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ChapC1.1
ChapC1.1
ChapC1.1
ChapC1.1
ChapC1.1
ChapC1.1
ChapC1.1
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ChapC1.1

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Earth's Surface

Earth's Surface

Published in: Automotive, Business
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  • 1. Earth’s Structure
  • 2. Earth’s Layers <ul><li>Earth is made of 3 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crust, mantle, and core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crust is the layer we walk on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>includes the ocean floor and continents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mantle is the layer under the crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thickest layer of the planet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mostly made of solid rock </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>some is partly melted and flows very slowly like a thick liquid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>core is deep inside the Earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>dense ball made mostly of iron and nickel (metals) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3. Inside the Earth <ul><li>core can be divided into 2 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inner core : solid ball made mostly of iron and nickel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it is the hottest layer of Earth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>outer core : pool of hot, liquid metal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mantle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some parts are solid rock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>others are partly melted </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. <ul><li>crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outer layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>made of rocks and soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>where you live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>forms ocean floors </li></ul></ul>
  • 5. How Plates Move <ul><li>Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into continent-sized slabs called plates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plates move slowly across Earth’s surface on a thin layers of partly melted mantle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>move only a few centimeters a year </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. <ul><li>plates can move away from each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>usually happens on the ocean floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new ocean floor crust forms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>plates can move toward each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mountains formed this way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes one plate is pushed below the other plate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>forms volcanos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crash head on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>material on plates wrinkles and forms high mountains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. Himalaya Mountains of Asia </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. <ul><li>plates moving past each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>rocks along cracks stick as plates slide past each other and then move suddenly when they become unstuck </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causes earthquakes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. San Andreas fault </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Summary <ul><li>Earth is made of 3 layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>crust is the outer layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mantle is the middle layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>core is the inner layer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into giant plates that move slowly </li></ul>

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