervisor Skilled F PERFORMING The function of carrying out the work activities to produce and maintain goods and services 2 - 4 Align Apply Assemble Attend Build Calibrate Carry out Check Compile Conduct Configure Construct Contribute Control Deliver Document Erect Fabricate Fault-find Identify Install  Aligning products  Applying methods  Assembling items  Attending to customer requests  Building equipment and systems  Calibrating instruments  Carrying out operations/tasks  Checking outputs  Compiling reports  Conducting operations  Configuring systems, processes and products  Constructing items  Contributing to system or process development  Controlling continuous processes  Delivering services or consumables to customers  Documenting outcomes of processes and systems  Erecting scaffolding  Fabricating products  Fault finding  Identifying problems and products  Installing systems and equipment Skilled Semi-skilled Low skilled General operations
  29. 29. 29 Make Modify Monitor Operate Overhaul Perform Position Prepare Produce Provide Rectify Repair Select Sell Service Store Troubleshoot Undertake Use  Maintaining equipment and processes  Making or producing new items  Modifying items  Monitoring processes  Operating equipment  Overhaul plant and equipment  Performing routine checks  Positioning equipment or products  Preparing for process or dispatch  Providing information and advice  Providing personal care services  Rectify faults  Re-making components and parts  Repairing equipment  Responding to situations  Selecting components  Selling items  Servicing equipment  Storing files, stock, equipment and information  Troubleshooting systems  Undertaking activities  Using basic computer applications ENTRY LEVEL AND FUNCTIONAL EMPLOYMENT The function of performing simple tasks in a controlled environment 1 Follow Make Use  Perform simple tasks in a controlled environment Basic
  30. 30. 30 APPENDIX 3: EXAMPLE OCCUPATION – SALES AND MARKETING MANAGER QF level QFEmirates summary level descriptor* (learning outcomes) QFEmirates profile (vocational) Employability indicators of QFEmirates levels UAE national occupational profile – Sales and Marketing Manager 8 Learning outcomes at level 8 indicate advanced specialised knowledge and critical understanding in a specialised field of work or discipline and at the interface between fields as well as a comprehensive understanding of critical approaches to creating a systematic and coherent body of knowledge and concepts gained from a range of sources. It also covers:  acquiring comprehensive knowledge of current research and innovations in a field of work, discipline or professional practice  specialist field and integration of knowledge from different fields of work or disciplines  skills in solving complex unpredictable and/or abstract problems with intellectual independence and making judgements that take into account social or ethical issues  skills to adopt a professional approach to operating in a complex environment including the design and development of creative approaches to the management of complex work processes and organisation, resources or learning  leading and managing teams within a technical or professional activity or working effectively as an individual  leading the strategic performance of professional teams and self  presenting, explaining and/or critiquing substantively complex matters  taking responsibility for contributing to professional practice in complex and sometimes unfamiliar learning contexts  leading, contributing and implementing ethical standards. The holder of a Postgraduate Diploma (level 8) will have acquired advanced specialist knowledge, critical understanding, practical knowledge, problem solving skills and proficiency associated with a discipline, some of it at the current boundaries of an academic discipline. In some fields they can operate as advanced and specialised knowledge-based professionals and in others as generalists with high level research, analytical and communication skills who are able to perform independently and ethically or develop expertise in management and/or mentoring of others or a combination of both. Knowledge: Advanced specialised knowledge and critical understanding in a specialised discipline and the interface between fields. It also covers comprehensive understanding of critical approaches to creating a systematic and coherent body of knowledge and concepts gained from a range of sources. Encompassed is comprehensive knowledge of current research and innovations in a discipline or professional practice and impact of these developments on accepted theory and practice. Skills: Problem-solving skills in a specialist field and the integration of knowledge from different disciplines to solve complex unpredictable and/or abstract problems with intellectual independence. Skills in the discipline to: Indicative employability range: Professional:  Employability as autonomous professionals and as managers Employment relevance indicated in QFEmirates level descriptors: In some fields, advanced and specialised knowledge-based professionals and, in others, generalists with high level research, analysis and problem-solving skills who are able to work independently and ethically and/or apply management expertise in the supervision and/or mentoring of others or in a combination of both. Typically, they have highly developed advanced communication and