ChapC1.1
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Earth's Surface

Earth's Surface

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    ChapC1.1 ChapC1.1 Presentation Transcript

    • Earth’s Structure
    • Earth’s Layers
      • Earth is made of 3 layers
        • crust, mantle, and core
        • crust is the layer we walk on
          • includes the ocean floor and continents
        • mantle is the layer under the crust
          • thickest layer of the planet
          • mostly made of solid rock
            • some is partly melted and flows very slowly like a thick liquid
        • core is deep inside the Earth
          • dense ball made mostly of iron and nickel (metals)
    • Inside the Earth
      • core can be divided into 2 layers
        • inner core : solid ball made mostly of iron and nickel
          • it is the hottest layer of Earth
        • outer core : pool of hot, liquid metal
      • mantle
        • some parts are solid rock
        • others are partly melted
      • crust
        • outer layer
        • made of rocks and soil
        • where you live
        • forms ocean floors
    • How Plates Move
      • Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into continent-sized slabs called plates
        • plates move slowly across Earth’s surface on a thin layers of partly melted mantle
          • move only a few centimeters a year
      • plates can move away from each other
        • usually happens on the ocean floor
        • new ocean floor crust forms
          • ex. Mid-Atlantic Ridge in the Atlantic Ocean
      • plates can move toward each other
        • mountains formed this way
        • sometimes one plate is pushed below the other plate
          • forms volcanos
        • crash head on
          • material on plates wrinkles and forms high mountains
          • ex. Himalaya Mountains of Asia
      • plates moving past each other
        • rocks along cracks stick as plates slide past each other and then move suddenly when they become unstuck
        • causes earthquakes
          • ex. San Andreas fault
    • Summary
      • Earth is made of 3 layers
        • crust is the outer layer
        • mantle is the middle layer
        • core is the inner layer
      • Earth’s crust and upper mantle are broken into giant plates that move slowly