Rainwater harvesting is the accumulation and deposition
of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer
Around the third century BC, the farming communities in Baluchistan (in presentday Pakistan , Afghanistan and Iran), and Kutch (in present-day India) used rainwater
harvesting for irrigation.
In ancient Tamil Nadu (India), rainwater harvesting was done by Chola kings. Rainwater
from the Brihadeeswarar temple was collected in Sivaganga tank. During the later Chola
period, the Vīrānam tank was built (1011 to 1037 CE) in Cuddalore district of Tamil
Nadu to store water for drinking and irrigation purposes. Vīrānam is a 16-kilometre
(9.9 mi) long tank with a storage capacity of 1,465,000,000 cubic feet (41,500,000 m3).
Rainwater harvesting was done in the Indian states of Madhya
Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Chhattisgarh in the olden days Ratanpur, in the state
of Chhattisgarh, had around 150 ponds. Most of the tanks or ponds were utilised in
HOW IS RAIN-WATER HARVESTED ?
Rainwater harvesting is done in 3 steps: Collecting and transporting water- done
through catchment areas and conduits.
Filtration -A filter unit is a chamber
filled with filtering media to remove
debris and dirt from water before it
enters the storage tank or recharge
Storage in tanks for recharging the
groundwater- harvested water is stored
in tanks which is later used to recharge
Water conservation means using our water wisely and caring for
it properly. Since each of us depends on water for life, it is our
responsibility to learn more about water conservation and how
we can help keep our water pure and safe for generations to
come. Since we all enjoy the benefits of having pure, clean
water, we must help conserve water so that we may continue to
enjoy these benefits. Water conservation is not a job that is just
for the technician, soil scientist, hydrologist, forester, wildlife
manager, plant scientist, city planner, park manager, farmer,
rancher, or mine owner alone. It is a job for the every day person
who just likes to have access to the life sustaining resource of
Hard water is water that has high mineral content (in contrast
with "soft water").
Hard drinking water is generally not harmful to one's health, but
can pose serious problems in industrial settings, where water
hardness is monitored to avoid costly breakdowns
in boilers, cooling towers, and other equipment that handles
water. In domestic settings, hard water is often indicated by a lack
of suds formation when soap is agitated in water, and by the
formation of lime scale in kettles and water heaters. Wherever
water hardness is a concern, water softening is commonly used to
reduce hard water's adverse effects.
The water that lathers readily with soaps are called soft water. It
describes type of water that contain few or no minerals like
calcium(CA) or magnesium(Mg) ions. The term is usually relative
to hard water, which does contain significant amounts of such
Soft Water mostly comes from peat or igneous rock
sources, such as granite but may also come from sandstone
sources, since such sedimentary rocks are usually low in calcium
However, soft water does have negative side effects and can be
bad for the heart. Thus it should be drunk in moderation if at all.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN :
• Hard water is water that has a
magnesium and calcium.
• Hard water can also lead to
calcification of faucets and
• Hard water is a good source
of calcium and magnesium in
the body. Hard water also
reduces the solubility of toxic
• Soft water is water that
has a higher sodium
content and small
concentration of calcium
• Soft water does not leave
residue behind and
provides are luscious later.
• Soft water is not harsh on
the skin, clothes, dishes,
• tastes great
• keeps water
• supplies needed
appliances clean and
minerals in the diet
• when rinsing soap removes all traces of • Soap works better
• it doesn't break
WHAT IS WATER
Water recycling is treating and reusing wastewater, grey-water and storm-water for
non-drinking purposes in and outside the home, in industry, for irrigation and
agriculture. The recycling and recharging is often done by using the treated
wastewater for designated municipal sustainable gardening irrigation applications.
In most locations, it is intended to only be used for non-potable uses, such as
irrigation, dust control, and fire suppression.
PROCESS OF WATER RECYCLING
A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide:
Pre-chlorination - for algae control and arresting any biological growth
Aeration - along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron and manganese
Coagulation - for flocculation
Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes - to improve coagulation and for thicker floc formation
Sedimentation - for solids separation, that is, removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc
Filtration - removing particles from water
Desalination- Process of removing salt from the water
Disinfection - for killing bacteria.
There is no unique solution (selection of processes) for any type of water. Also, it is difficult to standardise the solution in
the form of processes for water from different sources. Treatability studies for each source of water in different seasons
need to be carried out to arrive at most appropriate processes.