information technology skills. Occupation scope: Plan, direct, or coordinate marketing and sales policies and programs or actual distribution or movement of a product or service to customers. Occupation summary: Sales and marketing managers plan, direct and coordinate the sales and marketing activities of an enterprise or organisation, or of enterprises that provide sales and marketing services to other enterprises and organisations. Also, analyse sales statistics or determine demand for products and services offered by a firm and its competitors, and identify potential customers as well as develop pricing strategies to maximise profits/surpluses or share of the market while ensuring the firm's customers are satisfied. Oversee product development or monitor trends that indicate the need for new products and services. Job activities and tasks include: a) planning and organising special sales and marketing programmes based on sales records and market assessment b) determining price lists, discount and delivery terms, sales promotion budgets, sales methods, special incentives and campaigns c) establishing and directing operational and administrative procedures related to sales and marketing activities d) leading and managing the activities of sales and marketing staff e) planning and directing daily operations f) establishing and managing budgets and controlling expenditure to ensure the efficient use of resources g) overseeing the selection, training and performance of staff
  31. 31. 31 QF level QFEmirates summary level descriptor* (learning outcomes) QFEmirates profile (vocational) Employability indicators of QFEmirates levels UAE national occupational profile – Sales and Marketing Manager  identify appropriate sources of information or analytical techniques in investigation that leads to conclusions and solutions to problems  critically select appropriate research instruments and strategies  present, explain and/or critique substantively complex matters using advanced communication and information technology skills. Autonomy and Responsibility: Can take responsibility for designing and developing creative approaches to managing and evaluating complex processes and organisation, resources or learning. Role in context: With autonomy can:  analyse the management of professional activity that may be in a complex environment  evaluate and reflect on the strategic performance of professional teams and self  contribute to coordination of peer relationships with qualified practitioners as well as multiple, complex groups, and  support the management of professional development mentoring activities. Self-development: Can self-evaluate and take responsibility for:  contributing to professional practice in complex and sometimes unfamiliar work and learning contexts, and  contributing and conforming to ethical standards. h) representing the enterprise or organisation at sales and marketing conventions, trade exhibitions and other forums. Knowledge, Skills and Aspects of competence:  Advanced specialised knowledge of principles, concepts and techniques in field of work, discipline and/or professional practice  Specialised knowledge of analysing, planning, managing and establishing ideas, policies, strategies, projections and/or conditions in the field of work, discipline and/or professional practice  Advanced knowledge of research principles and methods  Advanced knowledge of high level governance of systems, processes and procedures including legislative, regulatory, standards, codes and conventions  Higher knowledge of recent developments in the field of work, discipline and/or professional practice  Higher knowledge of principles, concepts and techniques in management, economics, finance, statistics and fiscal disciplines related to the field of work and/or professional practice  Higher knowledge of political, government, legislative and regulatory systems related to the field of work  Higher knowledge of laws, regulations, standards codes and conventions of the UAE and specific Emirates related to the field of work, discipline and/or professional practice and more general subjects including OHSE and cultural understanding and awareness  Higher knowledge of principles, concepts and techniques in sensitively recognising and responding to the management of highly complex ethical issues  Leverage information technology, executive information systems, management techniques and tools for optimal field of work performance and/or professional practice
  32. 32. 32 QF level QFEmirates summary level descriptor* (learning outcomes) QFEmirates profile (vocational) Employability indicators of QFEmirates levels UAE national occupational profile – Sales and Marketing Manager  Higher skills in research, analysis, consultation and synthesis of information to evaluate ideas, policies, strategies, projections and/or conditions and generate recommendations and/or relevant alternatives  Manage advanced relationships and coordinate related activities of respective stakeholders  Advanced skills and experience in high level policy analysis, formulation and research, plus strategic planning in sensitive and confidential environment  Develop abstract concepts and convey strategic indications from the spectrum of development experience  Higher negotiation cultural sensitivity and Diplomatic skills  Use of information, tools, resources to support high- level and complex work achievement  