ChapC1.1
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Earth's Surface

Earth's Surface

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ChapC1.1 ChapC1.1 Presentation Transcript

  • Earth’s Structure
  • Earth’s Layers
    • Earth is made of 3 layers
      • crust, mantle, and core
      • crust is the layer we walk on
        • includes the ocean floor and continents
      • mantle is the layer under the crust
        • thickest layer of the planet
        • mostly made of solid rock
          • some is partly melted and flows very slowly like a thick liquid
      • core is deep inside the Earth
        • dense ball made mostly of iron and nickel (metals)
  • Inside the Earth
    • core can be divided into 2 layers
      • inner core : solid ball made mostly of iron and nickel
        • it is the hottest layer of Earth
      • outer core : pool of hot, liquid metal
    • mantle
      • some parts are solid rock
      • others are partly melted
    • crust
      • outer layer
      • made of rocks and soil
      • where you live
      • forms ocean floors
  • How Plates Move
    • Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into continent-sized slabs called plates
      • plates move slowly across Earth’s surface on a thin layers of partly melted mantle
        • move only a few centimeters a year
    • plates can move away from each other
      • usually happens on the ocean floor
      • new ocean floor crust forms
        • ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean
    • plates can move toward each other
      • mountains formed this way
      • sometimes one plate is pushed below the other plate
        • forms volcanos
      • crash head on
        • material on plates wrinkles and forms high mountains
        • ex. Himalaya Mountains of Asia
    • plates moving past each other
      • rocks along cracks stick as plates slide past each other and then move suddenly when they become unstuck
      • causes earthquakes
        • ex. San Andreas fault
  • Summary
    • Earth is made of 3 layers
      • crust is the outer layer
      • mantle is the middle layer
      • core is the inner layer
    • Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into giant plates that move slowly