The cost of reclaimed water exceeds
that of potable water in many regions
of the world, where a fresh water
supply is plentiful. However,
reclaimed water is usually sold to
citizens at a cheaper rate to
encourage its use.
Using reclaimed water for nonpotable uses saves potable water for
drinking, since less potable water will
be used for non-potable uses.
It sometimes contains higher levels of
as nitrogen, phosphorus and oxygen
which may somewhat
help fertilize garden and agricultural
plants when used for irrigation
Using recycled water can mean
increased costs for infrastructure
such as additional treatment facilities
and extra pipes to transport it
Using recycled water, especially as
drinking water, requires overcoming
public opinion, which can be difficult.
However, much of the recycled water
used in the U.S. is for irrigation
purposes and is not treated to a high
enough standard to make it safe for
drinking. Drinking this water could
pose health risks to you, as there
might still be pathogens present .
RELATED TO WATER
BOLIVIAN WATER WAR
The Cochabamba protests of 2000, also
known as the Cochabamba Water War or
the Water War in Bolivia, were a series
of protests that took place
in Cochabamba, Bolivia's third largest
city, between December 1999 and April
2000 in response to the privatization of
the city's municipal water
supply company Semapa. The wave of
demonstrations and police violence was
described as a public uprising against
The tensions erupted when a new
firm, Aguas del Tunari – a joint venture
involving Bechtel and Suez Lyonnaise –
was required to invest in construction of
long-envisioned dam (a priority of
Mayor Manfred Reyes Villa) - so they
had dramatically raised water rates.
Protests, largely organized through the
Coordinadora in Defense of Water and
Life, a community coalition, erupted in
January, February, and April
2000, culminating in tens of thousands
marching downtown and battling police.
One civilian, Victor Hugo Daza was killed.
On April 10, 2000, the national
government reached an agreement with
the Coordinadora to reverse the
privatization. A complaint filed by
foreign investors was resolved by
agreement in January 2006
SUDANESE WATER WAR
Although the Nile flows through the northern part of
Sudan, it is largely beyond the drainage basins of
the feeder streams and rivers that consolidate
themselves into the White and Blue Niles further to
desertification, population expansion, and the need
to increase food output have forced many northern
Arabs to look south for lands and resources. The
introduction by the North of mechanized farming
equipment continues to threaten southern•
subsistence farming. Organized as the Sudan
People’s Liberation Army (SPLA) southerners have
fought back against northern intrusion for the better
part of three decades.
Water conflict in Sudan typically concerns canal
building or farming projects. One of the more
notable sources of conflict has been the Jonglei
Canal project, begun in 1978. The project was
started for two primary reasons: to drain the Sudd
Swamps to create additional farmland and to
conserve the water being evaporated as it sat idle in
the swamps. The amount lost through evaporation
was estimated at 4000 mcm/y.Both the Sudanese
and Egyptian governments supported the project as
both would share in the benefits of additional water.
The Jonglei Canal is massive enough to be seen
from space. It averages 210 feet in width and 16 feet
in depth] Drainage of the wetlands threatened the
roughly 1.7 million local tribesmen that depended
on the swamps for survival and in November
1974, locals rioted in the southern city
of Juba. Southerners began to flock to the
SPLA, which led violent attacks on construction
sites along the Jonglei Canal. They eventually
forced the suspension of the project in 1984. 250 of
360 km of canal had been built.
The incursion of northern mechanized farming in
southern Sudan has also caused conflict. The Arabdominated government envisioned agricultural
development in the South and northern farmers
continually encroached upon the fertile southern
plains. Such encroachment threatened the Nilotic
tribes, who ran the cattle economies of the
south. Southerners responded to northern
incursion with hostility and violence.
The Tehri Dam is the highest dam in India and
project's delayed completion.
one of the tallest in the world. It is a multiSince 2005, filling of the reservoir has led to the
purpose rock and earth-fill embankment dam on reduced flow of Bhagirathi water from the
the Bhagirathi River
normal 1,000 cubic feet per second (28 m3/s) to a
near Tehri in Uttarakhand, India
mere 200 cubic feet per second (5.7 m3/s). This
The Tehri Dam has been the object of protests by reduction has been central to local protest
environmental organizations and local people of against the dam, since the Bhagirathi is
the region. In addition to the human rights
considered part of the sacred Ganges whose
concerns, the project has spurred concerns about waters are crucial to Hindu beliefs. At some points
the environmental consequences of locating a
during the year, the tampering with Bhagirathi
large dam in the fragile ecosystem of
waters means this tributary stops flowing. This
the Himalayan foothills. There are further
has created resentment among many Hindus,
concerns regarding the dam's geological stability. who claim that the sanctity of the Ganges has
The Tehri dam is located in the Central Himalayan been compromised for the generation of
Seismic Gap, a major geologic fault zone If there electricity.
was such a catastrophe to occur, the potentially
resulting dam-break would submerge numerous
towns downstream, whose populations total near
half a million.
