Smart Grid for US-China Green Energy Council

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Presentation by Stephen Lee at the UCGEC Smart Grid Seminar Series - 1st Seminar, April 29, 2009 in Palo Alto, CA

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  • Today we have visibility of the grid but it is limited to 2-4 sec scan rates and simple measured values like MW, MVAR and KV.
    Notice the shading on the photo to indicate limited visibility with the shaded fogging.
  • Smart Grid for US-China Green Energy Council

    1. 1. Holistic Power Supply and Delivery Chain – Foundations for a Smart Grid Stephen Lee Senior Technical Executive Power Delivery & Utilization April 29, 2009 US-China Green Energy Council (UCGEC) Smart Grid Seminar Palo Alto, California
    2. 2. 2 Outline Of Presentation • Key Messages – Avoid hype – Consider all parts together (Holistic approach) – Remove deficiencies in foundations – Implement new solutions • Useful References • Holistic Power Supply & Delivery Chain • Conclusions
    3. 3. 3 Useful Public References • www.iso-ne.com/pubs/whtpprs/ smart_grid_report_021709_final.pdf • EPRI (www.epri.com) – Facilitate the development of a smart grid interoperability roadmap for NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) – Vision for a Holistic Power Supply and Delivery Chain (#1018587) – The Green Grid (#1016905) • North American Electric Reliability Corporation (www.nerc.com) – About NERC -> Understanding the Grid -> Reliability Concepts / Terminology / Technical Reports – NASPI (http://www.naspi.org) • Stephen Lee (LinkedIn) http://www.linkedin.com/in/stylee IEEE Power and Energy Magazine Sept/Oct 2007
    4. 4. 4 Smart Grid: Hype Cycle SmartSmart GridGrid Need an Objective Assessment of the Potential for Smart Transmission and the Path to Achieve it
    5. 5. 5 Current State – Power Grid Operations 2-4 Sec scan rates Limited to info from lines and transformers at substations MW, MVAR, KV breaker status 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1617 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1617 Limited Grid Visibility
    6. 6. 6 Smart Transmission State – Power Grid Operations 750 +282j 250 +84j 100 +62j 20 + 8j 276 + 120j 130 + 8j 300 + 100j 750 + 262j 440 + 200j 120 + 11j 350 + 150j 227 + 420j 704 + 308j 2 3 4 5 7 6 1 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1617 176 +88j Higher speed scan rates Allows more frequent analysis of system state Enhanced Grid Visibility
    7. 7. 7 End-uses & DR Distribution System Transmission System Energy Storage Fuel Supply System Fuel Source/Storage Power Plants Renewable Plants Data CommunicationData Communication Wide Area ControlWide Area Control Sensors Controllers ZIP M Dynamic Load ModelsDynamic Power Plant Models End-to-End Power Delivery Chain Operation & Planning Monitoring, Modeling, Analysis, Coordination & ControlMonitoring, Modeling, Analysis, Coordination & Control
    8. 8. 8 North America Electricity Interconnections
    9. 9. 9 Independent System Operators / Regional Transmission Operators (ISO/RTO)
    10. 10. 10 North America Electricity Balancing Authorities
    11. 11. 11 New Challenges for a Smart Grid • Need to integrate: – Large-scale stochastic (uncertain) renewable generation – Electric energy storage – Distributed generation – Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles – Demand response (smart meters) • Need to deploy and integrate: – New Synchronized measurement technologies – New sensors – New System Integrity Protection Schemes (SIPS)
    12. 12. 12 Foundations Need Strengthening • End-to-End Situational Awareness • Alarm Management and Real-Time Root- Cause Diagnosis • Dynamic Models of all Generators and Loads • Faster System Restoration • System Integrity Protection Schemes – Faster reflex actions on wide-area problems – Measurement-based safety nets to prevent cascading blackouts, e.g., load shedding, islanding/separation, damping
    13. 13. 13 Why Accurate Models of Loads (Electricity Consumption) and Generators Are Needed? • Inadequacy of current model data – Inaccurate voltage recovery simulation after disturbances – Uncertainty about generator reactive power capabilities • Implications – Uncertainty about the stability margin of the power grid – Hidden risk of cascading blackouts, or – Under utilization of available transmission capacity for greater economic benefits 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Time (seconds) Voltage(pu) Hassayampa 500 kV Measured Simulated H=0.3 Simulated H=0.03 Simulated H=0.05 Simulated H=0.1 Simulated H=0.2 Simulated H =0.5
    14. 14. 14 Major Power System Disturbances 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Duration in Hours LoadLostinGW 1 - 2003 NE 2 - 1965 NE 3 - 1977 NYC 4 - 1982 WSCC 5 - 1996 WSCC 6 - 1996 WSCC 7 - 1998 MW Restoration Objectives: ▪ Minimize Duration of Outages ▪ Minimized Unserved Loads ▪ Avoid Equipment Danage Source: NSF/EPRI Workshop on Understanding and Preventing Cascading Failures in Power Systems, Oct 28, 2005. Effective System Restoration Can Reduce The Societal Impact Of Widespread Blackouts Extensive (magnitude & duration) blackouts cost Billions of $ to the economy
    15. 15. 15 New Solutions Are Needed • Optimal end-to-end commitment and dispatch by ISO/RTO as backstop for system reliability • Virtual Service Aggregators serving as Energy Balancing Authorities – Dispatch and control stochastic renewable generation – Dispatch and control (and own?) large scale energy storage plants – Manage demand response proactively – Manage smart electric vehicle charging • “Virtual” Vertically Integrated Utilities – Own/operate Generation/renewable/storage, some transmission, & Virtual Service Aggregator – Interstate ownership and operation (overcome NIMBY-ism) • National/Continental Backbone Transmission Grid – Holistic transmission planning – Virtual RTO – Transmission toll collection system http://www.energypulse.net/centers/author.cfm?at_id=259
    16. 16. 16 Potential Role of the Virtual Service Aggregator (Virtual Vertically Integrated Utility) Traditional Central Station Power Plants Traditional Central Station Power Plants Large-Scale Renewable Resources Large-Scale Renewable Resources Large-Scale Energy Storage Large-Scale Energy Storage Transmission Grid Transmission Grid Real Regional Control Center Real Regional Control Center Virtual Service Aggregator Virtual Service Aggregator End Uses and Distributed Resources End Uses and Distributed Resources Financial Settlement of Net Difference Power Flow Financial Transaction Loads Loads PHEVsPHEVs Distributed Generation & Storage Distributed Generation & Storage S
    17. 17. 17 Conclusions • Urgent Need to Make the Bulk Power System Really Smart • Failure to Make this a High Priority would Jeopardize the Modernization of the Electric Power System • Key Messages: – Avoid hype – Consider all parts together (Holistic approach) – Remove deficiencies in foundations – Implement new solutions THANK YOU! slee@epri.com

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