Work sensitively and effectively in a multi-cultural environment  Work with others to develop creative solutions to complex unpredictable and/or abstract problems  Communicate with influence, and a proven record of developing and maintaining effective partnerships across an organisation and with diverse external clients and other key stakeholders  Highly developed advanced oral and written communication, interpersonal and representational skills, and a proven ability to use these skills to prepare and present clear, concise, high quality advice  Highly developed leadership and effective management skills, with capacity to initiate, implement and sustain improvements within a team environment, as well as the ability to work flexibly and cooperatively as a member of a team  Personal drive and integrity, the ability to self-manage and the capacity to identify and effectively manage risks associated with change, as well recognise and implement ethical standards to highly complex ethical issues
  33. 33. 33 QF level QFEmirates summary level descriptor* (learning outcomes) QFEmirates profile (vocational) Employability indicators of QFEmirates levels UAE national occupational profile – Sales and Marketing Manager  Achieving results within tight timelines, and capacity to set and implement new policy directions  Highly developed higher organisational skills, including the ability to manage priorities and meet tight deadlines. Qualifications or equivalent requirement: Bachelor degree in sales or marketing management, relevant field of work/discipline, higher qualification or equivalent. Example job titles: - Marketing manager - Sales manage Some related occupations examples: - Vice president of Sales - Director of sales - District sales manager - Regional sales manager - Sales supervisor - General manager - Sales and marketing vice president - Sales representative - Vice president of marketing - Business development manager - Marketing coordinator - Account supervisor * Use of the QFEmirates summary level descriptor is for indicative purposes only and reference should be made of the full QFEmirates level descriptor applicable to each level.
  34. 34. 34 APPENDIX 4: EXAMPLE OCCUPATION 2 – ELECTRICIAN QF level QFEmirates summary level descriptor* (learning outcomes) QFEmirates profile (vocational) Employability indicators of QFEmirates levels UAE National Occupational Profile – Electrician 4 Learning outcomes at level 4 indicate a broad range of specialised and relevant associated knowledge, including some theoretical and abstract concepts with limited depth. It also covers:  using specialist cognitive and practical skills to identify and deploy known solutions to defined problems including deployment of appropriate retrieval tools and which may be subjected to change in a number of contexts  implementing given approaches to complex procedures and processes, leading and being accountable for small peer teams within a technical activity, and providing limited supervision  presenting and explaining information concepts and ideas  producing from pieces of information, cohesive texts that may be short and varied  applying, reflecting and communicating an assortment of mathematical procedures and representations in a number of contexts, which may be interrelated  taking responsibility for own learning within a predictable environment  complying with ethical standards. The holder of a Certificate 4 qualification (Level 4) has demonstrated competence in a broad range of specialised knowledge and understanding of a field of work or discipline; can perform a wide range of skills required for known and some unknown solutions under limited guidance or supervision; and can take responsibility for leading teams within a technical or peer activity, and for own learning within a managed environment. Knowledge: Knowledge for this qualification is broad- ranged specialised knowledge and includes some theoretical and abstract concepts with limited depth in some areas in a field of work or discipline, including facts, principles, processes and general concepts as well as an understanding of relevant knowledge in associated fields of work or disciplines including regulations, standards, codes, conventions and procedures. It also covers knowledge of approaches used in categorising coherent bodies of knowledge and concepts gained from a range of sources; understanding of retrieval tools and problem solving techniques and procedures; and sources of current knowledge and concepts from related fields. Encompassed is an understanding of cohesive texts covering various pieces of information, and comprehension in an array of mathematical procedures and representations in a number of contexts. Indicative employability range: Skilled  Employability as a generalist craft-worker, technician or administrative operative, and/or lead teams  Entry to many careers with strong general employability Employment relevance indicated in QFEmirates level descriptors: Command of a broad range of specialised knowledge and skills of an occupational field and the ability to work independently, identify and deploy known solutions to defined problems, assume control or administrative responsibilities for specified outcomes covering skilled type work, and lead technical/peer teams and/or others in a specific work activity. Typically, they display effective communication and information technology