The relocation of more than 100,000 people from
the area has led to protracted legal battles over
resettlement rights, and ultimately resulted in the
NARMADA BACHAO ANDOLAN
Narmada Bachao Andolan (NBA) is a social
of adivasis, farmers, environmentalists, and human
rights activists against a number of large dams
being built across the Narmada river. The river
flows through the states of Gujarat , and Madhya
Pradesh in India. Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat is
one of the biggest dams on the river and was one of
the first focal points of the movement. Friends of
River Narmada is the unofficial website of the NBA.
Their mode of campaign includes hunger
strikes and garnering support from film and art
personalities (notably Bollywood actor Aamir
Khan). Narmada Bachao Andolan, with its leading
spokespersons Medha Patkar and Baba
Amte, received the Right Livelihood Award in 1991.
The Supreme Court's decision is still
pending, seeking stoppage of construction of the
Sardar Sarovar dam. The court initially ruled the
decision in the Andolan's favor, thereby effecting an
immediate stoppage of work at the dam and
directing the concerned states to first complete the
rehabilitation and replacement process.
The Court deliberated on this issue further for
several years but finally upheld the Tribunal Award
and allowed the construction to proceed, subject to
conditions. The court introduced a mechanism to
monitor the progress of resettlement pari
pass with the raising of the height of the dam
through the Grievance Redressal Authorities (GRA)
in each of the party states. The court’s decision
referred in this document, given in the year 2000
after seven years of deliberations, has paved the
way for completing the project to attain full
envisaged benefits. The court's final line of the
order states, "Every endeavour shall be made to see
that the project is completed as expeditiously as
Sustainable development is an organising principle for human
life on a finite planet. It posits a desirable future state for
human societies in which living conditions and resource-use
meet human needs without undermining the sustainability of
natural systems and the environment, so that future
generations may also meet their needs.
The term 'sustainable development' rose to significance after
it was used by the Brundtland Commission in its 1987
report Our Common Future. In the report, the commission
coined what has become the most often-quoted definition of
sustainable development: "development that meets the
needs of the present without compromising the ability of
future generations to meet their own needs."
WE CAN PRESERVE GROUNDWATER BY :
Reduce chemical use- we should
minimize chemical use.
Manage waste- waste disposal
should be watched over.
Save water- close the taps when
not in use.
Reduce the amount of "stuff" you
use and reuse what you can.
REG. NO : B114084140215
ROLL NO : 45
• Hydroelectricity is the term referring
to electricity generated by hydropower; the
production of electrical power through the use of
the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
It is the most widely used form of renewable
energy , accounting for 16 per cent of global
electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of
electricity production in 2010, and is expected to
increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25
Tidal power, also called tidal energy, is a form of hydropower that converts the
energy of tides into useful forms of power - mainly electricity.
Although not yet widely used, tidal power has potential for future electricity
generation. Tides are more predictable than wind energy and solar power.
Among sources of renewable energy, tidal power has traditionally suffered from
relatively high cost and limited availability of sites with sufficiently high tidal
ranges or flow velocities, thus constricting its total availability. However, many
recent technological developments and improvements, both in design
(e.g. dynamic tidal power, tidal lagoons) and turbine technology (e.g. new axial
turbines, cross flow turbines), indicate that the total availability of tidal power
may be much higher than previously assumed, and that economic and
environmental costs may be brought down to competitive levels. Tidal energy is
a renewable energy source
• Hydropower is produced by
a reservoir of water which
depends on rainfall
• Hydroelectric power is built
mainly in rivers where a
dam makes a difference
between the water-level
above and below the
power-plant, the water is
then driven threw turbines
that generate energy.
• Tidal power is produced by
tidal rise and fall, which is
produced by gravitation
between earth, moon, and
• Tidal energy uses tidal
water to raise and lower
pontoon that threw a
generator creates energy.