Countries with more advanced economies than other developing nations, but which have not yet fully demonstrated the signs of a developed country.
e.g. Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia,…
= so-called „ developing countries”
GLOBALISATION The application of the term developing country to any country which is not developed is inappropriate because a number of poor countries have experienced long periods of economic decline. Such countries are classified as either least developed countries or failed states. e.g. Somalia, Sudan, Zimbabwe, Chad, Iraq
GLOBALISATION International organisations have started to use the term „Less economically developed countries“ (LEDCs) for the poorest nations which can in no sense be regarded as developing. That is, LEDCs are the poorest subset of LDCs. This also moderates the wrong tendency to believe that the standard of living in the entire developing world is the same. e.g.Ethiopia, Eritrea, Niger…
a modern infrastructure and a
move away from low value added sectors
such as agriculture and natural resource
Developed countries usually have economic systems based on continuous, self-sustaining economic growth in the tertiary and quarternary sectors and high standards of living.
Measure and concept of development
The development of a country is measured with statistical indexes such as
income per capita (per person),
the rate of literacy, et cetera.
The UN has developed the HDI , a compound indicator of the above statistics, to express the level of human development for countries where data is available.
GLOBALISATION Developing countries are in general countries which have not achieved a significant degree of industrialisation relative to their populations, and which have, in most cases a medium to low standard of living . There is a strong correlation between low income and high population growth.
GLOBALISATION The 21st century is stamped by a world-wide linkage of economy, called globalisation . There is a strong correlation between most countries in sense of tele-communications, industrial production and exchange of goods. There is no possibility for countries to escape this development.
mean to me?
In what sense
am I a so-called
„ Mc World
HOW TO DEVELOP A COUNTRY....
Development of a country has a logical consequence.
Every country has to go through different phases on its way to an
PHASE 1: AGRARIAN COUNTRIES
= no industrialisation at all / time before the start of industry
The economy of such countries is
dominated by people working in the
primary sector (= mining of raw materials),
few people working in the secondary sector
(=processing and manufacturing)
and very few people working in the
tertiary sector (= services).
GLOBALISATION PHASE 2 : EARLY INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES (NICs) = start of industrialisation The economy of these countries shows a still high primary sector but an increasing secondary sector and a slowly increasing tertiary sector
GLOBALISATION PHASE 3: HIGH INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES = industrialisation completed The economy changes again: the primary sector decreases significantly, the secondary sector becomes the dominating sector and also the tertiary sector increases.
GLOBALISATION PHASE 4: POST INDUSTRIAL COUNTRIES = very advanced – mainly “new industries” “leisure society” The economy’s primary sector has become very low in the meantime, the secondary sector decreases significantly and the tertiary sector becomes the dominating one. In addition a new quartery sector is added (= international services).
Developing countries are eager to attract any kind of industry to have at least the possibility of a start.
They sell themselves with slogans like:
free building plots
no or few taxes
cheap workers (child work???)
no trade unions
no environmental protection (no restrictions )
GLOBALISATION The example of newly industrialised countries shows that it is possible to develop: First Step : LAND REFORMS joining of mini-farms; more (simple) machines people set free to work in industry Second Step : LOW TECH INDUSTRIES = those that are possible with non-skilled workers, few and simple machines e.g. shoes, textiles, toys.... Third Step : MASS PRODUCTION the more people come to work in the cities the more it is possible to produce – the world market is “flooded” with cheap goods Final Step : HIGH TECH INDUSTRIES more and more branches introduced to become self-sufficient; better education ( skilled workers ...) transition to more complicated goods (high tech) standard of living rises....
GLOBALISATION DEMOGRAPHIC VIEW Industrialised countries: About 200 years ago industrialisation started and with the years prosperity and life expectancy (better medical care, less infant mortality ) grew continuously. In addition to better education, women at work, and a higher standard of living this caused a notable decrease of the birth rate so in our days population increases very slowly or stagnates or even decreases! In general we notice a birth rate of ~ +/- 1% and a death rate of ~ +/- 1%, too. The tendency of shrinking growth is balanced out by migration from less developed countries. At the moment ~ ¼ of the world’s population lives in industrialised countries
GLOBALISATION Developing countries: Industrial development only started in the past 20 or 30 years. Most of the countries currently are still in the first or second phase of development that means that the population growth is enormous (“population scissors” open!) In general we notice a birth rate of ~ +/- 4% and a death rate of ~ +/- 2%. At the moment ~ ¾ of the world’s population live in developing countries.
GLOBALISATION Reasons for many children: INFANT MORTALITY: Medical care is still not available for many people living in the countryside WORKFORCE : children are needed to help to support the family “ RETIREMENT INSURANCE ”: no state pensions – children have to take care of their parents when they are old SOCIETY: only male descendants guarantee the survival of the old (in connection to the current infant mortality this means that every family should have at least 4 sons to have their “pension” guaranteed SOCIAL PRESTIGE: “real men” have many children – men don’t co- operate with family planning RELIGION: nearly every religion is against contraceptives
Problems of excessive growth:
bad employment situation
uncontrollable migration to cities
poor housing conditions
need for development
Different countries have different methods to control their population:
sanctions (e.g. China many social problems)
rewards (e.g. Indonesia money, less tax, pilgrimage
to Mecca for sterilisation)
free contraceptives and sex education
more or less successful!
The best way would be to develop the countries’ economies and to integrate women into industrial work a higher standard of living fewer children
e.g. Kenya - 8,3 children/woman
Ethiopia - 5,4
Brazil - non-educated women – 6,5 / educated women (until 14!) – 2,5!!!!!