skills. Occupation scope: Electrical engineering technicians (Electricians) plan, assemble, install, alter, repair, fault find, test, inspect, verify, commission, operate and maintain electrical systems. Occupation summary: Electrical engineering technicians (Electricians) perform technical tasks to aid in electrical engineering research, and in the design, manufacture, assembly, testing, commissioning, troubleshooting, construction, operation, maintenance and repair of electrical equipment, facilities and distribution systems. Electrical systems provide heating, lighting, power, security, communication and control in residential, commercial, institutional, industrial and entertainment environments. Electricians may be self‐employed or employed by electrical contractors, utilities, operations and maintenance departments of various facilities. They may be required to be licensed, registered or certified to be permitted to work by a government authority, agency or approved certifying body. Job activities and tasks include: (a) providing technical assistance in research on and development of electrical equipment and facilities, or testing prototypes (b) designing and preparing blueprints of electrical installations and circuitry according to the specifications given (c) preparing detailed estimates of quantities and costs of materials and labour required for manufacture and installation according to the specifications given (d) monitoring technical aspects of the manufacture, installation, utilisation, maintenance and repair of electrical systems and equipment to ensure
  35. 35. 35 Skills: A range of specialist cognitive and practical skills to:  identify and deploy known solutions to defined problems, including accomplishing functions and solving problems by selecting and applying relevant methods, equipment, tools, materials and information  deploy appropriate retrieval tools associated with the field of work or discipline  use effective communication and information technology skills to present, and explain information concepts and ideas  produce from pieces of information cohesive texts, which may be short and varied, and  identify, apply, reflect and communicate an assortment of mathematical procedures and representations in a number of contexts, which may be interrelated. Autonomy and Responsibility: Can take responsibility for:  implementing appropriate approaches to complex work procedures and processes, resources or learning, including leading peer teams within a technical activity  exercising self-management within activity guidelines that are usually predictable, but are subject to change in a number of contexts, and which may be interrelated  completion of functions in work or learning with readily available support and under limited supervision, and  consistency of self-understanding and behaviour in accordance with socio- cultural norms. satisfactory performance and compliance with specifications and regulations (e) planning installation methods, checking completed installation for safety and controls or undertaking the initial running of the new electrical equipment or systems (f) assembling, installing, testing, calibrating, modifying and repairing electrical equipment and installations to conform with regulations and safety requirements. Knowledge, Skills and Aspects of competence:  Understanding the implications of new information for both current and future problem-solving and decision-making  Using logic and reasoning to identify the strengths and weaknesses of alternative solutions, conclusions or approaches to problems  Managing one's own time and the time of others  Teaching others how to do something  Selecting and using training/instructional methods and procedures appropriate for the situation when learning or teaching new things  The ability to generate or use different sets of rules for combining or grouping things in different ways  The ability to quickly and repeatedly measure and estimate exact positions  Knowledge of the structure and content of the engineering related technical English terminologies  Knowledge and use of relevant engineering applications and programs  Job may require him/her to work alone or in conjunction with engineers, building contractors, architects and scientists. Qualifications or equivalent requirement: Certificate or Diploma in electrical installation and/or maintenance, higher qualification or equivalent. Example job titles: - Electrician - Electrical engineering technician
  36. 36. 36 Role in context: Under limited supervision can:  function both independently and/or in a facilitative role with multiple groups, and  take responsibility for the routine work of others, and for the nature and quality of some outputs. Self-development: Can take responsibility for:  own learning within a predictable environment with limited supervision  identifying and complying with advised ethical standards. - Electric power transmission engineering technician - Electrical installer - Electrical fitter mechanic Some related occupations examples: - Power production plant operator - Electrical mechanic - Cable Jointer - Electronics and communications technician - Lift Electrician - Electrical lineworker * Use of the QF summary level descriptor is for indicative purposes only and reference should be made of the full QFEmirates level descriptor applicable to each level
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